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Encyclopedia > U.S. presidential election, 1948
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The U.S. presidential election of 1948 is best known as one of the greatest political upsets in history, as incumbent President Harry S Truman defeated Republican Thomas Dewey against the predictions of most contemporary polls and in spite of a three-way split in his own Democratic party. Download high resolution version (1182x635, 108 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: U.S. presidential election, 1948 Categories: National Atlas images ... Download high resolution version (1182x635, 108 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: U.S. presidential election, 1948 Categories: National Atlas images ... The United States presidential elections determine who becomes the President of the United States for the next four years. ... 1948 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Seal of the President of the United States The President of the United States is the head of state of the United States. ... For the victim of Mt. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Thomas Dewey Thomas Edmund Dewey (March 24, 1902 – March 16, 1971) was the Governor of New York (1943-1955) and the Republican candidate for the U.S. Presidency in two elections (1944 and 1948), losing both times. ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ...

Contents

Nominations

Republican Party nomination

In gearing up for the election of '48, both major parties courted General Dwight Eisenhower, a popular war hero and political moderate who could carry a large number of votes on the back of his military record alone. However, Eisenhower refused, so the Republicans chose Thomas E. Dewey, the Governor of New York and a veteran of the previous presidential election of 1944. Dewey had performed surprisingly well against the popular FDR in wartime, so he was expected to easily beat the unpopular Truman. Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ...


Progressive Party nomination

The Progressive Party reinvented itself in 1948 with the nomination of Henry Wallace, a former Secretary of Agriculture and Vice President under Franklin D. Roosevelt. Briefly Harry Truman's secretary of commerce, he was fired for opposing Truman's firm stand against the Soviet Union. Wallace's 1948 platform opposed the Cold War, the Marshall Plan and big business. He also campaigned to end discrimination against blacks and women, backed a minimum wage and called for the elimination of the House Committee on Un-American Activities. Henry Agard Wallace Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States. ... The United States Secretary of Agriculture is the head of the United States Department of Agriculture concerned with land and food as well as agriculture and rural development. ... -1... Order: 32th President Vice President: John N. Garner Henry A. Wallace Harry S. Truman Term of office: March 4, 1933 – April 12, 1945 Preceded by: Herbert Hoover Succeeded by: Harry S. Truman Date of birth: January 30, 1882 Place of birth: Hyde Park, New York Date of death: April 12... The Cold War was the open yet restricted rivalry that developed after World War II between the United States and its allies (roughly speaking, NATO members) and the Soviet Union and its allied (roughly speaking, Warsaw Pact members), until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. ... U.S. postage stamp issued 1997 honoring the 50th anniversary of the Marshall Plan. ... The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) was an investigating committee of the United States House of Representatives. ...


Democratic Party nomination

On July 12, the Democratic National Convention convened in Philadelphia (in the same hall in which the Republicans had nominated Dewey). Spirits were low: the Republicans had taken control of both houses of Congress and a majority of state governorships during the 1946 midterm elections by running against Truman, and his administration did not seem to have become more popular. Indeed, left-leaning Democrats had already split off to revive the Progressive Party and nominate Henry Wallace. Morale sank even further when some three dozen Southern delegates, led by Strom Thurmond, walked out of the convention in response to an announcement by Truman that his platform would advocate the passage of civil rights laws. Nonetheless, the dispirited Democrats nominated the incumbent President as their candidate by July 14th. The 1948 Democratic National Convention was held in Philadelphia from July 12 to July 14, and resulted in the nomination of President Harry Truman for President and of Alben Barkley for Vice President. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ...


Dixiecrat Party nomination

The Democratic delegates who had bolted the Democratic convention over Truman's civil rights platform formed a separate party, which they named the States Rights Party. More commonly known as the "Dixiecrats", the party's main goal was continuing racial segregation and the Jim Crow laws which sustained it. South Carolina Governor Strom Thurmond, who had led the walkout, became the party's presidential nominee. Racial segregation is a kind of formalized or institutionalized discrimination on the basis of race, characterized by the races separation from each other. ... A depiction of T.D. Rices Jim Crow In the United States, the so-called Jim Crow laws were made to enforce racial segregation, and included laws that would prevent African Americans from doing things that a white person could do. ... Strom Thurmond James Strom Thurmond (December 5, 1902 – June 26, 2003), known as Strom Thurmond, was the oldest and longest serving United States Senator, who represented South Carolina from 1954 to April 1956 and November 1956 to 1964 as a Democrat and from 1964 to 2003 as a Republican. ...


General election

Campaign

Given Truman's sinking popularity, Dewey seemed unstoppable. The Republicans figured that all they had to do was avoid any major missteps, and as such, Dewey didn't take risks. He spoke in platitudes, trying to transcend politics. Speech after speech was filled with empty statements of the obvious, such as the famous quote: "You know that your future is still ahead of you." An editorial in the Louisville Courier-Journal summed it up best: "No presidential candidate in the future will be so inept that four of his major speeches can be boiled down to these historic four sentences: Agriculture is important. Our rivers are full of fish. You cannot have freedom without liberty. Our future lies ahead." [1]


Truman, on the other hand, decided to pull the gloves off, targeting the Republican-controlled 80th Congress. The 80th Congress, led by Senator Robert A. Taft of Ohio, was much more conservative than Dewey, and was fixated on rolling back Roosevelt's New Deal. However, under Dewey's leadership, the Republicans enacted a platform at the 1948 convention which called for expanding social security, more funding for public housing, civil rights legislation, and promotion of health and education by the federal government. A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... Robert Alphonso Taft I (September 8, 1889 - July 31, 1953), of the Taft family political dynasty of Ohio, was a United States Senator and Presidential candidate in the United States Republican Party. ... The New Deal was President Franklin D. Roosevelts legislative agenda for rescuing the United States from the Great Depression. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... For specific national programs, see Social Security (United States), National insurance (UK), Social Security (Sweden) Social security mainly refers to a field of social welfare concerned with social protection, or protection against socially recognized needs. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ...


Truman exploited that rift in the party by calling a special session on "Turnip Day" (referring to an old Missouri folklore about planting turnips in late July) to enact legislation consistent with the Republican party's platform. The 80th Congress played right into Truman's hands, delivering very little in the way of substantive legislation during this time. From then on, Truman dubbed them the "Do-Nothing Congress." Truman was able to ignore the fact that Dewey's policies were liberal, and ran against the conservative tendencies of the 80th Congress. 80th Congress (1947-1949) Congressional Profile Total Membership: 435 Representatives, 2 Delegates, 1 Resident Commissioner Party Divisions: 246 Republicans, 188 Democrats, 1 American-Labor Leadership & Officers Speaker of the House: Joseph W. Martin, Jr. ...


Truman toured the nation with this fiery rhetoric, playing to large, enthusiastic crowds at every stop along the way. "Give 'em hell, Harry" was a popular slogan shouted out at every stop along the tour. However, the polls and the pundits all thought that Truman's efforts were for naught, and pulled back from reporting on the already-decided election.


Results

As expected, Thurmond's Dixiecrat party took away much of the Democratic Party's traditional base in the "Solid South", while Wallace wooed away voters from the left wing of the Democratic Party. However, Wallace's failure to repudiate the endorsement of the Communist Party had undermined his popularity, and he wound up with just over 2.4 percent of the popular vote. The Dixiecrats held no attraction outside the South and got a slightly smaller percentage of the popular vote. Thus, despite the significant split in the Democratic base, Truman won on November 2, surprising many observers at the time. The Chicago Tribune had gone so far as to print "DEWEY DEFEATS TRUMAN" on election night as its headline for the following day. A famous photograph shows Truman grinning and holding up a copy of that newspaper with the erroneous headline. Harry S. Truman holding a copy of the Chicago Tribune at Union Station in St. ... The phrase Solid South describes the reliable electoral support of the U.S. Southern states for Democratic Party candidates from the Reconstruction era through much of the 20th century. ... The Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) is one of several Marxist-Leninist groups in the United States. ... November 2 is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 59 days remaining. ... Front page of the Tribune incorrectly reporting that Dewey won the 1948 presidential election The Chicago Tribune, formerly self-styled as the Worlds Greatest Newspaper, remains the leading newspaper of the Midwest of the United States. ...


Truman's victory was entirely due to his marginal wins in the large swing states of Ohio, California, and Illinois, all three of which he won by less than 1% and had a combined total of 78 electoral votes, as well as a very small victory in Idaho. Dewey countered by carrying New York and Pennsylvania, the states with the most electoral votes at the time, as well as Michigan, but it wasn't enough to give him the election. Thurmond carried four southern states, giving him a handful of electoral votes, but not enough to deny Truman the majority. Wallace won a nearly identical percentage of the popular vote as Thurmond, but failed to win a single electoral vote. State nickname: The Buckeye State Other U.S. States Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Governor Bob Taft Official languages None Area 116,096 km² (34th)  - Land 106,154 km²  - Water 10,044 km² (8. ... State nickname: The Golden State Other U.S. States Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger Official languages English Area 410,000 km² (3rd)  - Land 404,298 km²  - Water 20,047 km² (4. ... State nickname: Land of Lincoln, The Prairie State Other U.S. States Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Governor Rod Blagojevich Official languages English Area 149,998 km² (25th)  - Land 143,968 km²  - Water 6,030 km² (4. ... State nickname: Gem State Other U.S. States Capital Boise Largest city Boise Governor Dirk Kempthorne Official languages none Area 216,632 km² (14th)  - Land 214,499 km²  - Water 2,133 km² (0. ... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... State nickname: The QUENESE PERSON STATE Other U.S. States Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Governor Ed Rendell Official languages None Area 119,283 km² (33rd)  - Land 116,074 km²  - Water 3,208 km² (2. ... State nickname: Wolverine State or Great Lakes State Other U.S. States Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Governor Jennifer Granholm Official languages English Area 250,941 km² (11th)  - Land 147,255 km²  - Water 103,687 km² (41. ...

Presidential Candidate Party Home State Popular Vote Electoral Vote Running Mate Running Mate's
Home State
Running Mate's
Electoral Vote
Count Percentage
Harry S. Truman Democrat Missouri 24,105,695 49.5% 303 Alben William Barkley Kentucky 303
Thomas Edmund Dewey Republican New York 21,969,170 45.1% 189 Earl Warren California 189
James Strom Thurmond Dixiecrat South Carolina 1,169,021 2.4% 39 Fielding Lewis Wright Mississippi 39
Henry Agard Wallace Progressive Iowa 1,157,172 2.4% 0 Glen H. Taylor Idaho 0
Norman Thomas Socialist New York 139,578 0.3% 0 Tucker P. Smith New York 0
Other (a)151,069 0.3% 0 Other 0
Total 48,691,705 100% 531 Total 531
Needed to win 266 Needed to win 266

(a) includes the four popular votes garnered by the Vegetarian Party For the victim of Mt. ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Missouri, named after the Missouri Siouan Indian tribe meaning canoe, is a Midwestern state of the United States with Jefferson City as its capital. ... Alben W. Barkley Alben William Barkley ( November 24, 1877 – April 30, 1956) was a Representative and a Senator from Kentucky and the thirty-fifth Vice President of the United States. ... State nickname: Bluegrass State Other U.S. States Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Governor Ernie Fletcher Official languages English Area 104,749 km² (37th)  - Land 102,989 km²  - Water 1,760 km² (1. ... Thomas Dewey - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... Earl Warren Earl Warren (March 19, 1891 – July 9, 1974) was a California district attorney and 30th Governor of California, but is best known as the 14th Chief Justice of the United States from 1953–1969. ... State nickname: The Golden State Other U.S. States Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger Official languages English Area 410,000 km² (3rd)  - Land 404,298 km²  - Water 20,047 km² (4. ... Strom Thurmond James Strom Thurmond (December 5, 1902–June 26, 2003), known as Strom Thurmond, was the oldest and longest serving United States Senator, who represented South Carolina from 1954 to April 1956 and November 1956 to 1964 as a Democrat and from 1964 to 2003 as a Republican. ... In its modern connotation (especially 1956-1980), the term Dixiecrat is used in reference to Southern Democrats who traditionally vote (or voted) in support of the Democratic Party, but because of social issues, may vote in opposition to the Democratic Party with regard to certain elections and/or candidates. ... State nickname: Palmetto State Other U.S. States Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Governor Mark Sanford Official languages English Area 82,965 km² (40th)  - Land 78,051 km²  - Water 4,915 km² (6%) Population (2000)  - Population 4,012,012 (26th)  - Density 51. ... Fielding Lewis Wright (May 16, 1895 - May 4, 1956) was a Mississippi politician who served as lieutenant governor (1944-1946) and became governor after the death of Thomas L. Bailey. ... State nickname: Magnolia State Other U.S. States Capital Jackson Largest city Jackson Governor Haley Barbour Official languages English Area 125,546 km² (32nd)  - Land 121,606 km²  - Water 3,940 km² (3%) Population (2000)  - Population 2,697,243 (31st)  - Density 23. ... Henry Agard Wallace Henry Agard Wallace (October 7, 1888 – November 18, 1965) was the 33rd Vice President of the United States. ... The United States Progressive Party refers to three distinct political parties in 20th-century United States politics. ... State nickname: The Hawkeye State Other U.S. States Capital Des Moines Largest city Des Moines Governor Thomas Vilsack Official languages English Area 145,743 km² (26th)  - Land 144,701 km²  - Water 1,042 km² (0. ... Glen Hearst Taylor (April 12, 1904 - April 28, 1984) was a United States Senator from Idaho and the vice presidential candidate on the Progressive Party ticket in the 1948 election. ... State nickname: Gem State Other U.S. States Capital Boise Largest city Boise Governor Dirk Kempthorne Official languages none Area 216,632 km² (14th)  - Land 214,499 km²  - Water 2,133 km² (0. ... Norman Mattoon Thomas (November 20, 1884 - December 19, 1968) was a leading American socialist, pacifist, and six-time presidential candidate for the Socialist Party. ... The Socialist Party of America is a socialist political party in the United States. ... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ...


Source: U.S. Office of the Federal Register (http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/electoral_college/scores.html#1948)


See also


Seal of the President of the United States The President of the United States is the head of state of the United States. ... Results -- Republican holds in light red, pickups in dark red, Democratic holds in light blue, pickups in dark blue The U.S. Senate election, 1948 was an election for the United States Senate which coincided with the election of Democratic President Harry Truman for a full term. ... The Cold War Main article: Cold War (1953-1962). ...

U.S. presidential elections

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1950–1999: 1952 | 1956 | 1960 | 1964 | 1968 | 1972 | 1976 | 1980 | 1984 | 1988 | 1992 | 1996
2000–2049: 2000 | 2004 | 2008
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Summary President Franklin Pierce was defeated in his effort to be renominated by the Democrats, who instead selected James Buchanan of Pennsylvania. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Summary The Civil War over, partisan politics immediately returned as U.S. Congress wrangled with the issue of reconstruction - the radical Republicans even going so far as to impeach President Andrew Johnson. ... Summary Incumbent President Ulysses S. Grant was easily elected to a second term in office despite a split within the Republican Party that resulted in a defection of many key Republicans to opponent Horace Greeley. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Summary Keeping a promise made during the 1876 campaign, incumbent President Rutherford Hayes did not seek re-election. ... Summary In a campaign that featured mudslinging and personal acrimony on a level never before seen, on November 4, 1884 Democrat Grover Cleveland became the first Democrat elected to the Presidency since the Civil War, narrowly defeating Republican James Blaine. ... Summary Held on November 6, 1888, incumbent President Grover Cleveland received the greatest number of popular votes, but Republican challenger Benjamin Harrisons 233 electoral votes topped Clevelands 168 to win the election. ... Summary Held on November 8, 1892, New Yorks Grover Cleveland returned to defeat incumbent President Benjamin Harrison to become the first person to be elected to non-consecutive Presidential terms. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Summary The election was held on November 6, 1900. ... Summary The election was held on November 8, 1904. ... Major party conventions The 1908 Republican Convention was held in Chicago from 16 June to 19 June. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Electoral College results In 1916, Europe was embroiled in World War I. American sentiment leaned towards the Allied Powers due to the occupation of parts of France and Belgium by the German Empire, but most American voters wanted to avoid involvement in the war, and preferred a policy of strict... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Introduction Incumbent President Coolidge was relatively popular, and the economy was booming. ... The campaign The Republican Convention was held in Kansas City, Missouri from 12 June to 15 June, where Hoover became the partys candidate on the first ballot. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Introduction After several years of stalemate in the Korean War and a choppy economy, the Truman administration was relatively unpopular. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Democratic nomination Democratic Candidates Shirley Chisholm, U.S. representative from New York Fred Harris, U.S. senator from Oklahoma Hubert Humphrey, U.S. senator from Minnesota, former vice president, and 1968 presidential nominee Henry Scoop Jackson, U.S. senator from Washington John Lindsay, mayor of New York City Eugene McCarthy... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The election was held on November 8, 1988. ... Notes: Introduction As the 1992 presidential election approached, Americans found themselves in a world transformed in ways almost unimaginable four years earlier. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state The U.S. presidential election of 2008 is scheduled to occur on November 4, 2008. ...

References

Endnote

[1] Donaldson, Gary A, Truman Defeats Dewey (p. 173). The University Press of Kentucky, 1999. Quoting the Louisville Courier Journal, November 18, 1948.


External link

  • 1948 State-by-state Popular vote (http://www.multied.com/elections/1948state.html)

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