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Encyclopedia > U.S. presidential election, 1876
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Presidential electoral votes by state.

The U.S. presidential election of 1876 was perhaps the most disputed presidential election in American history. Samuel Tilden handily defeated Ohio's Rutherford Hayes in the popular vote, and had 184 electoral votes to Hayes' 165, with 20 votes yet uncounted. These 20 electoral votes were in dispute: in three states (Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina) each party reported its candidate had won the state, while in Oregon one elector was declared illegal (on account of being an "elected or appointed official") and replaced. Download high resolution version (1182x635, 104 KB)Image from http://nationalatlas. ... Download high resolution version (1182x635, 104 KB)Image from http://nationalatlas. ... Samuel Jones Tilden (February 9, 1814 - August 4, 1886) was the Democratic candidate for the US presidency in the disputed election of 1876, the most controversial American election of the 19th century. ... Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was the 19th President of the United States (1877 – 1881). ... State nickname: Sunshine State Official languages English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Governor Jeb Bush (R) Senators Bill Nelson (D) Mel Martinez (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 22nd 170,451 km² 17. ... State nickname: Pelican State Official languages English and French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city New Orleans at last official government census, but probably Baton Rouge since Hurricane Katrina Governor Kathleen Blanco (D) Senators Mary Landrieu (D) David Vitter (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 31st 134,382 km² 16 Population  - Total... State nickname: Palmetto State Official languages English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Governor Mark Sanford (R) Senators Lindsey Graham (R) Jim DeMint (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 40th 82,965 km² 6 Population  - Total (2000)  - Density Ranked 26th 4,012,012 51. ... State nickname: Beaver State Official languages None Capital Salem Largest city Portland Governor Ted Kulongoski (D) Senators Ron Wyden (D) Gordon Smith (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 9th 255,026 km² 2. ...

Contents


Nominations

Republican Party nomination

Governor Rutherford B. Hayes was nominated in a close vote, receiving 384 delegate votes to chief rival James Blaine's 351. William Wheeler was nominated for Vice President by a much larger margin (366-89) over his chief rival, who would later serve as a member of the electoral commission: Frederick T. Frelinghuysen. Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was the 19th President of the United States (1877 – 1881). ... James G. Blaine James Gillespie Blaine (January 31, 1830–January 27, 1893) was a U.S. Representative, U.S. Senator from Maine and a two-time United States Secretary of State. ... William Almon Wheeler (June 30, 1819–June 4, 1887) was a Representative from New York and the nineteenth Vice President of the United States. ... Frederick Theodore Frelinghuysen (August 4, 1817–May 20, 1885) was a member of the United States Senate from New Jersey and a United States Secretary of State. ...


Democratic Party nomination

Governor Samuel J. Tilden was the overwhelming favorite for the Democratic nomination, receiving 535 delegate votes and besting his nearest rival (Indiana Governor Thomas A. Hendricks) by a nearly 4-to-1 margin. Hendricks would be nominated for Vice President of the United States by acclamation following Tilden's nomination. Samuel Jones Tilden (February 9, 1814 - August 4, 1886) was the Democratic candidate for the US presidency in the disputed election of 1876, the most controversial American election of the 19th century. ... State nickname: The Hoosier State Official languages English Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Governor Mitch Daniels (R) Senators Richard Lugar (R) Evan Bayh (D) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 38th 94,321 km² 1. ... Thomas Andrews Hendricks (September 7, 1819 – November 25, 1885) was a Representative and a Senator from Indiana and the twenty-first Vice President of the United States. ... The Vice President of the United States is the second-highest executive official of the United States government, the person who, in the words of Adlai Stevenson, is a heartbeat from the presidency. ...


Greenback Labor Party nomination

Dissatisfied with the nation's fiscal policies, the Greenback Labor Party was organized for the 1876 election, with Peter Fennimore Cooper chosen as its Presidential nominee and Samuel F. Cary chosen as his running mate. The Greenback Party was an American political party that was active between 1874 and 1884. ... 1876 is a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Peter Fennimore Cooper (February 12, 1791–April 4, 1883) was an American industrialist, inventor and philanthropist. ... Samuel Fenton Cary was an Ohio politician who served in Congress shortly after the Civil War and was Greenback Party candidate for vice-president of the U.S. in 1876. ...


Other parties

The Prohibition Party nominated Green Clay Smith as their presidential candidate and Gideon Tabor Stewart as their vice presidential candidate. The American National Party nominated the ticket of James B. Walker and Donald Kirkpatrick. This election was also host to a small communist party that recieved 32 votes in this election. The Prohibition Party is a political party in the United States. ... Green Clay Smith (1826-1895), a Major General in the United States Army, received his law degree from the Lexington Law School and became a member of the state legislature of Kentucky. ...


General election

Campaign

Tilden, who had prosecuted machine politicians in New York and sent legendary boss William Tweed to jail, ran as a reform candidate against the background of the Grant administration. Both parties backed civil service reform and an end to Reconstruction. Both sides mounted mud-slinging campaigns, with Democratic attacks on Republican corruption being countered by the Civil War issue; as Republicans said, "Not every Democrat was a Rebel, but every Rebel was a Democrat". 1869 tobacco label featuring Boss Tweed William Marcy Tweed a. ... Ulysses Simpson Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). ... In the history of the United States, reconstruction was the period after the American Civil War when the states of the breakaway Confederacy were reintegrated into the United States of America. ...


Colorado

Colorado as a state had just been established and was not fit to put out the money for holding an election in their state. Colorado did however select electors whom ended up giving their three electoral votes to Hayes and the Republican Party.


Electoral disputes

See also: Electoral Commission (US) The Electoral Commision was a fifteen-member body that was used to resolve disputes in U.S. presidential elections, best known for its use in the 1876 election between Samuel G. Tilden and Rutherford B. Hayes. ...


In Florida (4 votes), Louisiana (8) and South Carolina (7), official returns favored Tilden, but election results in each state were marked by fraud and threats of violence against Republican voters. The Republican-dominated state electoral commissions subsequently disallowed a sufficient number of Democratic votes to award their electoral votes to Hayes. State nickname: Sunshine State Official languages English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Governor Jeb Bush (R) Senators Bill Nelson (D) Mel Martinez (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 22nd 170,451 km² 17. ... State nickname: Pelican State Official languages English and French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city New Orleans at last official government census, but probably Baton Rouge since Hurricane Katrina Governor Kathleen Blanco (D) Senators Mary Landrieu (D) David Vitter (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 31st 134,382 km² 16 Population  - Total... State nickname: Palmetto State Official languages English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Governor Mark Sanford (R) Senators Lindsey Graham (R) Jim DeMint (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 40th 82,965 km² 6 Population  - Total (2000)  - Density Ranked 26th 4,012,012 51. ...


In Oregon meanwhile just a single elector was disputed. The statewide result clearly had favored Hayes, but the state's Democratic Governor (LaFayette Grover) claimed that that elector, just-former postmaster John Watts, was constitutionally ineligible to vote since he was an "elected or appointed official". Grover then substituted a Democratic elector in his place. The two Republican electors dismissed Grover's action and each reported three votes for Hayes, while the Democratic elector, C. A. Cronin, reported one vote for Tilden and two votes for Hayes. (Ultimately, all three of Oregon's votes were awarded to Hayes.) State nickname: Beaver State Official languages None Capital Salem Largest city Portland Governor Ted Kulongoski (D) Senators Ron Wyden (D) Gordon Smith (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 9th 255,026 km² 2. ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ...


Facing a constitutional crisis the likes of which the nation had never seen, on January 29, 1877 the U.S. Congress passed a law forming a 15-member Electoral Commission to settle the result. Five members came from each house of the U.S. Congress, and they were joined by five members of the United States Supreme Court. William M. Evarts served as counsel for the Republican Party. January 29 is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Congress in Joint Session. ... The Electoral Commision was a fifteen-member body that was used to resolve disputes in U.S. presidential elections, best known for its use in the 1876 election between Samuel G. Tilden and Rutherford B. Hayes. ... Congress in Joint Session. ... Scotus redirects here. ... Photograph of U.S. Secretary of State William M. Evarts William Maxwell Evarts (February 6, 1818–February 28, 1901) was an American lawyer and statesman. ...


The majority party in each house received three of the five members, and the five Supreme Court justices were chosen as follows: two from each of the major parties and another judge selected by these four to cast the swing vote. Swing vote is a term used to describe a vote that may go to any of a number of candidates in an election. ...


The justices first selected Justice David Davis, but he was elected to the Senate by Illinois' state legislature, forcing them to choose an alternate, Justice Joseph P. Bradley, who, although a Republican, was considered the most impartial remaining member of the court. This selection proved decisive however, as Bradley joined the other seven Republican committee members in deciding the 20 disputed electoral votes, giving Hayes a 185-184 electoral vote victory. David Davis III (March 9, 1815 - June 26, 1886) was a United States Senator from Illinois and associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. ... State nickname: Land of Lincoln, The Prairie State Official languages English Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Governor Rod Blagojevich (D) Senators Richard Durbin (D) Barack Obama (D) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 25th 149,998 km² 4. ... Joseph Philo Bradley (March 14, 1813-January 22, 1892), was an American jurist. ...


This election was one of the most contentious presidential elections in United States history, and historically more significant than even the U.S. presidential election of 2000. The returns accepted by the Commission placed Hayes' victory margin in South Carolina at 889 votes, making this the second-closest election in U.S. history, after the 2000 election, decided by 537 votes after the Supreme Court's ruling in Bush v. Gore. Interestingly enough, these two elections share many characteristics. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Holding Any manual recount of votes seeking to meet the December 12 “safe harbor” deadline would be unconstitutional under the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. ...


Members of the Electoral Commission

Commission Member Appointed by Party Affiliation
George Franklin Edmunds (Vermont) Senate Republican
Frederick Theodore Frelinghuysen (New Jersey) Senate Republican
Oliver Hazard Perry Thock Morton (Indiana) Senate Republican
Thomas F. Bayard, Sr. (Delaware) Senate Democratic
Allen Granberry Thurman (Ohio) Senate Democratic
James Abram Garfield (Ohio) House Republican
George Frisbie Hoar (Massachusetts) House Republican
Josiah Gardner Abbott (Massachusetts) House Democratic
Eppa Hunton (Virginia) House Democratic
Henry B. Payne (Ohio) House Democratic
Nathan Clifford (Maine) Supreme Court Democratic
Stephen Johnson Field (California) Supreme Court Democratic
Joseph Philo Bradley (New Jersey) Supreme Court Republican
Samuel Freeman Miller (Iowa) Supreme Court Republican
William Strong (Pennsylvania) Supreme Court Republican

Categories: Stub | 1828 births | 1919 deaths | United States Senators ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Frederick Theodore Frelinghuysen (August 4, 1817–May 20, 1885) was a member of the United States Senate from New Jersey and a United States Secretary of State. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Oliver Hazard Perry Morton (NSHC statue) Oliver Hazard Perry Throck Morton (August 4, 1823–November 1, 1877) was an American politician from Indiana. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Portrait of U.S. Secretary of State Thomas F. Bayard Thomas Francis Bayard, Sr. ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Allen Granberry Thurman (November 13, 1813_December 12, 1895) was a Democratic Representative and Senator from Ohio. ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831 - September 19, 1881) was the 20th (1881) President of the United States, the first left-handed President, and the second U.S. President to be assassinated. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... George Frisbie Hoar George Frisbie Hoar (29 August 1826–30 September 1904) was a prominent United States politician. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Josiah Gardner Abbott (November 1, 1814 - June 2, 1891) was a Representative from Massachusetts. ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Eppa Hunton II (September 24, 1822 – October 11, 1908) was a U.S. Representative and Senator from Virginia and a brigadier general in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War. ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Henry B. Payne (November 30, 1810 - September 9, 1896) was a Democratic politician from Ohio. ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Nathan Clifford (August 18, 1803–July 25, 1881) was an American statesman, diplomat and jurist. ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Stephen Johnson Field (November 4, 1816 – April 9, 1899) was an associate justice of the United States Supreme Court from May 20, 1863, to December 1, 1897. ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Joseph Philo Bradley (March 14, 1813 – January 22, 1892), was an American jurist, best known for his service on the United States Supreme Court, and on the Electoral Commission that decided the disputed 1876 presidential election. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Samuel Freeman Miller (April 5, 1816 - October 13, 1890), was an associate justice of the United States Supreme Court, 1862-1890. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Justice William Strong William Strong (May 6, 1808 - August 19, 1895) was an American jurist and politician. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ...

Results

Reflecting the Commission's rulings.

Presidential Candidate Party Home State Popular Vote Electoral Vote Running Mate Running Mate's
Home State
Running Mate's
Electoral Vote
Count Percentage
Rutherford Birchard Hayes Republican Ohio 4,034,311 47.9% 185 William Almon Wheeler New York 185
Samuel Jones Tilden Democratic New York 4,288,546 51.0% 184 Thomas Andrews Hendricks Indiana 184
Peter Fennimore Cooper Greenback Labor New York 75,973 0.9% 0 Samuel F. Cary Ohio 0
Other 14,271 0.2% 0 Other 0
Total 8,413,101 100.0% 369 Total 369
Needed to win 185 Needed to win 185

Source (Popular Vote): Leip, David. 1876 Presidential Election Results. Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections (July 27, 2005). Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was the 19th President of the United States (1877 – 1881). ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... State nickname: The Buckeye State Official languages None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Governor Bob Taft (R) Senators Mike DeWine (R) George V. Voinovich (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 34th 116,096 km² 8. ... William Almon Wheeler (June 30, 1819–June 4, 1887) was a Representative from New York and the nineteenth Vice President of the United States. ... State nickname: The Empire State Official languages English Capital Albany Largest city New York City Governor George Pataki (R) Senators Charles Schumer (D) Hillary Clinton (D) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 27th 141,205 km² 13. ... Samuel Jones Tilden (February 9, 1814 - August 4, 1886) was the Democratic candidate for the US presidency in the disputed election of 1876, the most controversial American election of the 19th century. ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... State nickname: The Empire State Official languages English Capital Albany Largest city New York City Governor George Pataki (R) Senators Charles Schumer (D) Hillary Clinton (D) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 27th 141,205 km² 13. ... Thomas Andrews Hendricks (September 7, 1819 – November 25, 1885) was a Representative and a Senator from Indiana and the twenty-first Vice President of the United States. ... State nickname: The Hoosier State Official languages English Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Governor Mitch Daniels (R) Senators Richard Lugar (R) Evan Bayh (D) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 38th 94,321 km² 1. ... Peter Fennimore Cooper (February 12, 1791–April 4, 1883) was an American industrialist, inventor and philanthropist. ... The Greenback Party was an American political party that was active between 1874 and 1884. ... State nickname: The Empire State Official languages English Capital Albany Largest city New York City Governor George Pataki (R) Senators Charles Schumer (D) Hillary Clinton (D) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 27th 141,205 km² 13. ... Samuel Fenton Cary was an Ohio politician who served in Congress shortly after the Civil War and was Greenback Party candidate for vice-president of the U.S. in 1876. ... State nickname: The Buckeye State Official languages None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Governor Bob Taft (R) Senators Mike DeWine (R) George V. Voinovich (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 34th 116,096 km² 8. ... July 27 is the 208th day (209th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 157 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Source (Electoral Vote): Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996. Official website of the National Archives. (July 31, 2005). July 31 is the 212th day (213th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 153 days remaining, as the final day of July. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also


The President of the United States (unofficially abbreviated “POTUS”) is the head of state of the United States. ... At the end of the Civil War, the country was still bitterly divided. ... In United States politics, the Compromise of 1877 was an informal, unwritten deal that settled the disputed Election of 1876 by awarding the White House to the Republican Rutherford Hayes on the implicit understanding he would remove the federal troops that were propping up Republican state governments in South Carolina...

U.S. Presidential Elections

1789–1796: 1789 | 1792 | 1796
1800–1856: 1800 | 1804 | 1808 | 1812 | 1816 | 1820 | 1824 | 1828 | 1832 | 1836 | 1840 | 1844 | 1848 | 1852 | 1856
1860–1916: 1860 | 1864 | 1868 | 1872 | 1876 | 1880 | 1884 | 1888 | 1892 | 1896 | 1900 | 1904 | 1908 | 1912 | 1916
1920–1976: 1920 | 1924 | 1928 | 1932 | 1936 | 1940 | 1944 | 1948 | 1952 | 1956 | 1960 | 1964 | 1968 | 1972 | 1976
1980–2008: 1980 | 1984 | 1988 | 1992 | 1996 | 2000 | 2004 | 2008
United States presidential elections determine who serves as President and Vice President of the United States for four-year terms, starting on Inauguration Day (January 20th of the year after the election). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state The U.S. presidential election of 1792 was the second presidential election in the United States, and the first in which each of the original 13 states appointed electors (in addition to newly added states Kentucky and Vermont). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state The U.S. presidential election of 1804 was the first presidential election conducted following the ratification of the Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution. ... The election of 1808 was the first of only two cases where a new President would be elected, but the Vice Presidency remained in the same hands. ... Summary Taking place in the shadow of the War of 1812, the election of 1812 featured an intriguing competition between incumbent President James Madison and the nephew of his former Vice President, DeWitt Clinton (uncle George Clinton had died in office). ... Summary As Secretary of State under James Madison, James Monroe was seen by many as pre-ordained to succeed him into the presidency. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Summary President James Polk, having achieved virtually all of his objectives in one term and suffering from declining health that would take his life less than four months after leaving office, chose not to seek re-election. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Summary Keeping a promise made during the 1876 campaign, incumbent President Rutherford Hayes did not seek re-election. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Summary The election was held on November 6, 1900. ... Summary The election was held on November 8, 1904. ... Major party conventions The 1908 Republican Convention was held in Chicago from 16 June to 19 June. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Electoral College results In 1916, Europe was embroiled in World War I. American sentiment leaned towards the Allied Powers due to the occupation of parts of France and Belgium by the German Empire, but most American voters wanted to avoid involvement in the war, and preferred a policy of strict... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Introduction Incumbent President Coolidge was relatively popular, and the economy was booming. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The election was held on November 8, 1988. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential election results map. ... Presidential electoral votes by state The U.S. presidential election of 2008 is scheduled to occur on November 4, 2008. ...

References

  • William H. Rehnquist (2004). The Centennial Crisis: The Disputed Election of 1876, Knopf Publishing Group. ISBN 0375413871.

William H. Rehnquist has served as the Chief Justice of the United States since 1986. ...

External links


 
 

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