FACTOID # 14: North Carolina has a larger Native American population than North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > U.S. invasion of Afghanistan
U.S. invasion of Afghanistan
Part of War on Terror

U.S. special forces ride horseback as they work with members of the Northern Alliance on Nov. 12, 2001.
Date: October 7, 2001March 6, 2002
Location: Afghanistan
Result: Taliban collapse
Casus belli: September 11, 2001 attacks
Territory changes:
Combatants
al-Qaeda, Taliban Northern Alliance, United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, France, New Zealand, Italy, Germany
Commanders
Mohammed Omar
Osama bin Laden
Tommy Franks
Mohammed Fahim
Strength
Casualties
{{{notes}}}

The United States invasion of Afghanistan occurred in October 2001, in the wake of the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States, marking the beginning of its "War on Terrorism" campaign. Seeking to oust the Taliban and find Al-Qaeda mastermind Osama bin Laden, the Afghan Northern Alliance provided the majority of forces, and the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, France, New Zealand, Italy, and Germany provided support. The U.S. military name of the invasion was Operation Enduring Freedom1. The war on terrorism or war on terror (abbreviated in U.S. policy circles as GWOT for Global War on Terror) is an effort by the governments of the United States and its principal allies to destroy groups deemed to be terrorist (primarily radical Islamist organizations such as al-Qaeda... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (987x758, 118 KB) Summary U.S. special forces troops ride horseback as they work with members of the Northern Alliance in Afghanistan during Operation Enduring Freedom on Nov. ... October 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years). ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... March 6 is the 65th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (66th in Leap years). ... 2002 (MMII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Casus belli is a Latin expression from the international law theory of Jus ad bellum. ... The huge plume of smoke and fire seen coming from the North Tower. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... Flag flown by the Taliban. ... The Northern Alliance is a term used by the western media, Taliban and Al Qaida to identify the military coalition of various Afghan groups fighting the Taliban. ... A rare photograph of Omar (date unknown) Mullah Mohammed Omar (ملا محمد عمر; born 1959) is the reclusive leader of the Taliban of Afghanistan and was Afghanistans de facto Head of State from 1996 to 2001. ... Osama bin Laden in a photo from the 1990s Usāmah bin Muhammad bin `Awad bin Lādin (Arabic: ) (born March 10, 1957), commonly known as Osama bin Laden, or Usama bin Laden, (Arabic: ) is an Islamic fundamentalist and the founder of the militant terrorist organization al-Qaeda. ... General Tommy R. Franks (USCENTCOM photo) Tommy Ray Franks (born June 17, 1945) is a retired General in the United States Army, previously serving as the Commander-in-Chief of United States Central Command, overseeing United States Armed Forces operations in a 25-country region, including the Middle East. ... Mohammad Qasim Fahim (محمد قسيم فهيم) was the defense minister of the Afghan Transitional Administration, beginning in 2002. ... 2001 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December Events: October 2 - Bankruptcy of Swissair. ... The huge plume of smoke and fire seen coming from the North Tower. ... The War on Terrorism or War on Terror (in U.S. foreign policy circles, the global war on terrorism or GWOT ) is a controversial campaign by the United States government and some of its allies with the stated goal of ending worldwide terrorism by stopping terrorist groups and ending state... Flag flown by the Taliban. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... Osama bin Laden in a photo from the 1990s Usāmah bin Muhammad bin `Awad bin Lādin (Arabic: ) (born March 10, 1957), commonly known as Osama bin Laden, or Usama bin Laden, (Arabic: ) is an Islamic fundamentalist and the founder of the militant terrorist organization al-Qaeda. ... The Northern Alliance is a term used by the western media, Taliban and Al Qaida to identify the military coalition of various Afghan groups fighting the Taliban. ... Combatants United States, United Kingdom, France, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Mujahdeen fighters of Afghanistan, other nations Taliban regime of Afghanistan Commanders General Tommy Franks Taliban military leaders Strength Casualties {{{notes}}} Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) is the military response to the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States . ...


The officially-stated purpose of the invasion was to target al-Qaeda members, and to punish the Taliban government in Afghanistan which had provided support and haven to al-Qaeda. Flag flown by the Taliban. ...

Contents


Background

Since approximately 1996, Osama bin Laden had been resident in Afghanistan along with other members of al-Qaeda, operating terrorist training camps in a loose alliance with the Taliban. Following the 1998 U.S. embassy bombings in Africa, the Clinton administration fired cruise missiles at these camps with limited effect on their overall operations. After the September 11th attacks, investigators rapidly accumulated evidence implicating bin Laden. 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Aftermath at the Nairobi embassy. ... A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... The United States, with support from the United Kingdom, Australia and the Northern Alliance, invaded Afghanistan in October 2001 as part of its War on Terrorism campaign. ...


In the weeks prior to the military action in Afghanistan, U.S. President George W. Bush delivered an ultimatum [1] to the Taliban, to: The presidential seal was first used by president Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States. ...

  • deliver Al-Qaeda leaders located in Afghanistan to the United States
  • release all imprisoned foreign nationals, including American citizens [2]
  • protect foreign journalists, diplomats and aid workers in Afghanistan
  • close terrorist training camps in Afghanistan and "hand over every terrorist and every person and their support structure to appropriate authorities".
  • give the United States full access to terrorist training camps to verify their closure

President Bush further stated that the demands were not open to negotiation or discussion. The Taliban refused to directly speak to Bush, stating that talking with a non-Muslim political leader would be an insult to Islam. But they made statements through their embassy in Pakistan. Their initial responses demanded evidence of bin Laden's culpability in the September 11th attacks and included a proposal to try him in an Islamic court. Later, as the likelihood of military action became more imminent, they offered to extradite bin Laden to a neutral nation. Moderates within the Taliban allegedly met with American embassy officials in Pakistan in mid-October to work out a way to convince Mullah Muhammed Omar to turn bin Laden over to the U.S. and avoid its impending retaliation. President Bush rejected these offers made by the Taliban as insincere. Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( (help· info)), submission (to the will of God)) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, and the worlds second-largest religion. ... A rare photograph of Omar (date unknown) Mullah Mohammed Omar (ملا محمد عمر; born 1959) is the reclusive leader of the Taliban of Afghanistan and was Afghanistans de facto Head of State from 1996 to 2001. ...


The UN Security Council also issued a resolution on September 18, 2001 directed towards the Taliban demanding that they hand over the terrorist Osama bin Laden and close all terrorist training camps immediately and unconditionally. The council also referred to a resolution it adopted in December 2000 demanding that the Taliban turn over bin Laden to the United States or a third country for trial in the deadly bombings of two U.S. embassies in Africa in August 1998. A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... Look up December in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... August is the eighth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ...


Military operations

Initial attack

Prior to October 7, U.S. and British Special Forces clandestinely infiltrated Afghanistan to make contact with the Northern Alliance to organize those forces to over throw the Taliban. There were explosions in Kabul within a day of September 11, although these were minor rocket attacks by the Northern Alliance. October 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years). ... Special forces or special operations forces are relatively small military units raised and trained for special operations missions such as Special Reconnaissance (SR), Unconventional Warfare (UW), Direct Action (DA), Counter-Terrorism (CT), and Foreign Internal Defense (FID). ... A view of the old city Kabul Kabul (34°32′N 69°10′E, Kâbl, in Persian کابل) is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan with a population variously estimated at 2 to 4 million. ...


At approximately 16:30 UTC (12:30 EDT, 21:00 local time) on Sunday October 7, 2001, American and British forces began an aerial bombing campaign targeting Taliban forces and al-Qaeda. Strikes were reported in the capital, Kabul (where electricity supplies were severed), at the airport and military nerve-centre of Kandahar (home of the Taliban's Supreme Leader Mullah Omar), and also in the city of Jalalabad (military/terrorist training camps). The U.S. government justified these attacks as a response to the September 11, 2001 attacks and the failure of the Taliban to meet any U.S. demands. The Taliban condemned these attacks and called them an "attack on Islam." UTC also stands for the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga Coordinated Universal Time or UTC, also sometimes referred to as Zulu time, the basis for civil time, differs by an integral number of seconds from atomic time and a fractional number of seconds from UT1. ... Eastern Daylight Time or EDT is equal to Eastern Standard Time + 1, or UTC - 4. ... Time zones are areas of the Earth that have adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... October 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years). ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... Flag flown by the Taliban. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... A view of the old city Kabul Kabul (34°32′N 69°10′E, Kâbl, in Persian کابل) is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan with a population variously estimated at 2 to 4 million. ... Kandahār (or Qandahār, قندهار) is a city in southern Afghanistan, the capital of Kandahar province. ... One of the only known photographs of Omar (date unknown) Mullah Mohammed Omar (ملا محمد عمر; born 1959) is the reclusive leader of the Taliban of Afghanistan and Afghanistans former de facto Head of State who has been in hiding since the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan in 2002. ... Jalalabad (Persian: Jalālābād) is the capital of Nangarhar province in Afghanistan, 150 km east of Kabul near the Khyber Pass. ... The huge plume of smoke and fire seen coming from the North Tower. ...

A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. From the upper left to the bottom right: ITS Maestrale, FS De Grasse, USS John C. Stennis, USS Port Royal, FS Charles de Gaulle, HMS Ocean, FS Surcouf, USS John F. Kennedy, HNLMS Van Amstel, and ITS Luigi Durand de la Penne (18th of April 2002).
A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. From the upper left to the bottom right: ITS Maestrale, FS De Grasse, USS John C. Stennis, USS Port Royal, FS Charles de Gaulle, HMS Ocean, FS Surcouf, USS John F. Kennedy, HNLMS Van Amstel, and ITS Luigi Durand de la Penne (18th of April 2002).

At 17:00 UTC, Bush confirmed the strikes on national television and UK Prime Minister Tony Blair also addressed the UK. Bush stated that at the same time as Taliban military and terrorists' training grounds would be targeted, food, medicine, and supplies would be dropped to "the starving and suffering men, women and children of Afghanistan." [3]. These drops came under criticism for having the same color as the cluster bombs that the United States was using. Image File history File links Fleet_5_nations. ... Image File history File links Fleet_5_nations. ... Combatants United States, United Kingdom, France, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Mujahdeen fighters of Afghanistan, other nations Taliban regime of Afghanistan Commanders General Tommy Franks Taliban military leaders Strength Casualties {{{notes}}} Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) is the military response to the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States . ... The De Grasse is a F67 type large high-sea frigates of the French Marine Nationale specialised in anti-submarine warfare, though it also has anti-air and anti-surface capabilities. ... USS (CVN-74) is a nuclear-powered supercarrier in the United States Navy named for a Senator from Mississippi. ... USS Port Royal (CG-73) is a United States Navy guided missile cruiser, the last to be constructed in the 20th century, and the first cruiser to integrate women into the crew. ... The Charles de Gaulle (R91) is the only serving French aircraft carrier and is the flagship of the French Navy (Marine Nationale). ... The sixth HMS Ocean (L12) of the Royal Navy is a Landing Platform, Helicopter Cruiser, the only one in its class, built by Kvaerner Govan on the Clyde taking advantage of commercial build methods and facilities, before sailing from Barrow-in-Furness for fitting out prior to acceptance into service... The Surcouf (F711) is a La Fayette-class frigate of the French Navy. ... USS (CVA/CV-67) (or Big John) is a U.S. Navy aircraft carrier. ... HNLMS Van Amstel (F831) is a ship of the Karel Doorman class of multi-purpose frigates (also known as M-fregat class). ... Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, First Lord of the Treasury and Minister for the Civil Service. ... Demonstration cluster bomb cutaway, showing bomblets (photo circa 1943) Cluster munitions are air-dropped or ground launched shells that eject multiple small submunitions (bomblets). ...


A number of different technologies were employed in the strike. Air Force general Richard Myers, chairman of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, stated that approximately 50 Tomahawk cruise missiles, launched by British and U.S. submarines and ships, 15 strike aircraft from carriers and 25 bombers, such as B-1 Lancer, B-2 Spirit, B-52 Stratofortress and F-16 Fighting Falcon were involved in the first wave. Two C-17 Globemaster transport jets were to deliver 37,500 daily rations by airdrop to refugees inside Afghanistan on the first day of the attack. General Richard B. Myers General Richard Bowman Myers (born March 1, 1942) of the United States Air Force is a former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Americas highest ranking military officer. ... Joint Chiefs of Staff of the United States of America symbol The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JSC) is a panel comprising the highest-ranking members of each major branch of the armed services in any particular country. ... A Tomahawk cruise missile The Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (TLAM) is a long-range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missile with stubby wings. ... A Tomahawk cruise missile A cruise missile is a guided missile which uses a lifting wing and most often a jet propulsion system to allow sustained flight. ... It has been suggested that B-1R be merged into this article or section. ... The United States Air Force is the only agency in the world that operates the B-2 Spirit. ... A B-52 in flight The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress is a long-range strategic bomber flown by the United States Air Force (USAF) since 1954, replacing the Convair B-36 and the Boeing B-47. ... F-16 Fighting Falcon over Iraq The F-16 Fighting Falcon is a modern multi-role jet fighter aircraft built in the United States. ... The C_17 Globemaster III is a strategic airlifter manufactured by Boeing IDS, used by the United States Air Force and the Royal Air Force. ...


A pre-recorded video tape of Osama bin Laden had been released before the attack in which he condemned any attacks against Afghanistan. Al Jazeera, the Arabic satellite news channel, claimed that these tapes were received shortly before the attack. In this recording bin Laden claimed that the United States would fail in Afghanistan and then collapse, just as the Soviet Union did, and called for a war of Muslims, a jihad, against the entire non-Muslim world. Osama bin Laden in a photo from the 1990s Usāmah bin Muhammad bin `Awad bin Lādin (Arabic: ) (born March 10, 1957), commonly known as Osama bin Laden, or Usama bin Laden, (Arabic: ) is an Islamic fundamentalist and the founder of the militant terrorist organization al-Qaeda. ... Al Jazeera logo Al Jazeera (الجزيرة), meaning The Island or The (Arabian) Peninsula (whence also Algiers) is an Arabic television channel based in Qatar. ... Arabic (; , less formally, ) is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Taliban retreat

Initial air campaigns

Bombers operating at high altitudes well out of range of anti-aircraft fire began bombarding al-Qaeda training camps and Taliban air defenses. During the initial build-up before the actual attack, there had been speculation in the media that the Taliban might try to use U.S.-built Stinger anti-air missiles that were the bane of Soviet helicopters during the Soviet occupation in the 1980s. If any of these missiles existed at the time of the air campaign, they were never used and the U.S. never lost a single aircraft to enemy fire. Beyond that, the Taliban had little to offer in the way of anti-aircraft weaponry, relying mostly on left-over arms and weapons from the Soviet invasion. U.S. aircraft, including Apache helicopter gunships, operated with impunity throughout the campaign, while cruise missiles pounded the country. A bomber is a military aircraft designed to attack ground targets, primarily by dropping bombs. ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ...


The strikes initially focused on the area in and around the cities of Kabul, Jalalabad, and Kandahar. Within a few days, most al-Qaeda training sites had been severely damaged and the Taliban's air defenses had been destroyed. The campaign then focused on communications and "command and control". The Taliban began losing the ability to coordinate, and their morale began to sink. But the line facing the Northern Alliance held, and no tangible battlefield successes had yet occurred. Two weeks into the campaign, the Northern Alliance, not seeing a breakthrough, demanded the bombing focus more on the front lines. Critics began to see the war losing its way. Civilian casualties also began to mount. Several Red Cross warehouses were bombed. Meanwhile, thousands of Pashtun militiamen from Pakistan poured into the country, joining the fight against the U.S. led forces. A view of the old city Kabul Kabul (34°32′N 69°10′E, Kâbl, in Persian کابل) is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan with a population variously estimated at 2 to 4 million. ... Jalalabad (Persian: Jalālābād, 34°31′N 70°31′E) is the capital of Nangarhar province in Afghanistan, 150 km east of Kabul near the Khyber Pass and west of the Kunar River. ... Kandahār (or Qandahār, قندهار) is a city in southern Afghanistan, the capital of Kandahar province. ... The Northern Alliance is a term used by the western media, Taliban and Al Qaida to identify the military coalition of various Afghan groups fighting the Taliban. ... The Anarchist Black Cross was originally called the Anarchist Red Cross. The band Redd Kross was originally called Red Cross. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ...


The next stage of the campaign began. Hornet bombers hit Taliban vehicles in pinpoint strikes, while U.S. planes began cluster bombing Taliban defenses. For the first time in years, Northern Alliance commanders finally began to see the serious results that they had long hoped for. The Taliban support structure was beginning to erode under the pressure of the strikes. U.S. Special Forces then launched an audacious raid deep into the Taliban's heartland of Kandahar, even striking one of Mullah Omar's compounds. However, the campaign's progress seemed to remain very slow. The last week of October had ended, and it was now the beginning of November. Demonstration cluster bomb cutaway, showing bomblets (photo circa 1943) Cluster munitions are air-dropped or ground launched shells that eject multiple small submunitions (bomblets). ...


At this time, the next stage of the air campaign began to fulfill long-awaited Northern Alliance expectations. The Taliban front lines were bombed with 15,000-pound daisy cutter bombs, and by AC-130 gunships. Poor Taliban tactics increased the effect of the strikes. The fighters had no previous experience with American firepower, and often even stood on top of bare ridgelines where Special Forces could easily spot them and call in air attacks. By November 2, Taliban frontal positions were decimated, and a Northern Alliance march on Kabul seemed possible for the first time. Many Afghan Taliban troops had terrible morale, and were regarded as untrustworthy. Foreign fighters from al-Qaeda took over security in the Afghan cities, demonstrating how unstable the regime had become. Meanwhile, the Northern Alliance and their CIA/Special Forces advisors planned the offensive. Northern Alliance troops would seize Mazar-I-Sharif, thereby cutting off Taliban supply lines and enabling the flow of equipment from the countries to the north, followed by an attack on Kabul itself. A 15,000lb BLU-82/B on display at the USAF museum Note: Though commonly called daisy cutter, Daisy Cutter actually refers to the fuse extender on the nose of the bomb. ... The AC-130 Gunship is an armed variant of the Lockheed C-130 Hercules. ... November 2 is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 59 days remaining. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Mazār-e Sharīf, also known as Mazar-e-Sharif, Mazar-i Sharif and Mazar-i-Sharif (in Persian مزار شریف), is a city in northern Afghanistan and the capital of Balkh province. ...


Land advances: Mazar-e-Sharif

On November 9, 2001, the battle for Mazar-e-Sharif began. U.S. bombers carpet-bombed Taliban defenders concentrated in the Chesmay-e-Safa gorge that marks the entrance to the city. At 2 P.M, Northern Alliance forces then swept in from the south and west, seizing the city's main military base and airport. The forces then mopped up the remnants of the Taliban in the gorge in front of the city, meeting only feeble resistance. Within 4 hours, the battle was over. By sunset, what remained of the Taliban was retreating to the south and east. Mazar-e-Sharif was taken. The next day, Northern Alliance forces seeking retribution combed the city, shooting suspected Taliban supporters in on-the-spot executions. 520 young Taliban, demoralized and defeated, many of whom were from the fighters that crossed from Pakistan, were massacred when they were discovered hiding in a school. Looting was rampant. November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... The phrases area bombing and carpet bombing refer to the use of very large numbers of unguided gravity bombs to attempt the destruction of a target, either to destroy personnel and materiel or as a means to demoralize the enemy. ... A military base is an isolated facility, settlement, or installation that shelters military equipment and personnel. ... Looting (which derives via the Hindi lut from Sanskrit lunt, to rob) is the inconsiderate taking of valuables triggered by a change in authority or the absence thereof. ...


The same day the massacres of former Taliban supporters was taking place in Mazar-e-Sharif, November 10, Northern Alliance forces swept through five northern provinces in a rapid advance. The fall of Mazar-e-Sharif had triggered a complete collapse of Taliban positions. Many local commanders switched sides rather than fight. The regime was beginning to unravel at the seams throughout the north. Even in the south, their hold on power seemed tenuous at best. The religious police stopped their regular patrols. A complete implosion of the Taliban regime seemed imminent. November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ...


The fall of Kabul

Finally, on the night of November 12, Taliban forces fled from the city of Kabul, sneaking away under cover of darkness in a massive retreat. By the time Northern Alliance forces arrived in the afternoon of November 13, only bomb craters, burned foliage, and the burnt out shells of Taliban gun emplacements and positions were there to greet them. A small group of perhaps twenty devoted Arab fighters hiding in the city's park were the only defenders left. After a brief 15-minute gun battle, all of the foreign al-Qaeda fighters were dead, having had little more than some scrub to shield them. Kabul had fallen. November 12 is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 49 days remaining. ... November 13 is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 48 days remaining. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ʻarab) are a large and heterogeneous ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa, originating in the Arabian Peninsula of southwest Asia. ...

Air Force combat controllers send coordinates for air strike
Air Force combat controllers send coordinates for air strike

The fall of Kabul marked the beginning of a collapse of Taliban positions across the map. Within 24 hours, all of the Afghan provinces along the Iranian border, including the key city of Herat, had fallen. Local Pashtun commanders had taken over throughout northeastern Afghanistan, including the key city of Jalalabad. Taliban holdouts in the north, comprised of mainly Pakistani volunteers, fled to the northern city of Konduz to make a stand. By November 16, the Taliban's last stronghold in northern Afghanistan was besieged by the Northern Alliance. Nearly 10,000 Taliban fighters, led by foreign fighters, refused to surrender and continued to put up stubborn resistance. By then, the Taliban had retreated back to their heartland in southeastern Afghanistan around Kandahar, and even their hold there was tenuous at best. The regime seemed to be teetering on the brink of annihilation. Air Force Combat Controllers in Afghanistan File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Air Force Combat Controllers in Afghanistan File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerospace branch of the United States armed forces. ... Combat Control patch Combat Controllers (CCT) are ground combat forces assigned to Special Tactics Squadrons within the Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC). ... Herāt (Persian هرات) is a city in western Afghanistan, in the valley of the Hari Rud river in the province also known as Herat, and was traditionally known for wine. ... Jalalabad (Persian: Jalālābād, 34°31′N 70°31′E) is the capital of Nangarhar province in Afghanistan, 150 km east of Kabul near the Khyber Pass and west of the Kunar River. ... Kunduz is a city in Afghanistan; the name has also sometimes been rendered as Kûnduz, Qonduz, Qondûz, Konduz, Kondûz, Kondoz, or Qhunduz. ... November 16 is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 45 days remaining. ...


By November 13, al-Qaeda forces, almost certainly with Osama bin Laden himself, had regrouped and were concentrating their forces in the Tora Bora cave complex, 30 miles (50 km) southeast of Jalalabad, to prepare for a stand against the anti-Taliban and American forces. Nearly 2000 al-Qaeda fighters fortified themselves in positions within bunkers and caves, and by November 16, U.S. bombers began stepped up pummeling of the mountain fortress. Around the same time, CIA and Special Forces operatives were already at work in the area, enlisting and paying local warlords to join the fight and planning an attack on the al-Qaeda base. Tora Bora (black dust) is a fortified encampment with an extensive network of tunnels, located between two mountain ridges in a region of cliffs and forests which is difficult to reach by land. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ...

U.S. Army SF fight during the uprising at Mazar-e Sharif
U.S. Army SF fight during the uprising at Mazar-e Sharif

Just as the bombardment at Tora Bora was stepped up, the bloody siege of Konduz that began on November 16 was continuing. Finally, after 9 days of heavy fighting and blistering American bombardment, Taliban fighters surrendered to Northern Alliance forces on November 25. Army SF fight during the uprising at Mazar I Sharif File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Army SF fight during the uprising at Mazar I Sharif File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Special forces or special operations forces are relatively small military units raised and trained for special operations missions such as Special Reconnaissance (SR), Unconventional Warfare (UW), Direct Action (DA), Counter-Terrorism (CT), and Foreign Internal Defense (FID). ... The historic Blue Mosque in Mazar-e Sharif Mazār-e Sharīf (36. ... November 16 is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 45 days remaining. ... November 25 is the 329th (in leap years the 330th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Consolidation: the taking of Konduz and Kandahar

On November 25, the day that Taliban fighters holding out in Konduz finally surrendered and were being herded into the Qala-e-Jangi prison complex near Mazar-I-Sharif, a few foreign Taliban attacked some Northern Alliance guards, taking their weapons and opening fire. This incident soon triggered a widespread revolt by 600 detained fighters at the prison, who began grabbing AK-47s, machine guns, and grenades and attacking Northern Alliance troops. One American CIA operative who had been interrogating prisoners, Mike Spann, was killed, marking the first American combat death in the war. The fighters soon seized the southern half of the complex, once a medieval fortress. The revolt was finally put down after three days of heavy strafing fire by AC-130 gunships and Black Hawk helicopters. Less than 100 of the several hundred Taliban prisoners survived, and around 50 Northern Alliance soldiers were killed. The quashing of the revolt marked the end of the combat in northern Afghanistan, where local Northern Alliance warlords were now firmly in control. Avtomat Kalashnikova model 1947 g. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... Grenade may refer to: The well-known hand grenade commonly used by soldiers. ... Johnny Micheal Spann Johnny Micheal Spann (March 1, 1969 - November 25, 2001) was the first American killed in combat after the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan. ... The AC-130 Gunship is an armed variant of the Lockheed C-130 Hercules. ... The Sikorsky UH(Utility Helicopter)-60 Black Hawk is twin-turbine engine, single rotor, semimonocoque fuselage, rotary wing helicopter. ...


By the end of November, Kandahar, the movement's birthplace, was the last remaining Taliban stronghold and was coming under increasing pressure. Nearly 3,000 tribal fighters, led by Hamid Karzai, a Westernized and polished loyalist of the former Afghan king, and Gul Agha Shirzai, the governor of Kandahar before the Taliban seized power, put pressure on Taliban forces from the east and cut off the northern Taliban supply lines to Kandahar. The threat of the Northern Alliance loomed in the north and northeast. Meanwhile, the first significant U.S. combat troops had arrived. Nearly 1,000 Marines, ferried in by CH-53E Super Stallion helicopters, set up a Forward Operating Base in the desert south of Kandahar on November 25. The first significant combat involving U.S. ground forces occurred a day later when 15 armored vehicles approached the base and were attacked by helicopter gunships, destroying many of them. Meanwhile, the airstrikes continued to pound Taliban positions inside the city, where Mullah Omar was holed up. Omar, the Taliban leader, remained defiant despite the fact that his movement only controlled 4 out of the 30 Afghan provinces by the end of November and called on his forces to fight to the death. Hamid Karzai (Pushtu: حامد کرزي, Dari: حامد کرزی) (born December 24, 1957) is the current and first democratically elected President of Afghanistan (since December 7, 2004). ... Gul Agha Shirzai is the governor of Kandahar Province in Afghanistan. ... United States Marine Corps Emblem The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the U.S. military. ... Designated S-80E internally by the Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation, the Marine CH-53E Super Stallion, and the Navy MH-53E Sea Dragon are the largest and heaviest helicopters in the United States military. ... Forward Operating Base (DOD) An airfield used to support tactical operations without establishing full support facilities. ... Kandahār (or Qandahār, قندهار) is a city in southern Afghanistan, the capital of Kandahar province. ... November 25 is the 329th (in leap years the 330th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A helicopter gunship is a military helicopter armed for attacking targets on the ground, using automatic cannon and machinegun fire, rockets, and precision guided missiles such as the Hellfire. ... An airstrike is a military strike by air forces on an enemy ground position, which depending on the selected tactics may or may not be followed up by artillery, armor, and/or infantry units. ...

Tommy Franks meets with Army Special Forces
Tommy Franks meets with Army Special Forces

As the Taliban teetered on the brink of losing their last bastion, the U.S. focus increased on the Tora Bora cave complex. Local tribal militias, numbering over 2,000 strong and paid and organized by Special Forces and CIA paramilitaries, continued to mass for an attack as heavy bombing continued of suspected al-Qaeda positions. 100-200 civilians were reported killed when 25 bombs struck a village at the foot of the Tora Bora and White Mountains region. On December 2, a group of 20 U.S. commandos was inserted by helicopter to support the operation. On December 5, Afghan militia wrested control of the low ground below the mountain caves from al-Qaeda fighters and set up tank positions to blast enemy forces. The al-Qaeda fighters withdrew with mortars, rocket launchers, and assault rifles to higher fortified positions and dug in for the battle. General Tommy Franks meeting with members of Army Special Forces File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... General Tommy Franks meeting with members of Army Special Forces File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... December 2 is the 336th day (337th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Soldier Firing the M224 60-mm Mortar. ... M136 AT-4 rocket launcher A shoulder-launched missile weapon is a weapon that fires a rocket-propelled missile at a target, yet is small enough to be carried by one man, and fired whilst held on his shoulder. ... M16A2 (US). ...


By December 6, Omar finally began to signal that he was ready to surrender Kandahar to tribal forces. His forces broken by heavy U.S. bombing and living constantly on the run within Kandahar to prevent himself from becoming a target, even Mullah Omar's morale lagged. Recognizing that he could not hold on to Kandahar much longer, he began signaling a willingness in negotiations to turn the city over to the tribal leaders, assuming that he and his top men received some protection. The U.S. government rejected any amnesty for Omar or any Taliban leaders. On December 7, Mullah Mohammad Omar slipped out of the city of Kandahar with a group of his hardcore loyalists and moved northwest into the mountains of Uruzgan province, reneging on the Taliban's promise to surrender their fighters and their weapons. He was last reported seen driving off with a group of his fighters on a convoy of motorcycles. Other members of the Taliban leadership fled into Pakistan through the remote passes of Paktia and Paktika provinces. However, Kandahar, the last Taliban-controlled city, had fallen, and the majority of the Taliban fighters had disbanded. The border town of Spin Boldak was surrendered on the same day, marking the end of Taliban control in Afghanistan. The Afghan tribal forces under Gul Agha seized the city of Kandahar while the Marines took control of the airport outside and established a U.S. base. December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 7 is the 341st day (342nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Oruzgan (or Uruzgan) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. ... A convoy is a group of vehicles or ships traveling together for mutual support. ... Spin Boldak (or, more rarely, Spin Buldak, Spinboldak or Spinbuldak) is a town in Kandahar province in southern Afghanistan, near the Pakistani border; it is on a road leading from Kandahar, Afghanistan to Quetta, Pakistan. ...


The Battle of Tora Bora: endgame deferred

The foreign al-Qaeda fighters were still holding out in the mountains of Tora Bora, however. Anti-Taliban tribal militia continued a steady advance through the difficult terrain, backed by withering air strikes guided in by U.S. Special Forces. Facing defeat and reluctant to fight fellow Muslims, the al-Qaeda forces agreed to a truce to give them time to surrender their weapons. In retrospect, however, many believe that the truce was a ruse to allow important al-Qaeda figures, including Osama bin Laden, to escape. On December 12, the fighting flared again, probably initiated by a rear guard buying time for the main force's escape through the White Mountains into the tribal areas of Pakistan. Once again, tribal forces backed by U.S. special operations troops and air support pressed ahead against fortified al-Qaeda positions in caves and bunkers scattered throughout the mountainous region. By December 17, the last cave complex had been taken and their defenders overrun. A search of the area by U.S. forces continued into January, but no sign of bin Laden or the al-Qaeda leadership emerged. It is almost unanimously believed that they had already slipped away into the tribal areas of Pakistan to the south and east. It is estimated that around 200 of the al-Qaeda fighters were killed during the battle, along with an unknown number of anti-Taliban tribal fighters. No U.S. deaths were reported. Lexington Minuteman representing militia minuteman John Parker A militia is a group of citizens organized to provide paramilitary service. ... December 12 is the 346th day (347th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 19 days remaining. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


Following Tora Bora, U.S. forces and their Afghan allies consolidated their position in the country. Following a Loya jirga or grand council of major Afghan factions, tribal leaders, and former exiles, an interim Afghan government was established in Kabul under Hamid Karzai. U.S. forces established their main base at Bagram airbase just north of Kabul. Kandahar airport also became an important U.S. base area. Several outposts were established in eastern provinces to hunt for Taliban and al-Qaeda fugitives. The number of U.S-led coalition troops operating in the country would eventually grow to over 10,000. Meanwhile, the Taliban and al-Qaeda had not yet given up. Al-Qaeda forces began regrouping in the Shahi-Kot mountains of Paktia province throughout January and February of 2002. A Taliban fugitive in Paktia province, Mullah Saifur Rehman, also began reconstituting some of his militia forces in support of the anti-U.S. warriors. They totalled over 1,000 by the beginning of March of 2002. The intention of the rebels was to use the region as a base area for launching guerrilla attacks and possibly a major offensive in the style of the mujahedin who battled Soviet forces during the 1980s. Loya Jirga (June 13, 2002) Loya jirga, occasionally loya jirgah, is a large meeting held in Afghanistan, originally attended by Pashtun groups but later including other ethnic groups. ... Bagram Air Base is located near Charikar in Parvan, Afghanistan. ... Paktia province is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. ... Mujahideen (مجاهدين; also transliterated as mujāhidīn, mujahedeen, mujahedin, mujahidin, mujaheddin, etc. ...


Operation Anaconda

Soldiers board a Chinook in Operation Anaconda
Soldiers board a Chinook in Operation Anaconda

U.S. and allied Afghan militia intelligence sources soon picked up on this buildup in Paktia province and prepared a massive push to counter it. On March 2, 2002, U.S. and Afghan forces launched an offensive on al-Qaeda and Taliban forces entrenched in the mountains of Shahi-Kot southeast of Gardez. The rebel forces, who used small arms, rocket-propelled grenades, and mortars, were entrenched into caves and bunkers in the hillsides at an altitude that was largely above 10,000 feet (3,000 m). They used "hit and run" tactics, opening fire on the U.S. and Afghan forces and then retreating back into their caves and bunkers to weather the return fire and persistent U.S. bombing raids. To compound the situation for the coalition troops, U.S. commanders initially underestimated the Taliban and al-Qaeda forces as a last isolated pocket of dead-enders numbering less than 200. It turned out that the guerrillas number over 1,000, perhaps as high as 5,000 according to some estimates, and that they were receiving reinforcements. Soldiers from Bravo Company, 1st Battalion, 187th Infantry Regiment of the 101st Airborne Division, prepare to move out after being dropped off by a Chinook helicopter at the battle zone during Operation Anaconda. ... Soldiers board a Chinook in Operation Anaconda File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Soldiers board a Chinook in Operation Anaconda File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... March 2 is the 61st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (62nd in leap years). ... Gardez is the capital of Paktia province, Afghanistan. ... An RPG is a hand-held, shoulder-launched antitank weapon capable of firing an unguided rocket containing an explosive warhead. ...


By March 6, eight Americans and seven Afghan soldiers had been killed and reportedly 400 opposing forces had also been killed in the fighting. The coalition casualties stemmed from a friendly fire incident that killed one soldier, the downing of two helicopters by rocket-propelled grenades and small arms fire that killed seven soldiers, and the pinning down of U.S. forces being inserted into what was coined as "Objective Ginger" that resulted in dozens of wounded. Ground fire from Afghan militia and American forces in a number of skirmishes, along with heavy aerial bombardment, resulted in over 400 al-Qaeda and Taliban rebels killed, according to U.S. estimates. However, fewer than 50 bodies were ever found. Regardless of the correct number of guerrillas killed, it is clear that several hundred somehow escaped the dragnet and melted away, almost certainly by moving in small groups along mountain trails to the tribal areas across the border into Pakistan. The Pakistani forces meant to serve as a blocking force apparently lacked either the will or the capability, or possibly both, to seal off the border. March 6 is the 65th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (66th in Leap years). ... Friendly fire (or non-hostile fire) is a term originally adopted by the United States military in reference to an attack on friendly forces by other friendly forces, which may be deliberate (eg. ...


In an incident of friendly fire on April 18, 2002, 4 Canadian soldiers were killed and eight others were injured due to a bomb that was inadvertently dropped by an American F-16 fighter jet. It was alleged that pilot Harry Schmidt dropped the bomb in self-defense while, in reality, the soldiers were on a military exercise. See Afghanistan friendly fire incident. Friendly fire (or non-hostile fire) is a term originally adopted by the United States military in reference to an attack on friendly forces by other friendly forces, which may be deliberate (eg. ... April 18 is the 108th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (109th in leap years). ... The F-16 Fighting Falcon is a modern multi-role jet fighter aircraft built in the United States and used by dozens of countries all over the world. ... Harry Schmidt is a Major in the Illinois National Guard and was at one time an instructor at the Navys elite TOPGUN fighter pilot school. ... The Afghanistan friendly fire incident refers to the accidental killing of four Canadian soldiers and the injury of eight others from the Third Batallion of Princess Patricias Canadian Light Infantry (3PPCLI) on April 18, 2002 by an American F-16 fighter jet. ...


Post-Anaconda operations

Following the battle at Shahi-Kot, it is believed that the al-Qaeda fighters established sanctuaries among tribal protectors in Pakistan, from which they regained their strength and later began launching cross-border raids on U.S. forces by the summer months of 2002. Guerrilla units, numbering between 5 and 25 men, still regularly cross the border from their sanctuaries in Pakistan to fire rockets at U.S. bases and ambush American convoys and patrols, as well as Afghan National Army troops, Afghan militia forces working with the U.S-led coalition, and non-governmental organizations. The area around the U.S. base at Shkin in Paktika province has seen some of the heaviest activity. Shkin is a village in the Paktika Province of Afghanistan. ...


Meanwhile, Taliban forces continued to remain in hiding in the rural regions of the four southern provinces that formed their heartland, Kandahar, Zabul, Helmand, and Uruzgan. In the wake of Operation Anaconda the Pentagon requested that British Royal Marines who are highly trained in mountain warfare, be deployed. They conducted a number of missions over several weeks with very limited results. The Taliban, who during the summer of 2002 numbered in the hundreds, avoided combat with U.S. forces and their Afghan allies as much as possible and melted away into the caves and tunnels of remote Afghan mountain ranges or across the border into Pakistan during operations. This resulted in a number of fruitless missions conducted by American and British forces, in which no combat occurred and no enemy forces were captured or killed. Even with popular support (and it is not certain to what extent the coalition has obtained it), and advanced surveillance technology, locating small bands of 5-10 men in the vast stretches of rugged terrain that exist in southeastern Afghanistan and along the Pakistani border, and who are determined to avoid contact, is an almost impossible task. This rather frustrating situation persisted throughout 2002. Categories: Afghanistan geography stubs | Provinces of Afghanistan ... Helmand province is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. ... Soldiers from Bravo Company, 1st Battalion, 187th Infantry Regiment of the 101st Airborne Division, prepare to move out after being dropped off by a Chinook helicopter at the battle zone during Operation Anaconda. ... Her Majestys Royal Marines, usually just known as the Royal Marines (RM) or sometimes colloquially as the Green Berets[1], is the United Kingdoms amphibious force and a core component of the countrys Rapid Deployment Force. ...


Renewed Taliban insurgency

After managing to evade U.S. forces throughout the summer of 2002, the remnants of the Taliban gradually began to regain their confidence and started to begin preparations to launch the insurgency that Mullah Muhammad Omar had promised during the Taliban's last days in power. During September, Taliban forces began a recruitment drive in Pashtun areas in both Afghanistan and Pakistan to launch a renewed "jihad" or holy war against the Afghan government and the U.S-led coalition. Pamphlets distributed in secret during the night also began to appear in many villages in the former Taliban heartland in southeastern Afghanistan that called for jihad. Small mobile training camps were established along the border with Pakistan by al-Qaeda and Taliban fugitives to train new recruits in guerrilla warfare and terrorist tactics, according to Afghan sources and a United Nations report. Most of the new recruits were drawn from the madrassas or religious schools of the tribal areas of Pakistan, from which the Taliban had originally arisen. Major bases, a few with as many as 200 men, were created in the mountainous tribal areas of Pakistan by the summer of 2003. Slipping across the long and rugged border in small groups is a relatively simple task, even with heavy patrolling by security forces. The will of the Pakistani paramilitaries stationed at border crossings to prevent such infiltration was called into question, and Pakistani military operations proved of little use. A Madrasah complex in Gambia Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand, ca. ...


The Taliban gradually reorganized and reconstituted their forces over the winter, preparing for a summer offensive. They established a new mode of operation: gather into groups of around 50 to launch attacks on isolated outposts and convoys of Afghan soldiers, police, or militia and then breaking up into groups of 5-10 men to evade subsequent offensives. U.S. forces in the strategy were attacked indirectly, through rocket attacks on bases and improvised mines planted in the roadside. To coordinate the strategy, Mullah Omar named a 10-man leadership council for the resistance, with himself at the head. Five operational zones were created, assigned to various Taliban commanders such as the key Taliban leader Mullah Dadullah, in charge of Zabul province operations. Al-Qaeda forces in the east had a bolder strategy of concentrating on the Americans and catching them when they could with elaborate ambushes. An ambush is a long established military tactic in which an ambushing force uses concealment to attack an enemy that passes its position. ...


The first sign that Taliban forces were regrouping came on January 28, when a band of 80 fighters allied with the Taliban and Hezb-i-Islami were discovered and assaulted by U.S. forces at the Adi Ghar cave complex 15 miles (24 km) north of Spin Boldak. 18 rebels were reported killed and no U.S. casualties reported. The site was suspected to be a base to funnel supplies and fighters from Pakistan. The first isolated attacks by relatively large Taliban bands on Afghan targets also appeared around that time. January 28 is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hezbi Islami (also Hezb-i-Islami, Hezbi-Islami, Hezb-e-Islami) is a military force in Afghanistan led by Gulbuddin Hekmatyar, and established by him in Pakistan during 1975. ...


As the summer continued, the attacks gradually increased in frequency in the "Taliban heartland." Dozens of Afghan government soldiers, non-governmental organization and humanitarian workers, and several U.S. soldiers died in the raids, ambushes, and rocket attacks. In addition to the guerrilla attacks, Taliban fighters began building up their forces in the district of Dai Chopan, a district in Zabul province that also straddles Kandahar and Uruzgan and is at the very center of the Taliban heartland. Dai Chopan district is a remote and sparsely populated corner of southeastern Afghanistan composed of towering, rocky mountains interspersed with thin gorges. Taliban fighters decided it would be the perfect area to make a stand against the Afghan government and the coalition forces. Over the course of the summer, perhaps the largest concentration of Taliban militants gathered in the area since the fall of the regime, with up to 1,000 guerrillas regrouping. Over 220 people, including several dozen Afghan police, were killed in August of 2003 as Taliban fighters gained strength. The U.S. military is currently sustaining approximately one death and four wounded per week in Afghanistan. One of the major reasons that U.S. forces are suffering such light casualities as compared to Iraq is that they have a much lighter presence in Afghanistan. The American strategy was never to mould Afghanistan as a model of Jeffersonian democracy but rather more narrow. Their strategy was to kill or capture Osama bin Laden and destroy Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan. The "light touch" strategy while helping to keep causalities low has also prevented the capture of Osama bin-Laden and thus can be considered a failure. The failure in Afghanistan has demonstrated the folly of network centric warfare where wars are won through high technology and not boots on the ground. The U.S. military depended on the Northern Alliance, Mercenary Warlords for ground assault and the Pakistani army for a blocking movement preventing Al-Qaeda and Taliban escape. Unfortunately for the U.S. the interests of Pakistan and the Northern Alliance did not perfectly align with the U.S. There was no significant blocking force by the Pakistani military across the border. The warlords were easily bribed by Al-Qaeda and Taliban forces and the Northern Alliance was more interested in consolidating their new found gains. For any chance of success the U.S. military needed 20,000 troops for the blocking force across the Pakistani border and a further 10,000 troops for the assault on Tora-Bora.


U.S and Afghan government forces, meanwhile, were preparing an offensive to root out the rebel forces. During the last week of August, Afghan government forces backed by U.S troops and heavy American aerial bombardment advanced upon Taliban positions within the mountain fortress. After a one-week battle, Taliban forces were routed with up to 124 fighters (according to Afghan government estimates) killed. Taliban spokesmen, however, denied the high casualty figure and U.S estimates were somewhat lower. By the first week of September, however, Taliban forces had been scattered from their base at Dai-Chopan.


Psychological Warfare

According to an Australian TV report, the United States applied psychological pressure to force enemy Taliban fighters out into the open. The report stated that members of the 173rd Airborne burned Taliban bodies for hygenic reasons. Flag flown by the Taliban. ... Shoulder Sleeve Insignia of the 173rd Airborne Brigrade. ...


Psyop specialist Sgt. Jim Baker was recorded reading out a message to the Taliban: Psychological Operations or PSYOP or PSYOPS are planned operations to convey selected information and indicators to specific audiences to influence their emotions, motives, objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of governments, organizations, groups, and individuals. ...


"Attention, Taliban, you are all cowardly dogs. You allowed your fighters to be laid down facing west and burned. You are too scared to retrieve their bodies. This just proves you are the lady boys we always believed you to be."


Another soldier reportedly broadcast statements such as:


"You attack and run away like women. You call yourself Talibs but you are a disgrace to the Muslim religion and you bring shame upon your family. Come and fight like men instead of the cowardly dogs you are."


Reports of the effectiveness of such efforts are unclear.


According to a Japan Today report, U. S. authorities are investigating the incident to determine whether the troops' efforts may have contravened the Geneva convention. [4] The Geneva Conventions consist of treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland that set the standards for international law for humanitarian concerns. ...


Nature of the coalition

The first wave of attacks was carried out solely by American and British forces. On the second day, only American forces participated. In addition to the United Kingdom, a number of other countries provided support to the U.S.-led invasion. Although undoubtedly of practical value, in some cases it is generally seen as primarily a moral statement. In rough order of level of contribution, these were:

A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea.
A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea.

Note: this list is currently incomplete and almost certainly inaccurate (many countries refuse to specify the whereabouts of their elite combat units and so forth) Image File history File links Fleet_5_nations. ... Image File history File links Fleet_5_nations. ... Operation Apollo was the codename for an operation conducted by Canadian Forces in support of the United States in its military operations in Afghanistan. ... Joint Task Force 2 Special Forces duties in Canada are performed by an elite counter-terrorism unit known as JTF2 (Joint Task Force 2. ... Operation Slipper is the Australian Defence Force (ADF)contribution to the International Coalition against Terrorism. ... An SASR beret. ... Frigate is a name which has been used for several distinct types of warships at different times. ... P-3 Orion The Lockheed P-3 Orion is a patrol aircraft of the United States military used primarily for anti-submarine warfare. ... The F/A-18 Hornet is an all-weather fighter and attack aircraft. ... This article refers to the atoll. ... Operation Veritas was the codename used for British military operations against the Taliban government of Afghanistan in 2001. ... An aircraft carrier is a warship whose main role is to deploy and recover aircraft—in effect acting as a sea-going airbase. ... The dock of HMS Albion An amphibious transport dock (also called Landing Platform Dock or LPD) is a warship that embarks, transports, and lands elements of a landing force for expeditionary warfare missions. ... USS Lassen, an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range attackers (originally torpedo boats, later submarines and aircraft). ... Frigate is a name which has been used for several distinct types of warships at different times. ... HMS Vanguard, a Vanguard-class nuclear ballistic missile (SSBN) submarine HMCS Windsor, a Victoria-class diesel-electric hunter-killer (SSK) submarine HMAS Rankin, a Collins-class diesel-electric guided missile (SSG) submarine USS Virginia, a Virginia-class nuclear attack (SSN) submarine A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate... The Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) is the service that keeps the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom running around the world. ... The Special Boat Service (SBS) is the British Royal Navys Special Forces unit. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... For other Special Air Services, see Australian Special Air Service Regiment and Special Air Service of New Zealand. ... French Army forces, 4èmes chasseurs (27th mountain infantry brigade), in Afghanistan in 2004, passing a woman in a burka. ... It has been suggested that RAF stations be merged into this article or section. ... Orbital Sciences Stargazer Lockheed L-1011 aircraft which was modified in Cambridge, UK, by Marshall Aerospace The Lockheed L-1011 TriStar was the third widebody passenger jet airliner to reach the marketplace, following the Boeing 747 jumbo jet and the Douglas DC-10. ... The VC-10 airliner was designed and built by Vickers (part of the British Aircraft Corporation) in the 1960s. ... The E-3 Sentry is an airborne warning and control system (AWACS) aircraft that provides all-weather surveillance, command, control and communications needed by commanders of U.S., NATO and other allied air defense forces. ... The BAE Systems (formerly Hawker-Siddeley) Nimrod maritime patrol aircraft is derived from the De Havilland Comet, the worlds first jet airliner. ... The BAE Systems (formerly Hawker-Siddeley) Nimrod maritime patrol aircraft is derived from the De Havilland Comet, the worlds first jet airliner. ... English Electric Canberra B.2. ... Lockheed C-130H Hercules The Lockheed C-130 Hercules is a four-engine turboprop aircraft that serves as the main tactical airlifter for military forces worldwide. ... The Royal Air Force is the second largest operator of the Boeing CH-47 Chinook of the 16 nations which use the type. ... No. ... Navy officers on the bridges of the Motte-Picquet frigate French Navy summer uniforms Frigate division of the French Navy in Toulon harbour The French Navy (Marine Nationale) is the second-largest Western European navy (the largest being the Royal Navy). ... The carrier battle group (CVBG or CARBATGRU) or carrier strike group (CVSG) is a fleet of ships in support of an aircraft carrier. ... The familiar French military aviation roundel gave rise to similar roundels for air forces all over the world, including that of the United Kingdom (RAF), which reversed the colors on the French roundel. ... A Mirage 2000 of the Indian Air Force The Mirage 2000 is a French-built multi-role fighter manufactured by Dassault Aviation. ... The Dassault Mirage F1 is a single-seat air-superiority fighter and attack aircraft built by Dassault of France. ... The Dassault Mirage IV is a French jet-propelled supersonic strategic bomber and reconnaissance aircraft. ... French Army forces, 4èmes chasseurs (27th mountain infantry brigade), in Afghanistan in 2004, passing a woman in a burka. ... Special forces or special operations forces are relatively small military units raised and trained for special operations missions such as Special Reconnaissance (SR), Unconventional Warfare (UW), Direct Action (DA), Counter-Terrorism (CT), and Foreign Internal Defense (FID). ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Special forces or special operations forces are relatively small military units raised and trained for special operations missions such as Special Reconnaissance (SR), Unconventional Warfare (UW), Direct Action (DA), Counter-Terrorism (CT), and Foreign Internal Defense (FID). ... Military police (MPs) are the police of a military organization, generally concerning themselves with law enforcement and security. ... Special forces or special operations forces are relatively small military units raised and trained for special operations missions such as Special Reconnaissance (SR), Unconventional Warfare (UW), Direct Action (DA), Counter-Terrorism (CT), and Foreign Internal Defense (FID). ... March 28 is the 87th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (88th in Leap years). ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... The F-16 Fighting Falcon is a modern multi-role jet fighter aircraft built in the United States and used by dozens of countries all over the world. ... The Lockheed C-130 Hercules, a four-engine turboprop aircraft, is the main tactical air transport aircraft of the United States and UK military forces. ... Combatants Allies: • Soviet Union, • UK & Commonwealth, • USA, • France/Free France, • China, • Poland, • ...and others Axis: • Germany, • Japan, • Italy, • ...and others Commanders Strength Casualties Full list Full list World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a large scale military conflict that took place between 1939 and 1945. ... Military police (MPs) are the police of a military organization, generally concerning themselves with law enforcement and security. ...


Despite reluctance in the Arab states towards retaliation against the al-Qaida network in Afghanistan, the Pakistani leader General Pervez Musharraf offered support. Pakistan and Iran agreed to open borders to receive the expected increased migration of refugees from Afghanistan. Earlier, Pakistan had supported the Taliban, especially during the 1996-1998 period when they were establishing control- later relations between the two were not as close. After the 9/11 attacks, Pakistan allocated three airbases to the United States for the invasion of Afghanistan. Uzbekistan had allowed the U.S. to place troops on the ground as well as use an airfield for humanitarian relief. 34 nations participate in the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) for Afghanistan. [5] The Arabs (Arabic: عرب Ê»arab) are a large and heterogeneous ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa, originating in the Arabian Peninsula of southwest Asia. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... General Pervez Musharraf (Urdu: ); born August 11, 1943 (Delhi, India) is the President of Pakistan. ... French Army forces, 4èmes chasseurs (27th mountain infantry brigade), in Afghanistan in 2004, passing a woman in a burka. ...


Casualties of the invasion

Main articles: Coalition Casualties in Afghanistan and List of casualties of the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan As of August 6, 2005, there have been 259 coalition deaths in Afghanistan and other theaters of war during Operation Enduring Freedom -- 220 American, 16 German, 7 Canadian, 4 British, 3 Danish, 3 Romanians, 2 French, 2 Italians, 1 Australian, and 1 Norwegian. ... The following is a list of incidents resulting in casualities of the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan. ...


According to Jonathan Steele of The Guardian between 20,000 and 49,600 people may have died of the consequences of the invasion. According to Marc W. Herold's Dossier on Civilian Victims of United States' Aerial Bombing at least 3700 and probably closer to 5000 civilians were killed as a result of U.S. bombing[6]. Herold's study omitted those killed indirectly, when air strikes cut off their access to hospitals, food or electricity. Also exempt were bomb victims who later died of their injuries. When there were different casualty figures from the same incident, in 90% of cases Professor Herold chose a lower figure. A leftist British journalist of minor note, known principally for his anti-American views. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ...


Some people, however, dispute Herold's estimates. Joshua Muravchik of the American Enterprise Institute and Carl Conetta of the Project on Defense Alternatives question Herold's heavy use of the Afghan Islamic Press (the Taliban's official mouthpiece) and claim tallies provided them were suspicious. A contrary view is that the Taliban would have been motivated to downplay casualties. Conetta also claims statistical errors in Herold's study[7] [8]. Conetta's study puts total civilian casualties between 1000 and 1300 [9]. A Los Angeles Times study put the number of collateral dead between 1,067 and 1,201. Joshua Muravchik is a scholar at the American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research and an author. ... The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research is a think tank founded in 1943 whose stated mission is to support the foundations of freedom - limited government, private enterprise, vital cultural and political institutions, and a strong foreign policy and national defense. ... Afghan Islamic Press (AIP) is a private and independent news agency headquartered in Pakistan. ... The Los Angeles Times (also known as the LA Times) is a daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, California and distributed throughout the western United States. ...


Diplomatic efforts

Meetings of various Afghan leaders were organised by the United Nations and took place in Germany. The Taliban was not included. These meetings produced an interim government and an agreement to allow a United Nations peacekeeping force to enter Afghanistan. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization that describes itself as a global association of governments facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, and social equity. ... Flag flown by the Taliban. ...


Humanitarian efforts

A USAF C-17 Globemaster returns to base from a humanitarian drop
A USAF C-17 Globemaster returns to base from a humanitarian drop

It is estimated that in Afghanistan there are 1.5 million suffering from immediate starvation, as well as 7.5 million suffering as a result of the country's dire situation - the combination of civil war, drought-related famine, and, to a large extent, the Taliban's oppressive regime and the U.S.-led invasion. Download high resolution version (1200x800, 97 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (1200x800, 97 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The C_17 Globemaster III is a strategic airlifter manufactured by Boeing IDS, used by the United States Air Force and the Royal Air Force. ... Flag flown by the Taliban. ...


In Pakistan, the United Nations and private humanitarian organisations have begun gearing up for the massive humanitarian effort necessary in addition to the already major refugee and food efforts. The United Nations World Food Programme temporarily suspended activities within Afghanistan at the beginning of the bombing attacks. The efforts have, as of early (December 2001), resumed with a daily distribution rate of 3,000 tons a day. It is however estimated that 30,000 tons of food will be needed by (January 2002) to provided sufficient relief to the impoverished masses. The World Food Programme (WFP) is an agency of the United Nations which distributes food commodities to support development projects, to long-term refugees and displaced persons and as emergency food assistance in situations of natural and man-made disasters. ...


By November 1, U.S. C-17s flying at 30,000 feet (10,000 m) had dropped 1,000,000 food and medicine packets marked with an American flag. Doctors Without Borders called it an act of transparent propaganda and said that using medicines without medical consultation is much more likely to cause harm than good. Action Against Hunger head of operations in Afghanistan Thomas Gonnet said it was an "act of marketing". November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... The C_17 Globemaster III is a strategic airlifter manufactured by Boeing IDS, used by the United States Air Force and the Royal Air Force. ... Médecins Sans Frontières (abbreviated MSF; known as Doctors Without Borders in the United States, as Médicos Sin Fronteras in the Spanish language and as Médicos Sem Fronteiras in Portuguese language) is a nonprofit private organisation created in 1971 by a small group of French doctors led... Action Against Hunger (also known under French name Action Internationale Contre la Faim) is international non-profit non-governmental organization that fights against hunger, the physiological need to eat, worldwide. ...


A further dangerous problem lies in the fact that the food packets are bright yellow in color; the same color as unexploded bomblets from U.S. cluster bombs. Besides the color, the bombs are larger, made from sturdy metal and plastic with only a Latin number written on them while relief packages are covered in loose plastic wraps with pictures of usage and instructions in local alphabets on them. Unexploded ordnance (or UXOs) are explosive weapons (bombs, shells, grenades, etc. ... Demonstration cluster bomb cutaway, showing bomblets (photo circa 1943) Cluster munitions are air-dropped or ground launched shells that eject multiple small submunitions (bomblets). ...


Allegations of human rights abuses

The neutrality of this section is disputed.
Please see discussion on the talk page.

The Dasht-i-Leili massacre allegedly occurred in December, 2001, when a number (disputed to be between 250 and 3,000) of Taliban prisoners were shot or suffocated to death in metal truck containers while being transferred by U.S. and Northern Alliance soldiers from Kunduz to Sheberghan prison in northern Afghanistan [10]. These claims are disputed by journalist Robert Young Pelton, who was present at the time of the incident [11]. Image File history File links Stop_hand. ... The Dasht-i-Leili massacre occurred in December 2001 during the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan where between 250 and 3,000 (depending on sources) Taliban prisoners were shot and/or suffocated to death in metal truck containers, while being transferred by U.S. and Northern Alliance soldiers from Kunduz... Flag flown by the Taliban. ... Motto: Official (Latin): E pluribus unum (1789 to 1956) (Translated: Out of Many, One) In God We Trust (1956 to present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at federal level; English de facto Government  â€¢ President  â€¢ Vice President Federal... The Northern Alliance is a term used by the western media, Taliban and Al Qaida to identify the military coalition of various Afghan groups fighting the Taliban. ... President Celal Bayar, King Zahir and Lord Serwar Nasher inspecting the once world-renown cotton of Kunduz Spinzar factory Kunduz (قندوز) is a city in Afghanistan; the name has also sometimes been rendered as Kûnduz, Qonduz, Qondûz, Konduz, Kondûz, Kondoz, or Qhunduz. ... Robert Young Pelton is a Canadian born adventurer, journalist, and former strategic planner. ...


There are allegations that coalition soldiers tortured prisoners in interrogations; many complaints center on the U.S. prison camp at Camp X-Ray at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba [12]. The Iron Maiden of Nuremberg is an infamous and rarely used torture device. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Camp Delta. ... It has been suggested that the corresponding part of this article or section be merged into Camp Delta. ...


Abdul Wali died on June 21, 2003, at a base near Asadabad. He was brutally beaten by former Army Ranger and CIA contractor David Passaro, who was arrested on June 17, 2004, on four counts of assault [13]. Abdul Wali was an Afghan man who died in US custody on June 21, 2003, aged 28. ... June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Asadabad may mean: Asadabad, Afghanistan, the capital of Konar province Asadabad, Iran, in Hamadan This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Official force name 75th Ranger Regiment Rangers Other names Airborne Rangers Army Rangers U.S. Army Rangers Branch U.S. Army Chain of Command USASOC Description Special Operations Force, rapidly deployable light infantry force. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... David Passaro (b. ... June 17 is the 168th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (169th in leap years), with 197 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 2004, the U.S.-based human rights organisation Human Rights Watch released a report entitled 'Enduring Freedom - Abuses by US Forces in Afghanistan', containing multiple allegations of abuse by American forces. Human Rights Watch is a U.S.-based international human rights non-governmental organization located in New York City, USA, that conducts advocacy and research on human rights issues. ... Enduring Freedom - Abuses by US Forces in Afghanistan was a report released in March 2004 by US-based human rights organisation, Human Rights Watch. ...


In February 2005, the American Civil Liberties Union released documents they had obtained from the United States Army which showed that, following the Abu Ghraib scandal, the Army in Afghanistan had destroyed photographs which documented the abuse of prisoners in their custody. Pictures were taken in the area of Fire Base Tycze, and around the villages of Gurjay and Sukhagen. The pictures were alleged to have shown soldiers posing with hooded and bound detainees during mock executions. The American Civil Liberties Union, or ACLU, is a non-governmental organization (NGO) whose stated goal is to defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties guaranteed to every person . ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces that has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Map of Iraq highlighting Abu Ghraib The city of Abu Ghraib (أبو غريب in Arabic) in Iraq is located 20 km (12 miles) west of Baghdad just north of the Baghdad International Airport. ...

In 2005, a 2,000-page U.S. Army report was obtained by the New York Times concerning the homicides of two unarmed civilian Afghan prisoners by U.S. armed forces in 2002 at the Bagram Collection Point. ... Many have called for the impeachment of U.S. President George W. Bush. ...

Protests, demonstrations and rallies

Main article: Protests against the invasion of Afghanistan

Several small protests occurred in various cities and college campuses across the United States and in other countries in the first days after the start of the bombing campaign. These were mainly peaceful but larger protests and general strikes occurred in Pakistan, a previous Taliban ally. Some of these were suppressed by police with casualties among the protesters. In both Islamic and non-Islamic nations, protests and rallies of various sizes against the attack on Afghanistan took place. In 2001, a number of small protests against the invasion of Afghanistan occurred in various cities and college campuses across the United States and other countries in the first days after the start of the US-led invasion of Afghanistan. ... Flag flown by the Taliban. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( ▶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ...


Many protesters felt that the attack on Afghanistan was unjustified aggression. Some believed it would lead to the deaths of many innocent people by preventing humanitarian aid workers from bringing food into the country.


On October 7, there was a peace rally of 10,000 to 12,000 people in New York City. They marched from Union Square to Times Square, cheering the police at the beginning of the march. The list of about twelve speakers was cut to three or four by the police, and they were herded at the end into a one-lane-wide "bullpen". October 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years). ... Nickname: The Big Apple Motto: Official website: City of New York Location [[Image:|250px|250px|Location of City of New York, New York]] Location in the state of New York Government Counties (Boroughs) Bronx (The Bronx) New York (Manhattan) Queens (Queens) Kings (Brooklyn) Richmond (Staten Island) Mayor Michael Bloomberg (R...


There was also a demonstration in London that organisers estimate was 100,000 people. For other uses, see London (disambiguation). ...


Disputable information and rumors

Coded messages in Osama bin Laden tapes

The U.S. government requested that national media check with the federal government first before airing pre-recorded messages from Osama bin Laden, or not air those messages at all. The reasons they gave were that bin Laden may be sending coded messages within the tapes (steganography), and that the airing of such propaganda was inadvisable. The networks stated that they would review the tapes before airing them.

Steganography is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one apart from the intended recipient knows of the existence of the message; this is in contrast to cryptography, where the existence of the message itself is not disguised, but the meaning is obscured. ... North Korean propaganda showing a soldier destroying the United States Capitol building. ...

Slogans and terms

  • U.S. Government:
  • Yahoo: "Allied Strikes"
  • CNN: "America Strikes Back", "America's New War"
  • MSNBC: "America Strikes Back"
  • ABC: "America Strikes"
  • NBC: "Taliban Attacked"
  • New York Times: "America Attacks" & "A Nation Challenged"

The war on terrorism or war on terror (abbreviated in U.S. policy circles as GWOT for Global War on Terror) is an effort by the governments of the United States and its principal allies to destroy groups deemed to be terrorist (primarily radical Islamist organizations such as al-Qaeda...

Timelines of U.S. attacks on Afghanistan

2001

(Redirected from 2001 U.S. Attack on Afghanistan/Timeline October 2001) (EDT = GMT-4; Afghan time = GMT+4. ... (Redirected from 2001 U.S. Attack on Afghanistan/Timeline November 2001) Thursday, November 8, 2001 Pakistan, being the only nation that still had diplomatic ties to the Taliban, asked Afghanistans rulers to close their consulate in the city of Japanese warships with several hundred sailors left the port for... (Redirected from 2001 U.S. Attack on Afghanistan/Timeline December 2001) Continuing events in the attack on Afghanistan in the month of December. ...

2002

See also: Afghanistan timelineInvasions of Afghanistan, and History of Afghanistan since 1992

(Redirected from 2001 U.S. Attack on Afghanistan/Timeline January 2002) << December January January 4, 2002 Sgt. ... Afghanistan timeline Afghanistan timeline October 2004 Afghanistan timeline September 2004 Afghanistan timeline August 2004 Afghanistan timeline July 2004 Afghanistan timeline June 2004 Afghanistan timeline May 2004 Afghanistan timeline April 2004 Afghanistan timeline March 2004 Afghanistan timeline February 2004 Afghanistan timeline January 2004 Afghanistan timeline December 2003 Afghanistan timeline November 2003... Afghanistan has been invaded many times, and in fact its boundaries and legitimate government have almost always been in dispute. ... // The Islamic State of Afghanistan After the Soviets withdrew completely from Afghanistan in February 1989, fighting between the communist backed government and mujahideen continued. ...

Footnotes

Note 1: The U.S. military campaign, led by U.S. general Tommy Franks, was initially given the name Operation Infinite Justice but quickly renamed Operation Enduring Freedom due to objections from U.S. and Afghan Muslim clerics of religious connotations —that only God could dispense "infinite justice." British military operations against Afghanistan were codenamed "Operation Veritas." General Tommy R. Franks (USCENTCOM photo) Tommy Ray Franks (born June 17, 1945) is a retired General in the United States Army, previously serving as the Commander-in-Chief of United States Central Command, overseeing United States Armed Forces operations in a 25-country region, including the Middle East. ... Operation Veritas was the codename used for British military operations against the Taliban government of Afghanistan in 2001. ...


See also

The following is a list of incidents resulting in casualities of the U.S. invasion of Afghanistan. ... The Afghanistan friendly fire incident refers to the accidental killing of four Canadian soldiers and the injury of eight others from the Third Batallion of Princess Patricias Canadian Light Infantry (3PPCLI) on April 18, 2002 by an American F-16 fighter jet. ... This article covers invasion specifics. ... // Military response The United States government has announced its intentions to engage in a protracted war against terrorists and states which aid terrorists in response to the attacks. ...

External links


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m