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Encyclopedia > U.S. Presidential Election, 1960
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Presidential electoral votes by state.

The U.S. presidential election of 1960 marked the end of the eight years of Dwight D. Eisenhower's presidency. Voters were generally happy with the Eisenhower administration, but, under the provisions of the 22nd amendment, Eisenhower was disqualified from running because he had been elected twice. (Whether Eisenhower would have run absent this amendment is unknown and unknowable.) Thus, the Republican nomination went to Eisenhower's vice president, Richard M. Nixon. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1182x635, 111 KB) This map was obtained from an edition of the National Atlas of the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1182x635, 111 KB) This map was obtained from an edition of the National Atlas of the United States. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American soldier and politician. ... The President of the United States of America (unofficially abbreviated POTUS) is the head of state of the United States and the chief executive of the federal government. ... The Twenty-second Amendment of the United States Constitution sets a term limit for the President of the United States, providing that No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... The Vice President of the United States is the second-highest executive official of the United States government, the person who, in the words of Adlai Stevenson, is a heartbeat from the presidency. ... Order: 37th President Vice President: Spiro Agnew (1969–1973), Gerald R. Ford (1973–1974) Term of office: January 20, 1969 – August 9, 1974 Preceded by: Lyndon B. Johnson Succeeded by: Gerald R. Ford Date of birth: January 9, 1913 Place of birth: Yorba Linda, California Date of death: April 22...


The Democrats nominated Senator John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts. The Democrats said that America was slipping behind in the Cold War, both militarily and economically. The race was always close and Kennedy won the narrowest victory since 1916. The Democratic Party is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to as John F. Kennedy, JFK, or Jack Kennedy, was the 35th President of the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 44th 10,555 mi²; 27,360 km² 183 mi; 295 km 113 mi; 182 km 13. ... For the generic term for high-tension and / or indirect struggle between states, falling short of actual open hostilities, see cold war (war). ...

Contents


Nominations

Republican Party nomination

Vice President Richard M. Nixon faced little opposition for the Republican nomination. He chose former Senator and Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. as vice presidential candidate. Barry Goldwater was nominated, but declined to be considered and supported Richard Nixon. Order: 37th President Vice President: Spiro Agnew (1969–1973), Gerald R. Ford (1973–1974) Term of office: January 20, 1969 – August 9, 1974 Preceded by: Lyndon B. Johnson Succeeded by: Gerald R. Ford Date of birth: January 9, 1913 Place of birth: Yorba Linda, California Date of death: April 22... Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. ... Barry Goldwater Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a United States politician and a founding figure in the modern conservative movement in the USA as well as being a major inspiration for many of his youthful followers to join the libertarian movement. ...


Democratic Party nomination

The New York Times front page from two days after the election: November 10, 1960.
The New York Times front page from two days after the election: November 10, 1960.

Candidates for the nomination included: Download high resolution version (953x1428, 435 KB)New York Times front page: November 10, 1960 This work is copyrighted. ... Download high resolution version (953x1428, 435 KB)New York Times front page: November 10, 1960 This work is copyrighted. ...

Recalling the anti-Catholic campaign against Al Smith in 1928, observers asked if Kennedy's Catholic religion would cut into his vote among Protestants. In the end Kennedy's youth and war record impressed delegates, and his popularity and campaign spending carried the day. Kennedy chose Johnson as vice presidential candidate to balance the ticket and secure Southern votes. Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 44th 10,555 mi²; 27,360 km² 183 mi; 295 km 113 mi; 182 km 13. ... John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to as John F. Kennedy, JFK, or Jack Kennedy, was the 35th President of the United States. ... Official language(s) None. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... Official language(s) None Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 12th 225,365 km² 400 km 645 km 8. ... Hubert Horatio Humphrey II (May 27, 1911–January 13, 1978) was the 38th Vice President of the United States, twice served as a United States Senator from Minnesota and was mayor of Minneapolis, Minnesota. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 3rd 410,000 km² 402. ... Edmund Gerald Brown Sr. ... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus (largest metropolitan area is Cleveland) Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 34th 116,096 km² 355 km 355 km 8. ... Michael Vincent DiSalle (January 6, 1908 - September 14, 1981) was a Democratic politician from Ohio. ... Official language(s) None Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 9th 255,026 km² 420 km 580 km 2. ... Wayne Morse (October 20, 1900 - July 22, 1974) was a United States Senator from Oregon from 1945 to 1969. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 22nd 170,451 km² 260 km 800 km 17. ... George Smathers George Armistead Smathers (born November 14, 1913) is an American lawyer and politician who represented Florida in the United States Senate for eighteen years. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 21st 69,709 mi²; 180,693 km² 240 mi; 385 km 300 mi; 480 km 1. ... Categories: Stub | 1901 births | 1988 deaths | United States Senators ... Al Smith waves to crowds, 1928 Alfred Emanuel Al Smith (December 30, 1873 – October 4, 1944) was Governor of New York, a leading Catholic, and Democratic U.S. presidential candidate in 1928. ... The Roman Catholic Church, (also known as the Catholic Church), is the ancient Christian Church led by the Pope, the Bishop of Rome. ...


Other nominations

Although he was not an announced candidate and did not seek these votes, Virginia Senator Harry F. Byrd, Liberal party candidate, received 15 electoral votes; 14 from unpledged Democratic electors in Mississippi and Alabama, and one from an elector pledged to Nixon. If these votes had all gone to Nixon, Kennedy would still have won the election. Harry Flood Byrd, Sr. ...


General election

Campaign

President Dwight D. Eisenhower greets President-elect John F. Kennedy, December 1960.
President Dwight D. Eisenhower greets President-elect John F. Kennedy, December 1960.

A crucial factor in this election was the first televised presidential debate. Nixon refused television makeup and appeared tired, especially in contrast to Kennedy. Voters who had listened to the debate on radio thought Nixon had won, but the television audience gave the win to Kennedy. Nixon's negative experience in the debates caused him to shun debates in his 1968 and 1972 campaigns, and the next presidential debates would not be held until 1976. The polls did not show any significant change after the debates, and the press said race remained too close to call. Description: Eisenhower and President-elect John Kennedy, December, 1960. ... Description: Eisenhower and President-elect John Kennedy, December, 1960. ... Senator John F. Kennedy debates Vice President Richard M. Nixon in the first televised debates, 1960. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year that started on a Saturday. ...


The main economic issue during the election was the USSR's high economic growth rate in comparison to the United States'. According to analyses at the time, the Soviet economy was expected to overtake the American economy by 1984. Kennedy also claimed the Republican administration had allowed a missile gap by not matching Soviet defense spending and allowing the military to weaken. The claim was made plausible by Soviet superiority in the space program, evidenced by their successful Sputnik program and numerous US launch failures. However, there is evidence there never was a gap as far as missiles were concerned. 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The missile gap was the perceived discrepancy between the number and power of the weapons in the USSR and US ballistic missile arsenals during the Cold War. ... Sputnik 1 The Sputnik program was a series of unmanned space missions launched by the Soviet Union in the late 1950s to demonstrate the viability of artificial satellites. ...


Results

The election was held on November 8. It was close and Kennedy defeated Nixon by at most two tenths of a percentage point (0.2%) in the popular vote. Some speculate that Kennedy benefited from vote fraud especially in Texas and Illinois. There is no certainty that Nixon would have won both Texas and Illinois (which he would have had to do to win the Electoral College vote). What is certain, however, is that in Illinois, Kennedy won by a bare 9,000 votes, and Mayor Daley, who held back Chicago's vote until late in the evening, provided an extraordinary Cook County margin of victory of 450,000 votes. The Republican party urged Nixon to pursue recounts and challenge the validity of some of the votes for Kennedy, especially in the pivotal states of Illinois, Missouri and New Jersey, where marginal wins handed Kennedy the election. Nixon publicly refused to call for a recount, saying it would cause a constitutional crisis. However, privately, he encouraged GOP Chair Thurston Morton to push for a recount, which Morton did in 11 states, keeping challenges in the courts into the summer of 1961; the only result was the loss of the State of Hawaii to Kennedy on a recount. November 8 is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 53 days remaining. ... Official language(s) None. ... Official language(s) English Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 25th 149,998 km² 340 km 629 km 4. ... An electoral college is a set of electors who are empowered as a deliberative body to elect someone to a particular office. ... Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Official website: http://egov. ... Cook County is a county located in the state of Illinois. ... Official language(s) English Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 25th 149,998 km² 340 km 629 km 4. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 21st 69,709 mi²; 180,693 km² 240 mi; 385 km 300 mi; 480 km 1. ... Official language(s) None defined, English de facto Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 47th 22,608 km² 110 km 240 km 14. ... A constitutional crisis is a situation in which separate factions within a government disagree about the extent to which each of these factions hold sovereignty. ... Thruston Ballard Morton (1907 - 1982) was a U.S. political figure. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Official language(s) Hawaiian and English Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 43rd 28,337 km² n/a km 2,450 km 41. ...


The actual number of popular votes received by Byrd and Kennedy are difficult to determine. In Alabama, the statewide primary had chosen eleven electors, five of which were pledged to vote for Kennedy, and six of whom were free to vote for anyone they chose. The ballot gave voters a choice between Nixon and a slate of Democratic unpledged electors. It is unclear how many of the 318,303 Democratic votes in Alabama were for Byrd, and how many were for Kennedy. If as few as 36% of these votes were cast for Byrd, then Nixon won a plurality of the popular vote. Official language(s) English Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 30th 52,423 mi²/135,775 km² 190 mi/306 km 330 mi/531 km 3. ... The Unpledged Elector is an option used for Presidential elections in the United States of America. ...


Byrd received electoral votes for President from Alabama (6), Mississippi (8) and Oklahoma (1). Thurmond received electoral votes for Vice President from Alabama (6) and Mississippi (8). Goldwater received one electoral vote for Vice President from Oklahoma.

Presidential Candidate Party Home State Popular Vote Electoral Vote Running Mate Running Mate's
Home State
Running Mate's
Electoral Vote
Count Percentage
John Fitzgerald Kennedy Democratic Massachusetts 33,902,681(a) 49.3% 303 Lyndon Baines Johnson Texas 303
Richard Milhous Nixon Republican California 34,108,157 49.6% 219 Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. Massachusetts 219
Harry Flood Byrd (none) Virginia (b) (b) 15 James Strom Thurmond South Carolina 14
Barry Morris Goldwater(c) Arizona 1(c)
(Alabama Democratic slate)(d) Democratic (n/a) 318,303 0.5% (d) (n/a) (n/a) (d)
(unpledged electors) Democratic (n/a) 286,359 0.4% (e) (n/a) (n/a) (e)
Other 216,982 0.3% 0 Other 0
Total 68,832,482 100.0% 537 Total 537
Needed to win 269 Needed to win 269

Source (Popular Vote): Leip, David. 1960 Presidential Election Results. Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections (August 2, 2005). John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to as John F. Kennedy, JFK, or Jack Kennedy, was the 35th President of the United States. ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 44th 10,555 mi²; 27,360 km² 183 mi; 295 km 113 mi; 182 km 13. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... Official language(s) None. ... Order: 37th President Vice President: Spiro Agnew (1969–1973), Gerald R. Ford (1973–1974) Term of office: January 20, 1969 – August 9, 1974 Preceded by: Lyndon B. Johnson Succeeded by: Gerald R. Ford Date of birth: January 9, 1913 Place of birth: Yorba Linda, California Date of death: April 22... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 3rd 410,000 km² 402. ... Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 44th 10,555 mi²; 27,360 km² 183 mi; 295 km 113 mi; 182 km 13. ... Harry Flood Byrd, Sr. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 35th 110,862 km² 320 km 690 km 7. ... James Strom Thurmond (December 5, 1902 – June 26, 2003) represented South Carolina in the United States Senate from 1954 to April 1956 and November 1956 to 1964 as a Democrat and from 1964 to 2003 as a Republican. ... State nickname: Palmetto State Official languages English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Governor Mark Sanford (R) Senators Lindsey Graham (R) Jim DeMint (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 40th 82,965 km² 6 Population  - Total (2000)  - Density Ranked 26th 4,012,012 51. ... Barry Goldwater Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a United States politician and a founding figure in the modern conservative movement in the USA as well as being a major inspiration for many of his youthful followers to join the libertarian movement. ... Official language(s) English Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 6th 295,254 km² 500 km 645 km 0. ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... The Unpledged Elector is an option used for Presidential elections in the United States of America. ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Source (Electoral Vote): Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996. Official website of the National Archives. (August 2, 2005). August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


(a) This figure is the national popular vote for Kennedy given in Leip's Atlas (34,220,984) minus the votes for the Alabama Democratic slate (318,303) that Leip includes in that national popular vote.
(b) Byrd was not directly on the ballot. Instead, his electoral votes came from unpledged Democratic electors and a faithless elector.
(c)Oklahoma elector Henry D. Irwin, though pledged to vote for Richard Nixon and Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., instead voted for independent Harry F. Byrd. However, unlike other electors who voted for Byrd and Strom Thurmond as Vice President, Irwin voted for Barry Goldwater as Vice President.
(d) In Alabama, voters were not given John F. Kennedy as a choice; rather, they could vote for a slate of Democratic electors. 5 were pledged to Kennedy, while 6 were free to vote for whomever they wanted. When the electoral votes were cast, the 6 unpledged electors voted for Byrd and Thurmond.
(e) In Mississippi, the slate of unpledged Democratic electors won. They cast their 8 votes for Byrd and Thurmond. The Unpledged Elector is an option used for Presidential elections in the United States of America. ... Harry Flood Byrd, Sr. ... James Strom Thurmond (December 5, 1902 – June 26, 2003) represented South Carolina in the United States Senate from 1954 to April 1956 and November 1956 to 1964 as a Democrat and from 1964 to 2003 as a Republican. ... Barry Goldwater Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a United States politician and a founding figure in the modern conservative movement in the USA as well as being a major inspiration for many of his youthful followers to join the libertarian movement. ...


Trivia

  • This was the first presidential election in which all fifty states participated, and the last in which the District of Columbia did not participate.

...

See also

The President of the United States of America (unofficially abbreviated POTUS) is the head of state of the United States and the chief executive of the federal government. ... Results -- Republican holds in light red, pickups in dark red, Democratic holds in light blue, pickups in dark blue The U.S. Senate election, 1960 was an election for the United States Senate which coincided with the election of John F. Kennedy as president. ... // Era Overview The period of U.S. history 1945-1964 is seen as a period of foreign and domestic stalemate. ... As in the United States, Canada was divided over the 1960 U.S. presidential election, but the general view is that Canadians were more favourable to Richard Nixon. ...

References

Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ...

External links

United States Presidential Elections

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United States presidential elections determine who serves as President and Vice President of the United States for four-year terms, starting on Inauguration Day (January 20th of the year after the election). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state The U.S. presidential election of 1792 was the second presidential election in the United States, and the first in which each of the original 13 states appointed electors (in addition to newly added states Kentucky and Vermont). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state The U.S. presidential election of 1804 was the first presidential election conducted following the ratification of the Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution. ... The election of 1808 was the first of only two cases where a new President would be elected, but the Vice Presidency remained in the same hands. ... Summary Taking place in the shadow of the War of 1812, the election of 1812 featured an intriguing competition between incumbent President James Madison and the nephew of his former Vice President, DeWitt Clinton (uncle George Clinton had died in office). ... Summary As Secretary of State under James Madison, James Monroe was seen by many as pre-ordained to succeed him into the presidency. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Summary President James Polk, having achieved virtually all of his objectives in one term and suffering from declining health that would take his life less than four months after leaving office, chose not to seek re-election. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Summary Keeping a promise made during the 1876 campaign, incumbent President Rutherford Hayes did not seek re-election. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Summary The election was held on November 6, 1900. ... Summary The election was held on November 8, 1904. ... Major party conventions The 1908 Republican Convention was held in Chicago from 16 June to 19 June. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Electoral College results In 1916, Europe was embroiled in World War I. American sentiment leaned towards the Allied Powers due to the occupation of parts of France and Belgium by the German Empire, but most American voters wanted to avoid involvement in the war, and preferred a policy of strict... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Introduction Incumbent President Coolidge was relatively popular, and the economy was booming. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The election was held on November 8, 1988. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential election results map. ... Presidential electoral votes by state The U.S. presidential election of 2008 is scheduled to occur on November 4, 2008. ...


 
 

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