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Encyclopedia > U.S. National Monument

A National Monument is a protected area of the United States that is similar to a national park (specifically a U.S. National Park) except that the President of the United States can quickly declare an area of the United States to be a national monument without Congressional approval. There are also fewer protections offered to wildlife and to the geographic features in a national monument compared to the protection (and funding) that a national park receives. Image File history File links Keet_Seel_closeup. ... Image File history File links Keet_Seel_closeup. ... The Navajo National Monument resides in the Navajo Reservation (Arizona). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2580x1932, 2762 KB) I took this photo on July 27, 2005. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2580x1932, 2762 KB) I took this photo on July 27, 2005. ... Devils Tower is a monolith (more technically, an igneous intrusion) located near Hulett and Sundance in eastern Wyoming, above the Belle Fourche River. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3264x2448, 329 KB) auteur : bencwright There are no usage restrictions for this photo. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3264x2448, 329 KB) auteur : bencwright There are no usage restrictions for this photo. ... Statue of Liberty and Liberty Island Liberty Enlightening the World, known more commonly as the Statue of Liberty, is a statue given to the United States by France in the late 19th century, standing at Liberty Island in the mouth of the Hudson River in New York Harbor as a... Image File history File links Fortwestern. ... Image File history File links Fortwestern. ... Created in 1924, Fort Matanzas National Monument is a United States National Monument run by the National Park Service. ... Brecon Beacons National Park, Wales A national park is a reserve of land, usually owned by a national government, protected from most human development and pollution. ... The parks of the United States National Park system are one type of protected area in the United States and are operated by the National Park Service. ... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... Congress in Joint Session. ...


Another difference between a national monument and national park is the amount of diversity in what is being protected; national monuments aim to preserve at least one unique resource but do not have the amount of diversity of a national park (which are supposed to protect a host of unique features). However areas within and extending beyond, national parks, monuments or even national forests can be part of wilderness areas, which have an even greater degree of protection than a national park would alone, although wilderness areas managed by the USDA Forest Service and U.S. Bureau of Land Management oftentimes allow hunting. This article is on national forests in the United States. ... The Wilderness Act protects exceptional undisturbed natural areas and scenery, such as in the Ansel Adams Wilderness On federal lands in the United States, Congress may designate a wilderness area under the provisions of the Wilderness Act of 1964. ... The USDA Forest Service, a United States government agency within the United States Department of Agriculture, is under the leadership of the United States Secretary of Agriculture. ... US BLM logo The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is an agency within the United States Department of the Interior which administers Americas public lands, totaling approximately 261 million surface acres (1,056,229. ... A hunter on horseback shoots at deer or elk with a bow. ...


National monuments are managed by the National Park Service, USDA Forest Service, United States Fish and Wildlife Service or by the Bureau of Land Management. The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... The USFWS logo The United States Fish and Wildlife Service is a unit of the United States Department of the Interior that is dedicated to managing and preserving wildlife. ...


The power to grant national monuments came from President Theodore Roosevelt, who declared Devils Tower in Wyoming as the very first national monument. He thought Congress was moving too slowly and it would be ruined by the time they got around to making it a national park. Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... Devils Tower National Monument Devils Tower is a geological feature located in eastern Wyoming that was established as the first United States National Monument in 1906. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,872 sq. ...


History

The Antiquities Act of 1906 resulted from concerns about protecting mostly prehistoric Native American ruins and artifacts - collectively termed "antiquities " - on federal lands in the West. It authorized permits for legitimate archaeological investigations and penalties for persons taking or destroying antiquities without permission. And it authorized presidents to proclaim "historic landmarks, historic and prehistoric structures, and other objects of historic or scientific interest" as national monuments-"the limits of which in all cases shall be confined to the smallest area compatible with the proper care and management of the objects to be protected." The Antiquities Act of 1906 is an act passed by the United States Congress and signed into law by Theodore Roosevelt giving the President of the United States authority to place certain lands under control of the federal government by executive order, bypassing Congressional oversight. ... This article is the current U.S. Collaboration of the Week. ... For the Metal Band, see Ruin For the Japanese drum-bass duo, see Ruins (band) Rocky landscape with ruins, by Nicolaes Berchem, ca. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ...


So it was originally expected that national monuments would be proclaimed to protect prehistoric cultural features or antiquities and that they would be small. Yet the reference in the act to "objects of ... scientific interest" enabled President Theodore Roosevelt to make a natural geological feature, Devils Tower, Wyoming the first national monument three months later. Among the next three monuments he proclaimed in 1906 was Petrified Forest in Arizona, another natural feature (Congress would later make it into a national park). The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning to cultivate, generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... The Blue Marble: The famous photo of the Earth taken en route to the Moon by Apollo 17s Harrison Schmitt on December 7, 1972. ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Petrified Forest National Park is located in northeastern Arizona, along Interstate 40 between Holbrook and Navajo. ... Official language(s) None Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Area  Ranked 6th  - Total 113,998 sq. ...


The expectation that national monuments would be small was also soon overcome. In 1908 Roosevelt again used the act to proclaim more than 800,000 acres (3,200 km²) of the Grand Canyon as a national monument - a very big "object of scientific interest." And in 1918 President Woodrow Wilson proclaimed Katmai National Monument in Alaska, comprising more than a million acres (4,000 km²). Katmai was later enlarged to nearly 2.8 million acres (11,000 km²) by subsequent Antiquities Act proclamations and for many years was the largest national park system unit. Petrified Forest, Grand Canyon, and Katmai were among the many national monuments later converted to national parks by Congress. 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... For other Grand Canyons see Grand Canyon (disambiguation). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was the 28th President of the United States (1913–1921). ... Katmai National Park and Preserve is a United States National Park in Southern Alaska, notable for the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes and for its brown bears. ... Official language(s) English Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Area  Ranked 1st  - Total 663,267 sq mi (1,717,854 km²)  - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)  - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)  - % water 13. ... Katmai National Park and Preserve is a United States National Park in Alaska, notable for the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes and for its brown bears. ... Grand Canyon National Park is one of Americas oldest national parks and is located in Arizona. ...


There was no significant Congressional opposition to this expansive use of the Antiquities Act in Arizona and Alaska - perhaps in part because Arizona and Alaska were then only territories without representation in Congress. Substantial opposition did not materialize until 1943, when President Franklin D. Roosevelt proclaimed Jackson Hole National Monument in Wyoming. He did this to accept a donation of lands acquired by John D. Rockefeller, Jr., for addition to Grand Teton National Park after Congress had declined to authorize this park expansion. Roosevelt's proclamation unleashed a storm of criticism about use of the Antiquities Act to circumvent Congress. A bill abolishing Jackson Hole National Monument passed Congress but was vetoed by Roosevelt, and Congressional and court challenges to the proclamation authority were mounted. In 1950, Congress finally incorporated most of the monument into Grand Teton National Park, but the act doing so barred further use of the proclamation authority in Wyoming. Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... Jackson Hole National Monument is a wildlife reserve in a valley, the majority of which is part of Grand Teton National Park in Wyoming. ... John D. Rockefeller Jr. ... Grand Teton National Park is a United States National Park located in western Wyoming, south of Yellowstone National Park. ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Since 1943 the proclamation authority has been used very sparingly, and seldom without advance Congressional consultation and support. In 1949, for example, President Harry S. Truman proclaimed Effigy Mounds National Monument to accept a donation of the land from the state of Iowa, at the request of Iowa's delegation. On those rare occasions when the proclamation authority was used in seeming defiance of local and congressional sentiment, Congress again retaliated. Just before he left office in 1961, President Dwight D. Eisenhower proclaimed the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Monument after Congress had declined to act on related national historical park legislation. The chairman of the House Interior Committee, Wayne Aspinall of Colorado, responded by blocking action on subsequent C & O Canal Park bills to the end of that decade. 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was the thirty-fourth Vice President (1945) and the thirty-third President of the United States (1945–1953), succeeding to the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... Effigy Mounds National Monument is a national monument in Iowa in the midwestern United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Des Moines Largest city Des Moines Area  Ranked 26th  - Total 56,272 sq mi (145,743 km²)  - Width 199 miles (320 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 0. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American soldier and politician. ... The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park is a National Park Service_managed National Historical Park in northern Maryland that was established by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1961. ... Wayne Norviel Aspinall (April 3, 1896-October 9, 1983) was as a lawyer and politician from Colorado. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Area  - Total   - Width   - Length    - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 8th 104,185 sq mi  269 837 km² 280 miles  451 km 380 miles  612 km 0. ...


The most substantial use of the proclamation authority came in 1978, when President Jimmy Carter proclaimed 15 new national monuments in Alaska after Congress had adjourned without passing a major Alaska lands bill strongly opposed in that state. Congress passed a revised version of the bill in 1980 incorporating most of these national monuments into national parks and preserves, but the act also curtailed further use of the proclamation authority in Alaska. 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... James Earl Jimmy Carter, Jr. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ...


The proclamation authority was not used again anywhere until 1996, when President Bill Clinton proclaimed the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument in Utah. This action was widely unpopular in Utah, and bills were introduced to further restrict the president's authority. To date none of them has been enacted. Most of the 16 national monuments created by President Clinton are managed by the Bureau of Land Management, not by the National Park Service. The ones managed by the Park Service are Governors Island National Monument, Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, and Minidoka Internment National Monument. 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... William Jefferson Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Near Egypt Trailhead, Canyons of the Escalante The Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument contains 1. ... Official language(s) English Capital Salt Lake City Largest city Salt Lake City Area  Ranked 13th  - Total 84,876 sq. ... Governors Island National Monument is a facility operated by the National Park Service of the United States on Governors Island in Upper New York Bay in New York City. ... The Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument is a U.S. National Monument located off of Saint John, U.S. Virgin Islands. ... As the 385th unit of the National Park System, Minidoka Internment National Monument was newly authorized on January 17, 2001, and does not have any visitor facilities or services available. ...


George W. Bush proclaimed two very different monuments in 2006, the hundredth anniversary of the Antiquities Act. African Burial Grounds National Monument is a tiny archeological site in New York City. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands National Monument protects roughly 140,000 square miles (36,000 km²) of the Pacific Ocean — larger than all of America's national parks combined.[1] George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States and a former governor of Texas. ... African Burial Ground National Monument at Duane and Elk Streets in Lower Manhattan (New York City) preserves a site containing the remains of over 400 Africans, buried during the 17th and 18th-centuries. ... The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands National Monument is the largest Marine Protected Area in the world. ...


Presidents have used the Antiquities Act's proclamation authority not just to create new national monuments but to enlarge existing ones. A few examples: Franklin D. Roosevelt significantly enlarged Dinosaur National Monument in 1938, Lyndon B. Johnson added Ellis Island to Statue of Liberty National Monument in 1965, and Jimmy Carter made major additions to Glacier Bay and Katmai National Monuments in 1978. Dinosaur National Monument is a U.S. National Monument located on the southeast flank of the Uinta Mountains on the border between the American states of Colorado and Utah at the confluence of the Green and Yampa Rivers. ... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... LBJ redirects here. ... Ellis Island, at the mouth of the Hudson River in New York Harbor, was at one time the main immigration port for immigrants entering the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Liberty Enlightening the World, commonly known as the Statue of Liberty, is a statue, given to the USA by France in the late 19th century, that stands at the mouth of the Hudson River in New York Harbor as a welcome to all: returning Americans, visitors, and immigrants alike. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... The area around Glacier Bay in southeastern Alaska was first proclaimed a U.S. National Monument on February 25, 1925. ...


See also

This is a list of all the National Monuments in the United States. ... This is a list of all the National Forests and National Grasslands in the United States. ... The National Park System of the United States is the collection of physical properties owned or administered by the National Park Service. ... Four federal agencies of the United States government administer the U.S. Wilderness Areas, which includes 680 wilderness areas and 105,695,176 acres (427,733 km²). These agencies are: United States Forest Service United States National Park Service United States Bureau of Land Management United States Fish and Wildlife... Most U.S. public lands fall into the categories of national park, national forest, wilderness area, United States National Monument, or are managed by the Bureau of Land Management. ...

References

  • National Monument Proclamations under the Antiquities Act (public domain text)
  • Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports regarding National Monuments
  1. ^ Joshua Reichert and Theodore Roosevelt IV. Treasure Islands. Retrieved on June 15, 2006.

 
 

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