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Encyclopedia > U.S. Marshals

The United States Marshals Service, part of the United States Department of Justice, is the United States' oldest federal law enforcement agency. Their mission is to protect the Federal courts and ensure the effective operation of the judicial system. The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the law and to ensure fair and impartial administration of justice for all Americans. ... The United States of America — also referred to as the United States, the U.S.A., the U.S., America, the States, or (archaically) Columbia—is a federal republic of 50 states located primarily in central North America (with the exception of two states: Alaska and Hawaii). ... The U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1789 by a constitutional convention, sets down the basic framework of American government in its seven articles. ...

Contents

Duties

Since 1789, U.S. Marshals and their deputies have provided many different services, from taking the census to protecting the President. Today, the Marshals Service is responsible for providing protection for the federal judiciary, transporting federal prisoners, protecting endangered federal witnesses and managing assets seized from criminal enterprises. In addition, the men and women of the Marshals Service are responsible for 55 percent of arrests of federal fugitives. 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ... President of the United States - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...


Organization

The United States Marshals Service is based in Alexandria, Virginia and is headed by a Director, who is assisted by a Deputy Director. The Headquarters serves to provide command and control and cooperation for the disparate elements of the service. The Headquarters is divided into several divisions headed by Assistant Directors and directly controls the Special Operations Group and several other organizations. The Federal Court System is divided into 12 Regions, each having a US Marshal who is also the District US Marshal for the United States district courts in which the Region is headquartered. Each of the 94 Federal Judicial Districts has a US Marshal, an Assistant US Marshal and as many Deputy and Special Deputy US Marshals as needed. The Director and each United States Marshal is appointed by the President of the United States and is confirmed by the Senate. The District US Marshal is traditionally appointed from a list of qualified Law Enforcement persons for that district or State. Each state has at least one District, while several have three or more. Alexandria is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia. ... Generally a director is a person or one of a body of persons appointed to manage the affairs of a government agency, company, corporation, group or project. ... The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system. ...


History

The offices of U.S. Marshal and Deputy Marshals were created by the first Congress in the Judiciary Act of 1789, the same legislation that established the federal judicial system. Special Deputies were allowed to be recruited as local hires or as temporary transfers to the Marshals' Service of other federal law enforcement officers. Marshals were also authorised to swear in a posse to assist them in manhunts and other duties. The Marshals were given extensive authority to support the federal courts within their judicial districts and to carry out all lawful orders issued by judges, Congress, or the President. The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ... Judiciary Act of 1789 The Judiciary Act of 1789 (1 Stat 73) established the entire federal judiciary, which initially consisted of a Supreme Court of six judges, 3 circuit courts, and 13 district courts. ... Posse Comitatus can refer to: In common law, Posse Comitatus refers to a means of law enforcement in unusual circumstances. ...


The Marshals and their Deputies served the subpoenas, summonses, writs, warrants, and other process issued by the courts, made all the arrests, and handled all the prisoners. They also disbursed the money. The individual Deputy Marshals have been portrayed as legendary heroics in the face of lawlessness. A subpoena (pronounced suh-pee-nuh) is a writ commanding a person to appear under penalty (from Latin). ... A summons is a legal document issued by a court addressed to a defendant in a legal proceeding. ... In law, a writ is a formal written order issued by a government entity in the name of the sovereign power. ... In law, a warrant can mean any authorization. ...


The Marshals paid the fees and expenses of the court clerks, U.S. Attorneys, jurors, and witnesses. They rented the courtrooms and jail space and hired the bailiffs, criers, and janitors. They made sure the prisoners were present, the jurors were available, and the witnesses were on time. United States Attorneys represent the U.S. federal government in United States district court. ... This article is confusing for some readers, and needs to be edited for clarity. ...


When George Washington set up his first administration and the first Congress began passing laws, both quickly discovered an inconvenient gap in the constitutional design of the government: It had no provision for a regional administrative structure stretching throughout the country. Both the Congress and the executive branch were housed at the national capital; no agency was established or designated to represent the federal government's interests at the local level. The need for a regional organization quickly became apparent. Congress and the President solved part of the problem by creating specialized agencies, such as customs and revenue collectors, to levy the tariffs and taxes. Yet, there were numerous other jobs that needed to be done. The only officers available to do them were the Marshals and their Deputies. Order: 1st President Vice President: John Adams Term of office: April 30, 1789 – March 3, 1797 Preceded by: None Succeeded by: John Adams Date of birth: February 22, 1732 Place of birth: Westmoreland, Virginia Date of death: December 14, 1799 Place of death: Mount Vernon, Virginia First Lady: Martha Washington... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of America and is...


Thus, the Marshals also provided local representation for the federal government within their districts. They took the national census every 10 years through 1870. They distributed Presidential proclamations, collected a variety of statistical information on commerce and manufacturing, supplied the names of government employees for the national register, and performed other routine tasks needed for the central government to function effectively. Over the past 200 years, Congress and the President also have called on the Marshals to carry out unusual or extraordinary missions, such as registering enemy aliens in time of war, sealing the American border against armed expeditions from foreign countries, and swapping spies with the former Soviet Union. 1870 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Soviet Union - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...


One of the most infamous jobs the Marshals were tasked with was the recovery of fugitive slaves. With the passage of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 the Marshal service was given this task. They were also permitted to form a posse and to deputize any person in any community to aid in the recapture of fugitive slaves. Failure to cooperate with a Marshal resulted in a $5000 fine and imprisonment, a stiff penalty for those days. The word slave has at least two meanings: People who are owned by others, and live to serve them without pay. ... The Fugitive Slave Law or Fugitive Slave Act was passed by the United States Congress on September 18, 1850 as part of the Compromise of 1850 between Southern slaveholding interests and Northern Free-Soilers and abolitionists. ... Posse Comitatus can refer to: In common law, Posse Comitatus refers to a means of law enforcement in unusual circumstances. ...


In the 1960s the Marshals were on the front lines of the Civil Rights Movement, mainly providing protection to volunteers. In 1962, John F. Kennedy ordered the Marshals to accompany James Meredith, an African American, who wished to register at the University of Mississippi. Their presence on the campus provoked riots at the university, requiring President Kennedy to send in the army to pacify the crowd. Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s - 1960s - 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s Years: 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 Events and trends The 1960s was a turbulent decade of change around the world. ... Civil Rights Movement in the United States, political, legal, and social struggle to gain full citizenship rights for African American and to achieve racial equality. ... 1962 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Order: 35th President Vice President: Lyndon B. Johnson Term of office: January 20, 1961 – November 22, 1963 Preceded by: Dwight D. Eisenhower Succeeded by: Lyndon B. Johnson Date of birth: May 29, 1917 Place of birth: Brookline, Massachusetts Date of death: November 22, 1963 Place of death: Dallas, Texas First... James Howard Meredith (born June 25, 1933) is an American civil rights movement figure, although he vocally prefers not to be regarded as such. ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... The Lyceum The University of Mississippi (also known as Ole Miss) is public, coeducational research university located near Oxford, Mississippi. ...


Just as America has changed over the past two centuries, so has its federal justice system – from the original 13 judicial districts, to 94 districts spanning the continent and beyond; and with tens of thousands of federal judges, prosecutors, jurors, witnesses, and defendants involved in the judicial process. The Marshals Service has changed with it, not in its underlying responsibility to enforce the law and execute the orders issued by the court, but in the breadth of its functions, the professionalism of its personnel, and the sophistication of the technologies employed. These changes are made apparent by an examination of the contemporary duties of the modern Marshals Service.


Except for suits by incarcerated persons or (in some circumstances) by seamen, U.S. Marshals no longer serve process in private civil actions filed in the U.S. federal courts. Under the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, process may be served by any U.S. citizen over the age of 18 who is a not a party or an attorney involved in the case. The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (FRCP) govern civil procedure in the United States district courts, or more simply, court procedures for civil suits. ...


See Also

Sheriff is both a political and a legal office held under English common law, Scots law or American common law, or the person who holds such office. ... MPD officers man a police-line in the District of Columbia A car of the Devon and Cornwall Constabulary, England Police forces are government organisations ostensibly charged with the responsibility of maintaining law and order. ...

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