FACTOID # 25: If you're tired of sitting in traffic on your way to work, move to North Dakota.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Tzitzit" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Tzitzit
Tzitzit

The tzitzit of one corner of a tallit
Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 1401 KB) Summary Picture of tzitzis strings Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Halakhic sources
Note: Not meant as a definitive ruling. Some observances may be rabbinical, or customs, or Torah based.
Texts in Jewish law relating to this article:
Bible: Numbers 15:38
and Deuteronomy 22:12
Babylonian Talmud: Menachot 39-42
Mishneh Torah: Ahavah (Love): Tzitzit
Shulchan Aruch: Orach Chayim 8-25

Tzitzit or tzitzis (Ashkenazi) (Hebrew: Biblical ציצת Modern ציצית) are "fringes" or "tassels" worn by observant Jews on the corners of four-cornered garments, including the tallit (prayer shawl). In Orthodox Judaism, they are worn only by men. Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah with pronunciation emphasis on the third syllable, kha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ... Posek (Hebrew פוסק, IPA: , pl. ... This article is about commandments in Judaism. ... Rabbinic literature, in the broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of Judaisms rabbinic writing/s throughout history. ... Minhag (Hebrew: מנהג Custom, pl. ... The Torah () is the most important document in Judaism, revered as the inspired word of G-d (the vocal is never spelled), traditionally said to have been revealed to Moses. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... The Mishneh Torah or Yad ha-Chazaka is a code of Jewish law by one of the most important Jewish authorities, Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, better known as Maimonides or by the Hebrew abbreviation RaMBaM (usually written Rambam in English). ... The Shulkhan Arukh (Hebrew: Prepared Table), by Rabbi Yosef Karo is considered the most authoritative compilation of Jewish law since the Talmud. ... Orach Chayim is a section of Rabbi Jacob ben Ashers compilation of Jewish Law, Arbaah Turim, that treats all aspects of Jewish Law primarily pertinent to the Jewish calendar (whether the daily, weekly, monthly, or annual calendar). ... Ashkenazi Hebrew is the pronunciation system for Biblical Hebrew favored for liturgical use by Ashkenazi Jewish practice. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... This article describes the Biblical dialects of Hebrew. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The tallit (Modern Hebrew: ) or tallet(h) (Sephardi Hebrew: ), also called talles (Yiddish), is a prayer shawl cloak that is worn during the morning Jewish services (the Shacharit prayers) in Judaism, during the Torah service, and on Yom Kippur. ... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ...

Contents

Origin and practice

The Torah states in Numbers 15:38: "Speak to the children of Israel, and say to them, that they shall make themselves fringes on the corners of their garments throughout their generations, and they shall put on the corner fringe a blue (tekhelet) thread." The Torah () is the most important document in Judaism, revered as the inspired word of G-d (the vocal is never spelled), traditionally said to have been revealed to Moses. ... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ...


Wearing the tzitzit (plural: tzitzyot) is also commanded in Deuteronomy 22:12, which says: "You shall make yourself twisted threads, on the four corners of your garment with which you cover yourself." Deuteronomy is the fifth book of the Hebrew Bible. ...


Tzitzyot are attached today only to Jewish religious garments, such as a tallit gadol ("large prayer shawl"). This is due in part to the fact that today's typical garment does not have the required four corners, and thus the fringes are not necessary. Traditional Jews wear a tallit katan ("small prayer shawl") constantly in order to fulfill this commandment at their own volition, and some even consider it a transgression to miss a commandment that one has the ability to fulfill. The tallit katan is also commonly referred to as "tzitzit," though this name technically refers to each of the fringes only. For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... The tallit (Modern Hebrew: ) or tallet(h) (Sephardi Hebrew: ), also called talles (Yiddish), is a prayer shawl cloak that is worn during the morning Jewish services (the Shacharit prayers) in Judaism, during the Torah service, and on Yom Kippur. ... The tallit (Modern Hebrew: ) or tallet(h) (Sephardi Hebrew: ), also called talles (Yiddish), is a prayer shawl cloak that is worn during the morning Jewish services (the Shacharit prayers) in Judaism, during the Torah service, and on Yom Kippur. ...


Various reasons are given for the commandment. The Torah itself states: "So that you will remember to do the commandments". In addition, it serves as a reminder of the Exodus from Egypt (Numbers 15:40). The Talmud equates its observance with that of all the mitzvot. Rambam (Comm. Pirkei Avot 2:1) includes it as a major mitzvah along with brit milah ("circumcision") and the korban pesah ("Paschal lamb"). This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... Main article: Mitzvah 613 Mitzvot or 613 Commandments (Hebrew: ‎ transliterated as Taryag mitzvot; TaRYaG is the acronym for the numeric value of 613) are a list of commandments from God in the Torah. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... Set of implements used in the performance of brit milah, displayed in the Göttingen city museum Brit milah (Hebrew: בְרִית מִילָה [bərīt mīlā] literally: covenant [of] circumcision), also berit milah (Sephardi), bris milah (Ashkenazi pronunciation) or bris (Yiddish) is a religious ceremony within Judaism to welcome infant Jewish... Korban (Hebrew: sacrifice קרבן) (plural: Korbanot קרבנות) refers to any one of a variety of sacrificial offerings described and commanded in the Torah (Hebrew Bible) that were offered in a variety of settings by the ancient Israelites, and then by the Kohanim (the Jewish priests only) in the Temple in Jerusalem. ... Pasch redirects here. ...


Threads and knots

  Part of a series of articles on
Jews and Judaism This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

         

Who is a Jew? · Etymology · Culture Image File history File links Star_of_David. ... Image File history File links Menora. ... Who is a Jew? (‎) is a commonly considered question that addresses the question of Jewish identity. ... Look up Jew in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Secular Jewish culture embraces several related phenomena; above all, it is the culture of secular communities of Jewish people, but it can also include the cultural contributions of individuals who identify as secular Jews, or even those of religious Jews working in cultural areas not generally considered to be connected...

Judaism · Core principles
God · Tanakh (Torah, Nevi'im, Ketuvim)
Mitzvot (613) · Talmud · Halakha
Holidays · Prayer · Tzedakah
Ethics · Kabbalah · Customs · Midrash This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... There are a number of basic Jewish principles of faith that were formulated by medieval rabbinic authorities. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... The Torah () is the most important document in Judaism, revered as the inspired word of G-d (the vocal is never spelled), traditionally said to have been revealed to Moses. ... Neviim [נביאים] (Heb: Prophets) is the second of the three major sections in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), following the Torah and preceding Ketuvim (writings). ... Ketuvim is the third and final section of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible). ... This article is about commandments in Judaism. ... Main article: Mitzvah 613 Mitzvot or 613 Commandments (Hebrew: ‎ transliterated as Taryag mitzvot; TaRYaG is the acronym for the numeric value of 613) are a list of commandments from God in the Torah. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah with pronunciation emphasis on the third syllable, kha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ... A Jewish holiday or Jewish Festival is a day or series of days observed by Jews as holy or secular commemorations of important events in Jewish history. ... Jewish services (Hebrew: תפלה, tefillah ; plural תפלות, tefillot ; Yinglish: davening) are the prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... Tzedakah (Hebrew: צדקה) in Judaism, is the Hebrew term most commonly translated as charity, though it is based on a root meaning justice .(צדק). Judaism is very tied to the concept of tzedakah, or charity, and the nature of Jewish giving has created a North American Jewish community that is very philanthropic. ... // Jewish ethics stands at the intersection of Judaism and the Western philosophical tradition of ethics. ... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... Minhag (Hebrew: מנהג Custom, pl. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ...

Jewish ethnic divisions
Ashkenazi · Sephardi · Mizrahi Jewish ethnic divisions refers to a number of distinct Jewish communities within the worlds ethnically Jewish population. ... Language(s) Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian, English Religion(s) Judaism Related ethnic groups Sephardi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, and other Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (Standard Hebrew: sing. ... Languages Hebrew, Ladino, Judæo-Portuguese, Catalanic, Shuadit, local languages Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions, Spaniards, Portuguese. ... Languages Hebrew, Dzhidi, Judæo-Arabic, Gruzinic, Bukhori, Judeo-Berber, Juhuri and Judæo-Aramaic Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Sephardi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions and Arabs. ...

Population (historical) · By country
Israel · Iran · Australia · USA
Russia/USSR · Poland · Canada
Germany · France · England · Scotland
India · Spain · Portugal · Latin America
Under Muslim rule · Turkey · Iraq · Lebanon · Syria
Lists of Jews · Crypto-Judaism Jewish population centers have shifted tremendously over time, due to the constant streams of Jewish refugees created by expulsions, persecution, and officially sanctioned killing of Jews in various places at various times. ... Jews by country Who is a Jew? Jewish ethnic divisions Ashkenazi Jews Sephardi Jews Black Jews Black Hebrew Israelites Y-chromosomal Aaron Jewish population Historical Jewish population comparisons List of religious populations Lists of Jews Crypto-Judaism Etymology of the word Jew Categories: | ... The vast territories of the Russian Empire at one time hosted the largest Jewish population in the world. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The earliest date at which Jews arrived in Scotland is not known. ... For a list of individuals of Jewish origin by country in Latin America, see List of Latin American Jews. ... Excluding the region of Palestine, and omitting the accounts of Joseph and Moses as unverifiable, Jews have lived in what are now Arab and non-Arab Muslim (i. ... List of Jewish historians List of Jewish scientists and philosophers List of Jewish nobility List of Jewish inventors List of Jewish jurists List of Jews in literature and journalism List of Jews in the performing arts List of Jewish actors and actresses List of Jewish musicians List of Jews in... Crypto-Judaism is the secret adherence to Judaism while publicly professing to be of another faith; people who practice crypto-Judaism are referred to as crypto-Jews. The term crypto-Jew is also used to describe descendants of Jews who still (generally secretly) maintain some Jewish traditions, often while adhering...

Jewish denominations · Rabbis
Orthodox · Conservative · Reform
Reconstructionist · Liberal · Karaite
Humanistic · Renewal  · Alternative Several groups, sometimes called denominations, branches, or movements, have developed among Jews of the modern era, especially Ashkenazi Jews living in anglophone countries. ... For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... This article is about Conservative (Masorti) Judaism in the United States. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern American-based Jewish movement, based on the ideas of the late Mordecai Kaplan, that views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization. ... Liberal Judaism is a term used by some communities worldwide for what is otherwise also known as Reform Judaism or Progressive Judaism. ... Karaite Judaism or Karaism is a Jewish movement characterized by the sole reliance on the Tanakh as scripture, and the rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmud) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... Humanistic Judaism is a movement within Judaism that emphasizes Jewish culture and history - rather than belief in God - as the sources of Jewish identity. ... Jewish Renewal is a new religious movement in Judaism which endeavors to reinvigorate modern Judaism with mystical, Hasidic, musical and meditative practices. ... Alternative Judaism refers to several varieties of modern Judaism which fall outside the common Orthodox/Non-Orthodox (Reform/Conservative/Reconstructionist) classification of the four major streams of todays Judaism. ...

Jewish languages
Hebrew · Yiddish · Judeo-Persian
Ladino · Judeo-Aramaic · Judeo-Arabic
The Jewish languages are a set of languages that developed in various Jewish communities, in Europe, southern and south-western Asia, and northern Africa. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Yiddish (Yid. ... The Judæo-Persian languages include a number of related languages spoken throughout the formerly extensive realm of the Persian Empire, sometimes including all the Jewish Indo-Iranian languages: Dzhidi (Judæo-Persian) Bukhori (Judæo-Bukharic) Judæo-Golpaygani Judæo-Yazdi Judæo-Kermani Judæo-Shirazi Jud... Not to be confused with Ladin. ... Judæo-Aramaic is a collective term used to describe several Hebrew-influenced Aramaic and Neo-Aramaic languages. ... The Judeo-Arabic languages are a collection of Arabic dialects spoken by Jews living or formerly living in Arabic-speaking countries; the term also refers to more or less classical Arabic written in the Hebrew script, particularly in the Middle Ages. ...

History · Timeline · Leaders
Ancient · Temple · Babylonian exile
Jerusalem (in Judaism · Timeline)
Hasmoneans · Sanhedrin · Schisms
Pharisees · Jewish-Roman wars
Relationship with Christianity; with Islam
Diaspora · Middle Ages · Sabbateans
Hasidism · Haskalah · Emancipation
Holocaust · Aliyah · Israel (History)
Arab conflict · Land of Israel
Baal teshuva movement This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a timeline of the development of Judaism and the Jewish people. ... Jewish leadership: Since 70 AD and the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem there has been no single body that has a leadership position over the entire Jewish community. ... For the pre-history of the region, see Pre-history of the Southern Levant. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... Babylonian captivity also refers to the permanence of the Avignon Papacy. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Main article: Religious significance of Jerusalem Jerusalem has been the holiest city in Judaism and the spiritual homeland of the Jewish people since the 10th century BCE.[1] Jerusalem has long been embedded into Jewish religious consciousness. ... 1800 BCE - The Jebusites build the wall Jebus (Jerusalem). ... The Hasmoneans (Hebrew: , Hashmonaiym, Audio) were the ruling dynasty of the Hasmonean Kingdom (140 BCE–37 BCE),[1] an autonomous Jewish state in ancient Israel. ... For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ... Schisms among the Jews are cultural as well as religious. ... For the followers of the Vilna Gaon, see Perushim. ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Province Commanders Vespasian, Titus Simon Bar-Giora, Yohanan mi-Gush Halav (John of Gischala), Eleazar ben Simon Strength 70,000? 1,100,000? Casualties Unknown 1,100,000? (majority Jewish civilian casualties) Jewish-Roman wars First War – Kitos War – Bar Kokhba revolt The first... Judaism and Christianity are two closely related Abrahamic religions that in some ways parallel each other and in other ways fundamentally diverge in theology and practice. ... This article is about the historical interaction between Islam and Judaism. ... The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tefutzah, scattered, or Galut גלות, exile, Yiddish: tfutses), the Jewish presence outside of the Land of Israel is a result of the expulsion of the Jewish people out of their land, during the destruction of the First Temple, Second Temple and after the Bar Kokhba revolt. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Not to be confused with Sabians followers of an ancient religion in Babylonia. ... This article is about the Hasidic movement originating in Poland and Russia. ... Haskalah (Hebrew: השכלה; enlightenment, education from sekhel intellect, mind ), the Jewish Enlightenment, was a movement among European Jews in the late 18th century that advocated adopting enlightenment values, pressing for better integration into European society, and increasing education in secular studies, Hebrew, and Jewish history. ... Dates of Jewish emancipation. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... Kingdom of Israel: Early ancient historical Israel — land in pink is the approximate area under direct central royal administration during the United Monarchy. ... Note: This article is about the movement. ...

Persecution · Antisemitism
History of antisemitism
New antisemitism This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... This does not cite its references or sources. ... New antisemitism is the concept of a new 21st-century form of antisemitism emanating simultaneously from the left, the far right, and radical Islam, and tending to manifest itself as opposition to Zionism and the State of Israel. ...

Political movements · Zionism
Labor Zionism · Revisionist Zionism
Religious Zionism · General Zionism
The Bund · World Agudath Israel
Jewish feminism · Israeli politics Jewish political movements refer to the organized efforts of Jews to build their own political parties or otherwise represent their interest in politics outside of the Jewish community. ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ... Labor Zionism (or Socialist Zionism, Labour Zionism) is the traditional left wing of the Zionist ideology and was historically oriented towards the Jewish workers movement. ... Palestine (comprising todays Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza strip) and Transjordan (todays Kingdom of Jordan) were all part of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Religious Zionism, or the Religious Zionist Movement, a branch of which is also called Mizrachi, is an ideology that claims to combine Zionism and Judaism, to base Zionism on the principles of Jewish religion and heritage. ... General Zionists were centrists within the Zionist movement. ... A Bundist demonstration, 1917 The General Jewish Labour Union of Lithuania, Poland and Russia, in Yiddish the Algemeyner Yidisher Arbeter Bund in Lite, Poyln un Rusland (אַלגמײַנער ײדישער אַרבײטערסבונד אין ליטאַ, פוילין און רוסלאַנד), generally called The Bund (בונד) or the Jewish Labor Bund, was a Jewish political party operating in several European countries between the 1890s and the... World Agudath Israel (The World Israeli Union) was established in the early twentieth century as the political arm of Ashkenazi Torah Judaism. ... Jewish feminism is a movement that seeks to improve the religious, legal, and social status of women within Judaism and to open up new opportunities for religious experience and leadership for Jewish women. ... Politics of Israel takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Israel is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ...

v  d  e
Note how the eight strings are really four that are folded through the hole on the tallit.

The fringe (tzitzit) on each corner is made of four strands, each of which is made of eight fine threads (known as kaful shemoneh). The four strands are passed through a hole (or according to some: two holes) 1-2 inches (25 to 50 mm) away from the corner of the cloth. There are numerous customs as to how to tie the fringe. The Talmud explains that the Bible requires an upper knot (kesher elyon) and one wrapping of three winds (hulya). The Talmud enjoined that between 7 to 13 hulyot be tied, and that "one must start and end with the color of the garment." As for the making of knots in between the hulyot, the Talmud is inconclusive, and as such poskim ("decisors of Jewish law") have varyingly interpreted this requirement. The Talmud described tying assuming the use of tekhelet dye, however, following the loss of the source of the dye, various customs of tying were introduced to compensate for the lack of this primary element. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 1401 KB) Summary Picture of tzitzis strings Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 1401 KB) Summary Picture of tzitzis strings Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... Posek (Hebrew פוסק, IPA: , pl. ...


Though many methods exist, the one that gained the widest acceptance can be described as follows:


The four strands of the tzitzit are passed through holes near the four corners of the garment (Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 11:9-11,15) that are farthest apart (10:1). Four tzitzyot are passed through each hole (11:12-13), and the two groups of four ends are double-knotted to each other at the edge of the garment near the hole (11:14,15). One of the tzitzit is made longer than the others (11:4); the long end of that one is wound around the other seven ends and double-knotted; this is done repeatedly so as to make a total of five double knots separated by four sections of winding, with a total length of at least four inches, leaving free-hanging ends that are twice that long (11:14). The Shulkhan Arukh (Hebrew: Prepared Table), by Rabbi Yosef Karo is considered the most authoritative compilation of Jewish law since the Talmud. ... Orach Chayim is a section of Rabbi Jacob ben Ashers compilation of Halakha (Jewish law), Arbaah Turim. ...


Before tying begins, a Hebrew blessing is said (it's more of a "declaration of intent"): L'Shem Mitzvat Tzitzit ("for the sake of the commandment of tzitzit"). Some rabbis are of the opinion that one should instead say a full blessing: Baruch atah Adonai Elohainu Melech HaOlam, asher kiddishanu b'mitzvotav v'tzivanu la'asot tzitzit ("Blessed are you, Lord, our God, King of the universe who sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us to make [the] tzitzit.)

Blue and white tzitzit knotted in the Sephardi style, the all white is Ashkenazi. Note the difference between the 7-8-11-13 scheme and uninterrupted windings (between the knots) on the Ashkenazi, vs. the 10-5-6-5 scheme and ridged winding on the Sfaradhi tzitzit.
Blue and white tzitzit knotted in the Sephardi style, the all white is Ashkenazi. Note the difference between the 7-8-11-13 scheme and uninterrupted windings (between the knots) on the Ashkenazi, vs. the 10-5-6-5 scheme and ridged winding on the Sfaradhi tzitzit.

The two sets of stands are knotted together twice, and then the shamash (a longer strand) is wound around the remaining seven strands a number of times (see below). The two sets are then knotted again twice. This procedure is repeated three times, such that there are a total of five knots, the four intervening spaces being taken up by windings numbering 7-8-11-13, respectively. The total number of winds comes to 39, which is the same number of winds if one were to tie according to the Talmud's instruction of 13 hulyot of 3 winds each. Furthermore, the number 39 is found to be significant in that it is the gematria (numerical equivalent) of the words: "The Lord is One" Deuteronomy 6:4). Others, especially Sephardi Jews, use 10-5-6-5 as the number of windings, a combination that represents directly the spelling of the Tetragrammaton (one of God's names). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 270 KB) Summary I just took this pic. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 270 KB) Summary I just took this pic. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Languages Hebrew, Ladino, Judæo-Portuguese, Catalanic, Shuadit, local languages Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Ashkenazi Jews, Mizrahi Jews, other Jewish ethnic divisions, Spaniards, Portuguese. ... It has been suggested that Yahweh be merged into this article or section. ...


Rashi, a prominent Jewish commentator, bases the number of knots on a gematria: the word tzitzit (in its Mishnaic spelling) has the value 600. Each tassel has eight threads (when doubled over) and five sets of knots, totalling 13. The sum of all numbers is 613, traditionally the number of mitzvot (commandments) in the Torah. This reflects the concept that donning a garment with tzitzyot reminds its wearer of all Torah commandments. Rashi (1040-1105) (Artists imagination) Rashi רשי is a Hebrew acronym for רבי שלמה יצחקי (Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaqi), (February 22, 1040 – July 13, 1105), a rabbi in France, famed as the author of the first comprehensive commentaries on the Talmud and Tanakh. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... Main article: Mitzvah 613 Mitzvot or 613 Commandments (Hebrew: ‎ transliterated as Taryag mitzvot; TaRYaG is the acronym for the numeric value of 613) are a list of commandments from God in the Torah. ...


Nachmanides disagrees with Rashi, pointing out that the Biblical spelling of the word tzitzit has only one yod rather than two, thus adding up to the total number of 603 rather than 613. He points out that in the Biblical quote "you shall see it and remember them", the singular form "it" can refer only to the "p'til" ("thread") of tekhelet. The tekhelet strand serves this purpose, explains the Talmud, for the blue color of tekhelet resembles the ocean, which in turn resembles the sky, which in turn is said to resemble God's holy throne - thus reminding all of the divine mission to fulfill His commandments. Nahmanides is the common name for Moshe ben Nahman Gerondi; the name is a Greek translation of the Hebrew Ben Nahman, meaning Son of Nahman. He is also commomly known as Ramban, being an acronym of his Hebrew name and title, Rabbi Moshe ben Nahman, and by his Catalan name... Yodh (also spelled Yud or Yod) is the tenth letter of many Semitic alphabets, including Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew , Syriac and Arabic (in abjadi order, 28th in modern order). ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible is a term that refers to the common portions of the Jewish canon and the Christian canons. ...


Tekhelet

A set of tzitzit with blue tekhelet thread
A set of tzitzit with blue tekhelet thread

The Bible tells Jews to wear Tzitzyot coloured with "tekhelet". According to the Talmud, tekhelet (תכלת) which appears 48 times in the Tanakh - translated by the Septuagint as iakinthos (blue) - is a specific dye of blue produced from a creature referred to as a chilazon, other blue dyes being unacceptable (Tosefta). At some point in Jewish history, the source of the dye was lost and since then, Jews have worn plain white tzitzyot without any dyes. Some explain the black stripes found on many traditional prayer shawls as representing the loss of this dye. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 198 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 198 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... The Tosefta is a secondary compilation of the Jewish oral law from the period of the Mishnah. ... The tallit (Modern Hebrew: ) or tallet(h) (Sephardi Hebrew: ), also called talles (Yiddish), is a prayer shawl cloak that is worn during the morning Jewish services (the Shacharit prayers) in Judaism, during the Torah service, and on Yom Kippur. ...


In the last two centuries, a number of attempts have been made to identify the ancient source of the dye using relevant Talmudic sources and to resume dying the threads.


Generally speaking, the vast majority of Haredim continue to wear only white tzitzyot without any dye, following their poskim (decisors of Jewish law), most of whom maintain that it is better to use no dye at all rather than rely on uncertain scientific finds. Some, such as Rabbi Yosef Sholom Eliashiv, say that there is possibly a very serious transgression involved. Haredi Judaism, or Charedi Judaism, also called ultra-Orthodox Judaism, is the most theologically conservative form of Orthodox Judaism. ... Posek פוסק (Hebrew; pl. ... Rabbi Y.S. Eliashiv Yosef Sholom Eliashiv (יוסף שלום אלישיב) (b. ...


Some religious Zionist poskim (particularly the group known as Hardalim) agree that there is no transgression involved with wearing colored strands, even if the color would not be the real tekhelet. The Religious Zionist Movement, or Religious Zionism is an ideology combining Zionism and Judaism, which offers Zionism based on the principles of Jewish religion and heritage. ... Hardal (Hebrew: חרדל, חרדי לאומי Translit. ...

The colors of the flag of Israel derive from the tallit.
The colors of the flag of Israel derive from the tallit.

In remembrance of the commandment to use the tekhelet dye, it became common for Jews to have blue or purple stripes on their tallit. [1] It was what inspired the Zionist movement's design for the flag of Israel. Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... The flag of Israel was adopted on October 28, 1948, five months after the countrys establishment. ...


As will be described below, three candidates have been proposed as the source of the dye. For various reasons no candidate has been unanimously accepted by all of those rabbis who theoretically accept the idea of wearing tzitzit with tekhelet, though over the past decade the Murex trunculus mollusk dye has enjoyed great acceptance.


Chilazon

The chilazon is the animal from which the tekhelet dye was obtained by the ancient Israelites according to rabbinic tradition. An important description of the chilazon comes from the Talmud (Tractate Menachot 44a, PDF): The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ...

  1. Its body is like the sea.
  2. Its creation is like a fish.
  3. It "comes up" once in 70 years,
  4. Its "blood" is used for tekhelet,
  5. Therefore: It is expensive.

Other criteria (with Talmudic references):

  • The fishers of the chilazon are from Haifa to Tyre (Shabbat 26a)
  • The color of the chilazon dye is identical to that produced from the dye of the kela ilan plant (Indigoferra tinctoria), which served as a counterfeit source of the dye (Baba Metzia 61b)
  • Cracking open the shell of the chilazon on Shabbat violates the laws of Shabbat (Shabbat 75a)
  • The shell of the chilazon grows together with it (Midrash Shir haShirim Rabbah 4:11)
  • The blood of the chilazon is the color of tekhelet (Rashi, Tractate Chulin 89a)
  • The blood of the chilazon is black like ink (Maimonides Hilchot Tzitzit 2:2)
  • The chilazon buries itself in the sand (Megila 6a)
  • It is an invertebrate (Yerushalmi Sabbath 1:3 8a)

Hebrew חֵיפָה Arabic حَيْفَا Founded in 3rd century CE Government City District Haifa Population 267,000 1,039,000 (metropolitan area) Jurisdiction 63,666 dunams (63. ... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... Bava Metzia (Aramaic: בבא מציעא, The Middle Gate; often transliterated Baḇa Meẓia) is the second of a series of three Talmudic tractates in the order Nezikin (Damages). These tractates deal with civil matters such as damages and torts. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ... Rashi (1040-1105) (Artists imagination) Rashi רשי is a Hebrew acronym for רבי שלמה יצחקי (Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaqi), (February 22, 1040 – July 13, 1105), a rabbi in France, famed as the author of the first comprehensive commentaries on the Talmud and Tanakh. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... Invertebrate is an English word that describes any animal without a spinal column. ... The Jerusalem Talmud (In Hebrew Talmud Yerushalmi, in short known as the Yerushalmi), also known as the Palestinian Talmud, like its Babylonian counterpart (see Babylonian Talmud), is a collection of Rabbinic discussions elaborating on the Mishnah. ...

Sepia officinalis

The common cuttlefish.
The common cuttlefish.
A sample of Prussian blue.
A sample of Prussian blue.

In 1887 Rabbi Gershon Henoch Leiner (the Radzyner Rebbe) embarked on an extensive research program and found the Sepia officinalis (common cuttlefish) to meet many of the above criteria. This new tekhelet produced from this animal quickly caught on amongst the Rebbe's followers and within a year, 10,000 Radziner Hasidim wore the colored tzitzit. The dye also became popular amongst Breslov Hasidim (followers of Rabbi Nachman of Breslov). The vast majority of Orthodox Jewry, however, did not accept the Radzyner Rebbe's findings. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1488x1023, 217 KB)A cuttlefish Picture from Disney World. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1488x1023, 217 KB)A cuttlefish Picture from Disney World. ... Orders and Families †Vasseuriina †Vasseuriidae †Belosepiellidae Sepiina †Belosaepiidae Sepiadariidae Sepiidae Cuttlefish are marine animals of the order Sepiida belonging to the Cephalopoda class (which also includes squid, octopuses, and nautiluses). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Prussian_blue. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Prussian_blue. ... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Rebbe which means master, teacher, or mentor is a Yiddish word derived from the identical Hebrew word רבי (Rabbi). ... Binomial name Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Sepia rugosa Bowdich, 1822 Sepia vicellius Gray, 1849 Sepia zebrina Risso, 1854 Sepia filliouxi Lafont, 1869 ?Sepia fischeri Lafont, 1871 Sepia officinalis mediterranea Ninni, 1884 ?Sepia veranyi P. Fischer in Lagatu, 1888 The Common Cuttlefish or European Common Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) is one... Orders and Families †Vasseuriina †Vasseuriidae †Belosepiellidae Sepiina †Belosaepiidae Sepiadariidae Sepiidae Cuttlefish are marine animals of the order Sepiida belonging to the Cephalopoda class (which also includes squid, octopuses, and nautiluses). ... This article is about the Hasidic movement originating in Poland and Russia. ... Breslov is a branch of Hasidic Judaism founded by Rebbe Nachman of Breslov (1772-1810) a great-grandson of the Baal Shem Tov, founder of Hasidism. ... Nachman of Breslov (Hebrew: נחמן מברסלב) also known as Reb Nachman of Bratslav, Nachman from Uman, or simply as Rebbe Nachman (in local Yiddish reb Nokhmen Broslever) (April 4, 1772 – October 16, 1810 (18th of Tishrei)) was the founder of the Breslov Hasidic dynasty. ...


As part of his doctoral research, Rav Herzog corresponded with the Radzyner Hasidim regarding this dye and obtained the recipe for it. He had the recipe analyzed by chemists who informed him that the recipe was for that of the well known synthetic dye "Prussian blue" wherein the blue color results from iron filings, the cuttlefish merely supplying nitrogen which doesn't contribute to the color. With this information, R. Herzog rejected the cuttlefish as the chilazon. Indeed, had the Rebbe known this fact, he too would have rejected it, as he writes explicitly that the color must come from the animal, all other additives being permitted solely to aid the color to adhere to the wool (Ptil Tekhelet, p.168). A sample of Prussian blue Prussian blue (German: Preußischblau or Berliner Blau, in English Berlin blue) is a dark blue pigment used in paints and formerly in blueprints. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ...


Janthina

A guide from P'til Tekhelet shows how a piece of wool, dipped into the solution for the dye, turns blue in sunlight.

Within his doctoral research on the subject, Rav Herzog, proposed that one could obtain blue from the Sepia officinalis then research into the Janthina snail ("violet snail", or "common purple sea snail"). Though blue dye has indeed been obtained from the Murex t. snail, in 2002 Dr. S.W. Kaplan of Rehovot, Israel proclaimed that he was able to dye wool with the extract of Janthina. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1632x1232, 725 KB) Some wool dipped in techelet solution, turning blue in the sunlight outside Ptil Techelet in Israel. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1632x1232, 725 KB) Some wool dipped in techelet solution, turning blue in the sunlight outside Ptil Techelet in Israel. ... Ptil Tekhelet is the Association for the Promotion and Distribution of Tekhelet. ... For other uses, see Wool (disambiguation). ...


Murex trunculus

The Murex trunculus, a sea snail, is popularly advanced as the source of the coveted dye. Rabbi Yitzhak HaLevi Herzog (1889-1959) wrote his doctoral thesis in 1913 on the subject and named the Murex snail as the most likely candidate for the dye's source. Though the Murex fulfilled many of the Talmudic criteria, his inability to consistently obtain blue dye (sometimes the dye was purple) from the snail precluded him from proclaiming that dye source had been found. This article or section should be merged with Trunculus Murex Binomial name Murex trunculus Murex trunculus is a mollusc, source of the royal Tyrian purple. ... Rabbi Yitzhak HaLevi Herzog Yitzhak HaLevi Herzog, also known as Isaac Herzog, was the first Chief Rabbi of the Republic of Ireland and, later, of the British mandate in Palestine and Israel, once formed. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the 1980s, Otto Elsner, a chemist from the Shenkar College of Fibers in Israel discovered that if a solution of the dye was exposed to sunlight, blue instead of purple was consistently produced. Eventually, in 1993, the Ptil Tekhelet Foundation was formed for mass production of this tekhelet, as well as to continue further research. Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Ptil Tekhelet is the Association for the Promotion and Distribution of Tekhelet. ...


Karaite tzitzit

A karaite pair of tzitzit

Karaites wear tzitzyot with blue threads in them. In contrast to Rabbinic Judaism, they believe that the tekhelet (the "blue"), does not refer to a specific dye. The traditions of Rabbinic Judaism used in the knotting of the tzitzit are not followed, so the appearance of Karaite tzitzit can be quite different from that of Rabbanite tzitzit. Contrary to some claims, Karaites do not hang tzitzyot on their walls. Download high resolution version (1456x584, 113 KB)Karaite Tsitisit File links The following pages link to this file: Karaite Judaism Tzitzit ... Download high resolution version (1456x584, 113 KB)Karaite Tsitisit File links The following pages link to this file: Karaite Judaism Tzitzit ... Karaite Judaism or Karaism is a Jewish movement characterized by the sole reliance on the Tanakh as scripture, and the rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmud) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... Tzitzit (Ashkenazi pronunciation: tzitzis) are fringes or tassles (Hebrew: ציצת (Biblical), ציצית (Mishnaic)) found on a tallit worn by observant Jews as part of practicing Judaism. ...


In Christianity

Main article: Christianity and fringed garments

Tzitzit (Hebrew: Biblical ציצת Modern ציצית) are fringes or tassels worn primarily by observant Jews on the corners of four-cornered garments, including the tallit (prayer shawl). ...

In archaeology and secular scholarship

Some archaeologists and non-traditional secular biblical scholars speculate as to the source of the tradition. According to the modern documentary hypothesis, the reference to tzitzit in Numbers comes from the Priestly Code, while that from Deuteronomy to the Deuteronomic Code, and hence date to around the late 8th century BCE and late 7th century BCE respectively, some time after the practice began to be in use[2]. The custom however, clearly predates these codes, and was not limited to Israel; images of the custom have been found on several ancient Near East inscriptions, in contexts suggesting that it was practiced across the Near East[3]. Some scholars believe that the practice among ancients originated due to the wearing of animal skins - which have legs at each corner - and that later fabrics symbolised the presence of such legs, first by the use of amulets, and later by tzitzit[4]. This explanation does not negate the Biblical commandment's use of such social elements to emphasize its own agenda. Indeed, Prof. Milgrom writes that tassels were used in the ancient world as an insignia as to the status of its wearer, often his rank within the court of the ruler. The tzitzit thus indicated that its bearer was a Jew, servant of the King of kings. For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... Biblical criticism is a form of historical criticism that seeks to analyze the Holy Bible through asking certain questions of the text, such as; Who wrote it, when was it written, to whom was it written, why was it written, what was the historical, geographical and cultural setting of the... A relational diagram describing the various versions postulated by the biblical documentary hypothesis. ... The Priestly Code is the name given, by academia, to the body of laws expressed in the torah which do not form part of Deuteronomy, the Holiness Code, the Covenant Code, the Ritual Decalogue, or the Ethical Decalogue. ... The Deuteronomic Code is the name given, by academics, to the law code within Deuteronomy, except for the portion discussing the Ethical Decalogue, which is usually treated seperately. ... Overview map of the Ancient Near East The term Ancient Near East or Ancient Orient encompasses the early civilizations predating Classical Antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey), during the time roughly spanning the Bronze Age from the rise...


References

  1. ^ Simmons, Rabbi Shraga. Tallit stripes, About.com's "Ask the Rabbi". Accessed April 3, 2006.
  2. ^ Richard Elliott Friedman, Who wrote the Bible?
  3. ^ Peake's Commentary on the Bible
  4. ^ ibid

Richard Elliot Friedman is a writer and Professor of Hebrew and Comparative Literature at UCSD. He is also Katzin Professor of Jewish Civilization: Hebrew Bible; Near Eastern Languages and Literatures. ...

External links

General
  • AskMoses.com explains tzizit
  • Tzitzith - The Laws of Fringes. Explores the significance of the ritually fringed four-cornered garment. Complete with basic laws, blessings and diagrams. chabad.org
  • JewFAQ.org on tzitzit
Pro-cuttlefish
  • Chilazon.com - A group that promotes the Razyner Rebbe's view that the lost hillazon to be the common cuttlefish
  • Beged Ivri- A society which studies ancient Israeli customs takes on Ptil Tekhelet.
Pro-Murex
Comparison of all three methods

  Results from FactBites:
 
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Tzitzit (2035 words)
Four tzitzit are passed through each hole (11:12-13), and the two groups of four ends are double-knotted to each other at the edge of the garment near the hole (11:14,15).
According to the modern documentary hypothesis, the reference to Tzitzit in Numbers comes from the Priestly Code, while that from Deuteronomy to the Deuteronomic Code, and hence date to around the late 8th century BCE and late 7th century BCE respectively, some time after the practice began to be in use.
The tzitzit thus indicated that its bearer was a Jew, servant of the King of kings.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m