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Encyclopedia > Tyrant

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A tyrant is a single ruler holding vast, if not absolute power through a state or in an organization. The term carries connotations of a harsh and cruel ruler who place their own interests or the interests of a small oligarchy over the best interests of the general population which they govern or control. This mode of rule is referred to as tyranny. Many individual rulers or government officials get accused of tyranny, with the label almost always a matter of controversy. Anarchism is a form of social criticism, a political movement as well as a political philosophy. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The term aristocracy refers to a form of government where power is hereditary, and split between a small number of families. ... Bold text:This article applies to political ideologies. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single person. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Kleptocracy (sometimes Cleptocracy) (root: Klepto+cracy = rule by thieves) is a pejorative, informal term for a government that is primarily designed to sustain the personal wealth and political power of government officials and their cronies (collectively, kleptocrats). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small, elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military prowess). ... This article is about a form of government in which the state operates under the control of a Communist Party. ... Direct democracy, classically termed pure democracy,[1] comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein sovereignty is lodged in the assembly of all citizens who choose to participate. ... Representative democracy is a form of democracy founded on the exercise of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... A Krytocracy is a government ruled by judges. ... “Kingdom” redirects here. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Ochlocracy (Greek: οχλοκρατια; Latin: ochlocratia) is government by mob or a mass of people, or the intimidation of constitutional authorities. ... A plutocracy is a form of government where the states power is centralized in an affluent social class. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A republic is a form of government maintained by a state or country whose sovereignty is based on popular consent and whose governance is based on popular representation and control. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional republic is a state where the head of state and other officials are elected as representatives of the people and must govern according to existing constitutional law that limits the governments power over citizens. ... Parliamentary republics around the world, shown in Orange (Parliamentary republics with a non-executive President) and Green (Parliamentary republics with an executive President linked to Parliament). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Socialist state. ... A Capitalist Republic is the name for a Federal Republic with a Capitalist or Private Capital economic system that has a major outcome on elections or selections of major political leaders. ... States in which the constitution mandates power to a sole party are colored brown. ... The term thalassocracy (from the Greek Θαλασσο-κρατία) refers to a state with primarily maritime realms—an empire at sea, such as the Phoenician network of merchant cities. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Constitutional theory defines a timocracy as either: a state where only property owners may participate in government; or a government where rulers are selected and perpetuated based on the degree of honour they hold relative to others in their society, peers and the ruling class. ... Political power (imperium in Latin) is a type of power held by a person or group in a society. ... A state is a political association with effective dominion over a geographic area. ... It has been suggested that Organizing be merged into this article or section. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small, elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military prowess). ...


The word derives from Latin tyrannus, from Greek τύραννος tyrannos. There may be a connection with the biblical Hebrew word seren, which means "captain of the Philistines": see Philistine language. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... This article describes the Biblical dialects of Hebrew. ... The historic Philistines (see note Philistines below) were a people that inhabited the southern coast of Canaan around the time of the arrival of the Israelites, their territory being named Philistia in later contexts. ... Map showing the location of Philistine land and cities of Gaza, Ashdod, and Ashkelon Map of the southern Levant, c. ...


Historical forms

In ancient Greece, tyrants were influential opportunists that came to power by securing the support of different factions of a deme. The word "tyrant" carried no ethical censure; it simply referred to anyone who illegally seized executive power in a polis to engage in autocratic government. Support for the tyrants came from the growing class of business people and from the peasants who had no land or were in debt to the wealthy land owners. It is true that they had no legal right to rule, but the people preferred them over kings or the aristocrats. The Greek tyrants stayed in power by using mercenary soldiers from outside of their respective city state.[1] The Temple to Athena, the Parthenon Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around three thousand years. ... In biology, a deme (rhymes with team) is another word for a local population of organisms of one species that actively interbreed with one another and share a distinct gene pool. ... A polis (πόλις, pronunciation pol-is) — plural: poleis (πόλεις) — is a city, or a city-state. ... Autocracy is a form of government where unlimited power is held by a single individual. ...


Cypselus, the first tyrant of Corinth in the 7th century BC, managed to bequeath his position to his son, Periander. Tyrants seldom succeeded in establishing an untroubled line of succession. In Athens, the inhabitants first gave the title to Pisistratus of Athens in 560 BC, followed by his sons, and with the subsequent growth of Athenian democracy, the title "tyrant" took on its familiar negative connotations. The Thirty Tyrants whom the Spartans imposed on a defeated Attica in 404 BC would not class as tyrants in the usual sense. The murder of the tyrant Hipparchus by Aristogeiton and Harmodios in Athens in 514 BC marked the beginning of the so-called "cult of the tyrannicides" (i.e. of killers of tyrants). Contempt for tyranny characterised this cult movement. The attitude became especially prevalent in Athens after 508 BC, when Cleisthenes reformed the political system so that it resembled demokratia (ancient participant democracy as opposed to the modern representative democracy). Cypselus (or Kypselos) was the first tyrant of Corinth, Greece in the 7th century BC. With increased wealth and more complicated trade relations and social structures, Greek city-states tended to overthrow their traditional hereditary priest-kings; Corinth, the richest archaic polis, led the way. ... Corinth, or Korinth (Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 7th century BC started on January 1, 700 BC and ended on December 31, 601 BC. // Overview Events Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria who created the the first systematically collected library at Nineveh A 16th century depiction of the Hanging Gardens of... Periander Periander (Greek: Περίανδρος) was the second tyrant of Corinth, Greece in the 7th century BC. He was the son of the first tyrant, Cypselus. ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα - Athína) is the largest city and capital of Greece, located in the Attica periphery of central Greece. ... Peisistratos or Peisistratus (Greek: )[1] (ca. ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα - Athína) is the largest city and capital of Greece, located in the Attica periphery of central Greece. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 610s BC 600s BC 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC 540s BC 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC Events and Trends 562 BC - Amel-Marduk succeeds Nebuchadnezzar as king of Babylon 560 BC - Neriglissar succeeds... The Thirty Tyrants were a pro-Spartan oligarchy installed in Athens after Athens defeat in the Peloponnesian War in April 404 BC. Its two leading members were Tharamenes and Critias, a former acolyte of Socrates. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 409 BC 408 BC 407 BC 406 BC 405 BC - 404 BC - 403 BC 402 BC... Hipparchus was one of the sons of Pisistratus who became tyrant of Athens when Pisistratus died in 527 BC. Hipparchus ruled jointly with his brother Hippias. ... Statue of Harmodius and Aristogeiton, Naples. ... Tyrannicide literally means the killing of a tyrant. ... The term cult movement can apply to a variety of phenomena, ranging from fashionable fads through cult followings to cultic organizations. ... Cleisthenes (also Clisthenes or Kleisthenes) was a noble Athenian of the accursed Alcmeonidate family. ...


Aisymnetes

An aisymnetes (pl. aisymnetai) was a type of tyrant or dictator, such as Pittacus of Mytilene (c. 640 -568 BC), elected for life or a specified period by a city-state in a time of crisis. Magistrates in some city-states were also called aisymnetai.[2] Pittacus was the son of Hyrradius, and one of the Seven Sages of Greece. ...


Hellenic Tyrants

The heyday of the classical Hellenic tyrants came in the early 6th century BC, when Cleisthenes ruled Sicyon in the Peloponnesus, and Polycrates ruled Samos. During this time, revolts overthrew many governments in the Aegean world. Simultaneously Persia first started making inroads into Greece, and many tyrants sought Persian help against forces seeking to remove them. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time... Cleisthenes (also Clisthenes or Kleisthenes) was the tyrant of Sicyon, who aided in the war against Cirra that destroyed that city in 595 BC. He organized a competition with his daughter Agarista as a prize; the two main competitors for her were the Alcmaeonid Megacles, and Hippocleides. ... Sicyon was an ancient Greek city situated in the northern Peloponnesus between Corinth and Achaea. ... Peloponnesos (Greek: Πελοπόννησος, sometime Latinized as Peloponnesus or Anglicized as The Peloponnese) is a large peninsula in Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Isthmus of Corinth. ... For the bishop, see Polycrates of Ephesus. ... Samos (Greek Σάμος) is a Greek island in the Eastern Aegean Sea, located between the island of Chios to the North and the archipelagic complex of the Dodecanese islands to the South and in particular the island of Patmos and off the coast of Turkey, on what was formely known as... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ...


Popularism

Greek tyranny in the main grew out of the struggle of the popular classes against the aristocracy or against priest-kings where archaic traditions and mythology sanctioned hereditary and/or traditional rights to rule. Popular coups generally installed tyrants, who often became or remained popular rulers, at least in the early part of their reigns. For instance, the popular imagination remembered Peisistratus for an episode (related by [pseudo-]Aristotle, but possibly fictional) in which he exempted a farmer from taxation because of the particular barrenness of his plot. Pisistratus' sons Hippias and Hipparchus, on the other hand, were not such able rulers and when the disaffected aristocrats Harmodios and Aristogeiton slew Hipparchus, Hippias' rule quickly became oppressive, resulting in the expulsion of the Peisistratids in 510. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The term aristocracy refers to a form of government where power is hereditary, and split between a small number of families. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Hipparchus was one of the sons of Pisistratus who became tyrant of Athens when Pisistratus died in 527 BC. Hipparchus ruled jointly with his brother Hippias. ... Events Anicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius is appointed a consul by Theoderic Births Gildas, Celtic monk Deaths Hashim, great-grandfather of Muhammad and ancestor of the Hashemites Categories: 510 ...


Sicilian Tyrants

The tyrannies of Sicily came about due to similar causes, but here the threat of Carthaginian attack prolonged tyranny, facilitating the rise of military leaders with the people united behind them. Such Sicilian tyrants as Gelo, Hiero I, Hiero II, Dionysius the Elder, and Dionysius the Younger maintained lavish courts and became patrons of culture. Gelo (d. ... Hiero I was the brother of Gelo, and tyrant of Syracuse from 478 to 467 BC. During his reign he greatly increased the power of Syracuse. ... Hiero II, tyrant of Syracuse from 270 to 215 BC, was the illegitimate son of a Syracusan noble, Hierocles, who claimed descent from Gelo. ... This page is about Dionysius the tyrant of Syracuse. ... Dionysius the Younger or Dionysius II (c. ...


In the Arts

Ancient Greeks, as well as the Roman Republicans, became generally quite wary of anyone seeking to implement a popular coup. Shakespeare portrays the struggle of one such anti-tyrannical Roman, Marcus Junius Brutus, in his play Julius Caesar. The Temple to Athena, the Parthenon Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around three thousand years. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... Ancient marble bust of Marcus Brutus Marcus Junius Brutus (85 BC – 42 BC), or Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic. ... The Tragedy of Julius Cæsar, more commonly known simply as Julius Caesar, is a tragedy by William Shakespeare probably written in 1599. ...


20th Century

Tyrants have existed throughout history and some tyrants of note during the 20th Century were Adolf Hitler of Germany, Joeseph Stalin of the former USSR and Mao Zedung of China. They have all controlled states with terror and also the use of the 'Cult of Personality'. This is when a leader is exalted and transformed from a normal person into a God-like figure, an embodiment of the nation and a father of all the people.


References

  1. ^ "Tyrant", ABC-CLIO, retrieved 16 February 2007
  2. ^ "Ancient Greece: government (tyranny)", Facts On File, retrieved 16 February 2007

ABC-CLIO is a publisher of reference works for the study of history in academic, secondary school, and public library settings. ...

See also

Look up tyrant in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... A monarch (see sovereignty) is a type of ruler or head of state. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... A tyrant is a single individual holding vast, if not absolute power through a state or in an organization. ... The right of rebellion is a right permitted by John Locke in his social contract theory. ... Outposts of Tyranny Outposts of tyranny was a term used by United States Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice in a written submission to the U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations to describe certain countries where, in her opinion, the government is oppressive and shows contempt for democracy and human... Majoritarianism (often also called majority rule) is a political philosophy or agenda which asserts that a majority (sometimes categorized by religion, language or some other identifying factor) of the population is entitled to a certain degree of primacy in society, and has the right to make decisions that affect the...

External links

  • Livius, Tyrant by Jona Lendering


Forms of Government and Methods of Rule: Autocratic and Authoritarian

Autocratic: Despotism | Dictatorship | Tyranny | Absolute monarchy | Caliphate | Despotate | Emirate | Empire | Khanate | Sultanate | Other monarchical titles) | Enlightened absolutism A form of government (also referred to as a system of government or a political system) is a system composed of various people, institutions and their relations in regard to the governance of a state. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single person. ... Bold text:This article applies to political ideologies. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilaafah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... A Despotate is a State ruled under a Despot/Despoina (in this context it should not be confused with Despotism). ... Etymologically an emirate or amirate (Arabic: إمارة Imarah, plural: إمارات Imarat) is the quality, dignity, office or territorial competence of any Emir (prince, governor etc. ... Scholars debate about what exactly constitutes an empire (from the Latin imperium, denoting military command within the ancient Roman government). ... For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. ... A sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic monarch ruling under the terms of shariah. ... A monarch (see sovereignty) is a type of ruler or head of state. ... enlightened desportism is the act when a prist lies in order to become better in the eyes of the churchEnlightened absolutism (also known as benevolent or enlightened despotism) is a form of despotism in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment, a historical period. ...

Other Authoritarian: Military dictatorship (often a Junta) | Oligarchy | Single-party state (Communist state | Fascist(oid) state) | de facto: Illiberal democracy General Augusto Pinochet (sitting) as head of the newly established military junta in Chile, September 1973. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small, elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military prowess). ... States in which the constitution mandates power to a sole party are colored brown. ... This article is about a form of government in which the state operates under the control of a Communist Party. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Technically speaking, an illiberal democracy could be any democracy that is not a liberal democracy. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Online Etymology Dictionary (83 words)
tyrant (12c.), from L. tyrannus "lord, master, tyrant" (cf.
"In the exact sense, a tyrant is an individual who arrogates to himself the royal authority without having a right to it.
This is how the Greeks understood the word 'tyrant': they applied it indifferently to good and bad princes whose authority was not legitimate." [Rousseau, "The Social Contract"]
Tyrant (0 words)
The "older" tyrants in mainland Greece of the seventh and sixth centuries.
The western tyrants of the late sixth, early fifth centuries, to be found in Sicily and southern Italy.
And indeed, trade and commerce often benefited from the measures taken by tyrants, so that it was possible to embark on large-scale building policies, which also served as some sort of legitimization of the tyrant's power.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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