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Encyclopedia > Tyrannosaurus
Tyrannosaurus
Fossil range: Late Cretaceous
T. rex skull, Palais de la Découverte, Paris.
T. rex skull, Palais de la Découverte, Paris.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Sauropsida
Superorder: Dinosauria
Order: Saurischia
Suborder: Theropoda
Family: Tyrannosauridae
Subfamily: Tyrannosaurinae
Genus: Tyrannosaurus
Osborn, 1905
Species
  • T. rex (type)
    Osborn, 1905
Synonyms

Tyrannosaurus (pronounced /tɨˌrænəˈsɔːrəs/ or /taɪˌrænoʊˈsɔːrəs/, meaning 'tyrant lizard') is a genus of theropod dinosaur. The famous species Tyrannosaurus rex ('rex' meaning 'king' in Latin), commonly abbreviated to T. rex, is a fixture in popular culture around the world. It lived throughout what is now western North America, with a much wider range than other tyrannosaurids. Fossils of T. rex are found in a variety of rock formations dating to the last three million years of the Cretaceous Period, approximately 68 to 65 million years ago; it was among the last non-avian dinosaurs to exist prior to the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event. Binomial name Tyrannosaurus rex Osborn, 1905 For the rock group Tyrannosaurus Rex, see T. Rex (band). ... Geography of the US in the Late Cretaceous Period Late Cretaceous (100mya - 65mya) refers to the second half of the Cretaceous Period, named after the famous white chalk cliffs of southern England, which date from this time. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2400x1552, 1409 KB) Tyrannosaurus rex, Palais de la Découverte, Paris Copyright © 2005 David Monniaux File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Dinosaur Tyrannosaurus List of dinosaurs Talk... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Reptilia redirects here. ... Orders & Suborders Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Theropoda Ornithischia Thyreophora Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. ... Groups Sauropodomorpha    Saturnalia    Prosauropoda    Sauropoda Theropoda    Eoraptor    Herrerasauridae    Ceratosauria    Tetanurae       Aves(extant) Saurischians (from the Greek Saurischia meaning lizard hip) are one of the two orders/branches of dinosaurs. ... Subdivisions ?Eoraptor Herrerasauria Coelophysoidea Ceratosauria Cryolophosaurus Spinosauridae Carnosauria Coelurosauria Theropods (beast foot) are a group of bipedal saurischian dinosaurs. ... Genera See text. ... Genera See text. ... Henry Fairfield Osborn (August 8, 1857 — November 6, 1935) was an American paleontologist and geologist. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... In zoological nomenclature, a type is a specimen or a taxon. ... In scientific nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names used for a single taxon. ... Edward Drinker Cope Edward Drinker Cope (July 28, 1840–April 12, 1897) was an American paleontologist and comparative anatomist, as well as a noted herpetologist and ichthyologist. ... Henry Fairfield Osborn (August 8, 1857 — November 6, 1935) was an American paleontologist and geologist. ... Binomial name Nanotyrannus lancensis Bakker, Currie & Williams, 1988 Nanotyrannus (tiny tyrant) was erected in 1988 for a small tyrannosaurid skull, previously described in 1946 (Gilmore) as Albertosaurus lancensis. ... Robert T. Bakker Dr. Robert T. Bakker (Bob Bakker), born March 24, 1945, in Bergen County, New Jersey, is an American paleontologist who has helped re-shape modern theories about dinosaurs, particularly by adding support to the theory that some dinosaurs were homeothermic (warm-blooded). ... Phil Currie, born in Toronto, formerly the head of Dinosaur Research at the Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology in Drumheller, Alberta, is now a researcher and prominent palaeontologist at the University of Alberta in Edmonton. ... George Olshevsky is a freelance editor, writer, publisher, paleontologist, and mathematician living in San Diego, California. ... George Olshevsky is a freelance editor, writer, publisher, paleontologist, and mathematician living in San Diego, California. ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Families See text Theropods (beast foot) are a group of bipedal, primarily carnivorous dinosaurs, belonging to the saurischian (lizard-hip) family. ... Orders & Suborders Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Theropoda Ornithischia Thyreophora Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Popular culture (or pop culture) is the widespread cultural elements in any given society that are perpetuated through that societys vernacular language or lingua franca. ... North American redirects here. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... A geologic formation is a formally named rock stratum or geological unit. ... // The Cretaceous Period (pronounced ) is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... A geologic period is a subdivision of geologic time that divides an era into smaller timeframes. ... For other uses of mya, see mya (disambiguation). ... Artists reconstruction of a major impact event. ...


Like other tyrannosaurids, Tyrannosaurus was a bipedal carnivore with a massive skull balanced by a long, heavy tail. Relative to the large and powerful hindlimbs, Tyrannosaurus forelimbs were small, though unusually powerful for their size, and bore two primary digits, along with a possible third vestigial digit. Although other theropods rivaled or exceeded T. rex in size, it was the largest known tyrannosaurid and one of the largest known land predators, measuring up to 13 meters (43 ft) in length,[1] up to 4 meters (13 ft) tall at the hips,[2] and up to 6.8 metric tons (7.5 short tons) in weight.[3] By far the largest carnivore in its environment, T. rex may have been an apex predator, preying upon hadrosaurs and ceratopsians, although some experts have suggested it was primarily a scavenger. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Carnivorism redirects here. ... For other uses of Skull, see Skull (disambiguation). ... A vestigial organ is an organ whose original function has been lost during evolution. ... Size has been one of the most interesting aspects of dinosaur science to the general public. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... A tonne (also called metric ton) is a non-SI unit of mass, accepted for use with SI, defined as: 1 tonne = 103 kg (= 106 g). ... The short ton is a unit of mass equal to 2000 lb (exactly 907. ... Apex predators (also alpha predators, superpredators, or top-level predators) are predators that, as adults, are not normally preyed upon in the wild in significant parts of their ranges. ... Hadrosaurus foulkii is a hadrosaurid dinosaur species, and the first full dinosaur skeleton found in North America. ... The Ceratopsia are a group of omnivorous and herbivorous, beaked dinosaurs which thrived in North America and Asia during the Cretaceous. ... For a person who scavenges, see Waste picker. ...


More than 30 specimens of T. rex have been identified, some of which are nearly complete skeletons. Soft tissue and proteins have been reported in at least one of these specimens. The abundance of fossil material has allowed significant research into many aspects of its biology, including life history and biomechanics. The feeding habits, physiology and potential speed of T. rex are a few subjects of debate. Its taxonomy is also controversial, with some scientists considering Tarbosaurus bataar from Asia to represent a second species of Tyrannosaurus and others maintaining Tarbosaurus as a separate genus. Several other genera of North American tyrannosaurids have also been synonymized with Tyrannosaurus. In medicine, the term soft tissue refers to tissues that connect, support, or surround other structures and organs of the body. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... For other uses, see Biology (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Biomechanical. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For the science of classifying living things, see alpha taxonomy. ... Species T. bataar (Maleev, 1955) Synonyms Shanshanosaurus huoyanshanensis Dong, 1977 Maleevosaurus novojilovi Carpenter, 1992 Jenghizkhan bataar Olshevsky, 1995  ?Chingkankousaurus fragilis Tarbosaurus (meaning Alarming Reptile) is a genus of tyrannosaurid theropod dinosaur that flourished during the early Maastrichtian of the Late Cretaceous Period. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... In scientific classification, synonymy is the existence of multiple systematic names to label the same organism. ...

Contents

Description

Various specimens of Tyrannosaurus rex with a human for scale.
Various specimens of Tyrannosaurus rex with a human for scale.

Tyrannosaurus rex was one of the largest land carnivores of all time; the largest complete specimen, FMNH PR2081 ("Sue"), measured 12.8 meters (42 feet) long, and was 4.0 meters (13 ft) tall at the hips.[2] Mass estimates have varied widely over the years, from more than 7.2 metric tons (8 short tons),[4] to less than 4.5 metric tons (5 tons),[5][6] with most modern estimates ranging between 5.4 and 6.8 metric tons (between 6 and 7.5 tons).[7][8][9][3] Although Tyrannosaurus rex was larger than the well known Jurassic theropod Allosaurus, it was slightly smaller than Cretaceous carnivores Spinosaurus and Giganotosaurus.[10][11] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 345 pixelsFull resolution (844 × 364 pixel, file size: 94 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 345 pixelsFull resolution (844 × 364 pixel, file size: 94 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago The Field Museum of Natural History, in Chicago, Illinois, USA, sits on Lake Shore Drive next to Lake Michigan, part of a scenic complex known as Museum Campus Chicago. ... Sue, the most complete T. rex fossil yet discovered, on display at the Field Museum in Chicago, Illinois. ... The metre, or meter (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... Species type (Marsh, 1878) Paul, 1987 Mateus , 2006 jimmadseni Chure, 2000 vide Glut, 2003 Synonyms Creosaurus Marsh, 1878 Labrosaurus Marsh, 1879 Camptonotus Marsh, 1879  ?Epanterias Cope, 1878 Allosaurus (IPA: ) was a large (up to 11. ... Species Stromer, 1915 (type) ? Russell, 1996 Spinosaurus (meaning spine lizard) is a genus of theropod dinosaur which lived in what is now North Africa, from the Albian to early Cenomanian stages of the Cretaceous Period, about 100 to 93 million years ago. ... Species Coria & Salgado, 1995 (type) Giganotosaurus (meaning giant southern lizard, derived from the Ancient Greek gigas/γιγας meaning giant, notos/νοτος meaning south wind and saurus/σαυρος meaning lizard)[1] is a genus of carcharodontosaurid dinosaur that lived 93 to 89 million years ago during the Turonian stage of the Late Cretaceous Period. ...

Size comparison of selected giant theropod dinosaurs, Tyrannosaurus in purple.
Size comparison of selected giant theropod dinosaurs, Tyrannosaurus in purple.

The neck of T. rex formed a natural S-shaped curve like that of other theropods, but was short and muscular to support the massive head. The forelimbs were long thought to bear only two digits, but there is an unpublished report of a third, vestigial digit in one specimen.[12] In contrast the hind limbs were among the longest in proportion to body size of any theropod. The tail was heavy and long, sometimes containing over forty vertebrae, in order to balance the massive head and torso. To compensate for the immense bulk of the animal, many bones throughout the skeleton were hollow, reducing its weight without significant loss of strength.[1] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 300 pixelsFull resolution (1108 × 416 pixel, file size: 147 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 300 pixelsFull resolution (1108 × 416 pixel, file size: 147 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... A diagram of a thoracic vertebra. ...


The largest known T. rex skulls measure up to 1.5 meters (5 ft) in length. Large fenestrae (openings) in the skull reduced weight and provided areas for muscle attachment, as in all carnivorous theropods. But in other respects Tyrannosaurus’ skull was significantly different from those of large non-tyrannosauroid theropods. It was extremely wide at the rear but had a narrow snout, allowing unusually good binocular vision.[13] The skull bones were massive and the nasals and some other bones were fused, preventing movement between them; but many were pneumatized (contained a "honeycomb" of tiny air spaces) which may have made the bones more flexible as well as lighter. These and other skull-strengthening features are part of the tyrannosaurid trend towards an increasingly powerful bite, which easily surpassed that of all non-tyrannosaurids.[14] [15][16] The tip of the upper jaw was U-shaped (most non-tyrannosauroid carnivores had V-shaped upper jaws), which increased the amount of tissue and bone a tyrannosaur could rip out with one bite, although it also increased the stresses on the front teeth.[17][18] ... Binocular vision is vision in which both eyes are used synchronously to produce a single image. ... The Nasal Bones (Ossa Faciei & Ossa Nasalia) are two small oblong bones, varying in size and form in different individuals; they are placed side by side at the middle and upper part of the face, and form, by their junction, the bridge of the nose. ... Genera Albertosaurus Daspletosaurus Gorgosaurus Tarbosaurus Tyrannosaurus The tyrannosaurids were a family of dinosaurs whose name is derived from the Greek words trannos, meaning tyrant; and sauros, meaning lizard. ...

Life restoration of a Tyrannosaurus rex.
Life restoration of a Tyrannosaurus rex.

The teeth of T. rex displayed marked heterodonty (differences in shape).[19][1] The premaxillary teeth at the front of the upper jaw were closely-packed, D-shaped in cross-section, had reinforcing ridges on the rear surface, were incisiform (their tips were chisel-like blades) and curved backwards. The D-shaped cross-section, reinforcing ridges and backwards curve reduced the risk that the teeth would snap when Tyrannosaurus bit and pulled. The remaining teeth were robust, like "lethal bananas" rather than daggers, more widely spaced and also had reinforcing ridges.[20] Those in the upper jaw were larger than those in all but the rear of the lower jaw. The largest found so far is estimated to have been 30 centimeters (12 in) long including the root when the animal was alive, making it the largest tooth of any carnivorous dinosaur.[21] The anatomical term heterodont (different teeth) refers to animals which possess more than a single tooth morphology. ... The premaxilla is a pair of small bones at the very tip of the jaws of many animals, usually bearing teeth, but not always. ... Incisors (from Latin incidere, to cut) are the first kind of tooth in heterodont mammals. ...


Classification

T. rex head reconstruction at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History.
T. rex head reconstruction at the Oxford University Museum of Natural History.

Tyrannosaurus is the type genus of the superfamily Tyrannosauroidea, the family Tyrannosauridae, and the subfamily Tyrannosaurinae; in other words it is the standard by which paleontologists decide whether to include other species in the same group. Other members of the tyrannosaurine subfamily include the North American Daspletosaurus and the Asian Tarbosaurus,[22][23] both of which have occasionally been synonymized with Tyrannosaurus.[18] Tyrannosaurids were once commonly thought to be descendants of earlier large theropods such as megalosaurs and carnosaurs, although more recently they were reclassified with the generally smaller coelurosaurs.[17] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 2280 KB) Summary Photographer: User:Ballista Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 2280 KB) Summary Photographer: User:Ballista Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... The Oxford University Museum of Natural History, sometimes known simply as the Oxford University Museum, is a museum displaying many of the University of Oxfords natural history specimens. ... In biology, a type is that which fixes a name to a taxon. ... Genera See text. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... Genera See text. ... Species D. torosus Russell, 1970 (type) Daspletosaurus (pronounced IPA: or das-PLEET-o-SAWR-us; meaning frightful lizard) is a genus of tyrannosaurid theropod dinosaur that lived in western North America between 80 and 73 million years ago, during the Late Cretaceous Period. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Families Megalosauridae Spinosauridae Synonyms Megalosauroidea Huxley, 1889 Spinosauroidea is a superfamily of tetanuran theropod dinosaurs that lived from the Middle Jurassic to the Late Cretaceous period. ... Families Allosauridae    Allosaurinae    ?Carcharodontosaurinae Sinraptoridae Carnosauria is a sub-group of Theropoda, a group of predatory dinosaurs. ... Sub-groups Compsognathidae Maniraptora Ornithomimosauria Tyrannosauroidea Coelurosauria is a diverse group of theropod dinosaurs that includes a number of subgroups, such as Tyrannosauroidea, Ornithomimosauria, and Maniraptora. ...


In 1955, Soviet paleontologist Evgeny Maleev named a new species, Tyrannosaurus bataar, from Mongolia.[24] By 1965, this species had been renamed Tarbosaurus bataar.[25] Despite the renaming, many phylogenetic analyses have found Tarbosaurus bataar to be the sister taxon of Tyrannosaurus rex,[23] and it has often been considered an Asian species of Tyrannosaurus.[17][26][27] A recent redescription of the skull of Tarbosaurus bataar has shown that it was much narrower than that of Tyrannosaurus rex and that during a bite, the distribution of stress in the skull would have been very different, closer to that of Alioramus, another Asian tyrannosaur.[28] A related cladistic analysis found that Alioramus, not Tyrannosaurus, was the sister taxon of Tarbosaurus, which, if true, would suggest that Tarbosaurus and Tyrannosaurus should remain separate.[22] CCCP redirects here. ... Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, ancient; ontos, being; and logos, knowledge) is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. ... Evgeny Aleksandrovich Maleev (Russian: ; 1915-1966) (pronounced Malay-ev)) was a Russian paleontologist who named the armoured dinosaur Talarurus, the fearsome Tarbosaurus, and Therizinosaurus. ... In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: phylon = tribe, race and genetikos = relative to birth, from genesis = birth) is the study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms (e. ... This cladogram shows the relationship among various insect groups. ... Alioramus (Alioramus remotus) was a tyrannosaurid from Mongolia. ... Greek clados = branch) or phylogenetic systematics is a branch of biology that determines the evolutionary relationships of living things based on derived similarities. ...


Other tyrannosaurid fossils found in the same formations as T. rex were originally classified as separate taxa, including Aublysodon and Albertosaurus megagracilis,[18] the latter being named Dinotyrannus megagracilis in 1995.[29] However, these fossils are now universally considered to belong to juvenile T. rex.[30] A small but nearly complete skull from Montana, 60 cm (2 ft) long, may be an exception. This skull was originally classified as a species of Gorgosaurus (G. lancensis) by Charles W. Gilmore in 1946,[31] but was later referred to a new genus, Nanotyrannus.[32] Opinions remain divided on the validity of N. lancensis. Many paleontologists consider the skull to belong to a juvenile T. rex.[33] There are minor differences between the two species, including the higher number of teeth in N. lancensis, which lead some scientists to recommend keeping the two genera separate until further research or discoveries clarify the situation.[23][34] Binomial name Gorgosaurus libratus Lambe, 1914 Gorgosaurus, meaning fierce lizard (from the Greek: gorgos/γορργος meaning terrible or fierce and saurus/σαυρος meaning lizard) is a genus of carnivorous dinosaur that reached 7 to 8 metres (27 to 30 feet) in length, with an estimated weight of 2. ... Charles Whitney Gilmore (1874-1945) was an American paleontologist, who named dinosaurs in North America and Mongolia, including the Cretaceous sauropod Alamosaurus, Alectrosaurus, Archaeornithomimus, Bactrosaurus, Brachyceratops, Chirostenotes, Mongolosaurus, Parrosaurus, Pinacosaurus, Styracosaurus and Thescelosaurus. ... Binomial name Nanotyrannus lancensis Bakker, Currie & Williams, 1988 Nanotyrannus (tiny tyrant) was erected in 1988 for a small tyrannosaurid skull, previously described in 1946 (Gilmore) as Albertosaurus lancensis. ...


Manospondylus

Skull of T. rex, type specimen at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History. This was heavily and inaccurately restored with plaster after Allosaurus, and has since been disassembled.
Skull of T. rex, type specimen at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History. This was heavily and inaccurately restored with plaster after Allosaurus, and has since been disassembled.

The first fossil specimen which can be attributed to Tyrannosaurus rex consists of two partial vertebrae (one of which has been lost) found by Edward Drinker Cope in 1892 and described as Manospondylus gigas. Osborn recognized the similarity between M. gigas and T. rex as early as 1917 but, due to the fragmentary nature of the Manospondylus vertebrae, he could not synonymize them conclusively.[35] Download high resolution version (875x589, 547 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (875x589, 547 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... In biology, a type is that which fixes a name to a taxon. ... The Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh are operated by the Carnegie Institute and located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ... Species type (Marsh, 1878) Paul, 1987 Mateus , 2006 jimmadseni Chure, 2000 vide Glut, 2003 Synonyms Creosaurus Marsh, 1878 Labrosaurus Marsh, 1879 Camptonotus Marsh, 1879  ?Epanterias Cope, 1878 Allosaurus (IPA: ) was a large (up to 11. ... Edward Drinker Cope Edward Drinker Cope (July 28, 1840–April 12, 1897) was an American paleontologist and comparative anatomist, as well as a noted herpetologist and ichthyologist. ...


In June 2000, the Black Hills Institute located the type locality of M. gigas in South Dakota and unearthed more tyrannosaur bones there. These were judged to represent further remains of the same individual, and to be identical to those of T. rex. According to the rules of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN), the system that governs the scientific naming of animals, Manospondylus gigas should therefore have priority over Tyrannosaurus rex, because it was named first.[36] However, the Fourth Edition of the ICZN, which took effect on January 1, 2000, states that "the prevailing usage must be maintained" when "the senior synonym or homonym has not been used as a valid name after 1899" and "the junior synonym or homonym has been used for a particular taxon, as its presumed valid name, in at least 25 works, published by at least 10 authors in the immediately preceding 50 years…"[37] Tyrannosaurus rex easily qualifies as the valid name under these conditions and would most likely be considered a nomen protectum ("protected name") under the ICZN if it was ever challenged, which it has not yet been. Manospondylus gigas would then be deemed a nomen oblitum ("forgotten name").[38] The Black Hills Institute of Geological Research, Inc. ... The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a set of rules in zoology that have one fundamental aim: to provide the maximum universality and continuity in classifying all animals according to taxonomic judgment. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... // A conserved name or nomen conservandum (plural nomina conservanda) is a scientific name that enjoys special nomenclatural protection. ... A nomen oblitum (Latin for forgotten name) is a name that has not been used in the scientific community for more than fifty years after its original proposal. ...


Paleobiology

Life history

A graph showing the hypothesized growth curves (body mass versus age) of four tyrannosaurids. Tyrannosaurus rex is drawn in black. Based on Erickson et al. 2004.
A graph showing the hypothesized growth curves (body mass versus age) of four tyrannosaurids. Tyrannosaurus rex is drawn in black. Based on Erickson et al. 2004.

The identification of several specimens as juvenile Tyrannosaurus rex has allowed scientists to document ontogenetic changes in the species, estimate the lifespan, and determine how quickly the animals would have grown. The smallest known individual (LACM 28471, the "Jordan theropod") is estimated to have weighed only 29.9 kg (66 lb), while the largest, such as FMNH PR2081 ("Sue") most likely weighed over 5400 kg (6 short tons). Histologic analysis of T. rex bones showed LACM 28471 had aged only 2 years when it died, while "Sue" was 28 years old, an age which may have been close to the maximum for the species.[3] Image File history File links Tyrantgraph. ... Image File history File links Tyrantgraph. ... Ontogeny (also ontogenesis or morphogenesis) describes the origin and the development of an organism from the fertilized egg to its mature form. ... The Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County opened in Exposition Park, Los Angeles, California, USA in 1913 as the Museum of History, Science, and Art. ... Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago The Field Museum of Natural History, in Chicago, Illinois, USA, sits on Lake Shore Drive next to Lake Michigan, part of a scenic complex known as Museum Campus Chicago. ... Sue, the most complete T. rex fossil yet discovered, on display at the Field Museum in Chicago, Illinois. ... The short ton is a unit of mass equal to 2000 lb (exactly 907. ... A thin section of lung tissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin. ...


Histology has also allowed the age of other specimens to be determined. Growth curves can be developed when the ages of different specimens are plotted on a graph along with their mass. A T. rex growth curve is S-shaped, with juveniles remaining under 1800 kg (2 short tons) until approximately 14 years of age, when body size began to increase dramatically. During this rapid growth phase, a young T. rex would gain an average of 600 kg (1,300 lb) a year for the next four years. At 18 years of age, the curve plateaus again, indicating that growth slowed dramatically. For example, only 600 kg (1,300 lb) separated the 28-year-old "Sue" from a 22-year-old Canadian specimen (RTMP 81.12.1).[3] Another recent histological study performed by different workers corroborates these results, finding that rapid growth began to slow at around 16 years of age.[39] This sudden change in growth rate may indicate physical maturity, a hypothesis which is supported by the discovery of medullary tissue in the femur of a 16 to 20-year-old T. rex from Montana (MOR 1125, also known as "B-rex"). Medullary tissue is found only in female birds during ovulation, indicating that "B-rex" was of reproductive age.[40] Further study indicates an age of 18 for this specimen.[41] Other tyrannosaurids exhibit extremely similar growth curves, although with lower growth rates corresponding to their lower adult sizes.[42] The Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology in Drumheller, Alberta, Canada, 90 minutes drive east of Calgary, is known the world over as an outstanding paleontology museum and research facility. ... The femur or thigh bone is the longest, most voluminous, and strongest bone of the mammalian bodies. ... The Museum of the Rockies is located in Bozeman, Montana, and is known for its paleontological collections. ...


Over half of the known T. rex specimens appear to have died within six years of reaching sexual maturity, a pattern which is also seen in other tyrannosaurs and in some large, long-lived birds and mammals today. These species are characterized by high infant mortality rates, followed by relatively low mortality among juveniles. Mortality increases again following sexual maturity, partly due to the stresses of reproduction. One study suggests that the rarity of juvenile T. rex fossils is due in part to low juvenile mortality rates; the animals were not dying in large numbers at these ages, and so were not often fossilized. However, this rarity may also be due to the incompleteness of the fossil record or to the bias of fossil collectors towards larger, more spectacular specimens.[42] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fossil. ...


Sexual dimorphism

Tyrannosaurus skeleton casts mounted in a mating position, Jurassic Museum of Asturies.
Tyrannosaurus skeleton casts mounted in a mating position, Jurassic Museum of Asturies.

As the number of specimens increased, scientists began to analyze the variation between individuals and discovered what appeared to be two distinct body types, or morphs, similarly to some other theropod species. As one of these morphs was more solidly built, it was termed the 'robust' morph while the other was termed 'gracile.' Several morphological differences associated with the two morphs were used to analyze sexual dimorphism in Tyrannosaurus rex, with the 'robust' morph usually suggested to be female. For example, the pelvis of several 'robust' specimens seemed to be wider, perhaps to allow the passage of eggs.[43] It was also thought that the 'robust' morphology correlated with a reduced chevron on the first tail vertebra, also ostensibly to allow eggs to pass out of the reproductive tract, as had been erroneously reported for crocodiles.[44] The term morphology in biology refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern) of an organism or taxon and its component parts. ... Female (left) and male Common Pheasant, illustrating the dramatic difference in both color and size, between the sexes Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. ... The pelvis (pl. ... In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... Chevron bones are a series of bones on the underside of the tail of reptiles. ... -1... For other uses, see Crocodile (disambiguation). ...


In recent years, evidence for sexual dimorphism has been weakened. A 2005 study reported that previous claims of sexual dimorphism in crocodile chevron anatomy were in error, casting doubt on the existence of similar dimorphism between T. rex genders.[45] A full-sized chevron was discovered on the first tail vertebra of "Sue," an extremely robust individual, indicating that this feature could not be used to differentiate the two morphs anyway. As T. rex specimens have been found from Saskatchewan to New Mexico, differences between individuals may be indicative of geographic variation rather than sexual dimorphism. The differences could also be age-related, with 'robust' individuals being older animals.[1] For other uses, see Saskatchewan (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see New Mexico (disambiguation). ...


Only a single T. rex specimen has been conclusively shown to belong to a specific gender. Examination of "B-rex" demonstrated the preservation of soft tissue within several bones. Some of this tissue has been identified as medullary tissue, a specialized tissue grown only in modern birds as a source of calcium for the production of eggshell during ovulation. As only female birds lay eggs, medullary tissue is only found naturally in females, although males are capable of producing it when injected with female reproductive hormones like estrogen. This strongly suggests that "B-rex" was female, and that she died during ovulation.[40] Recent research has shown that medullary tissue is never found in crocodiles, which are thought to be the closest living relatives of dinosaurs, aside from birds. The shared presence of medullary tissue in birds and theropod dinosaurs is further evidence of the close evolutionary relationship between the two.[46] For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... Estriol. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...


Posture

Outdated reconstruction (by Charles R. Knight), showing 'tripod' pose.
Replica at Senckenberg Museum, showing modern view of posture.
Replica at Senckenberg Museum, showing modern view of posture.

Like many bipedal dinosaurs, Tyrannosaurus rex was historically depicted as a 'living tripod', with the body at 45 degrees or less from the vertical and the tail dragging along the ground, similar to a kangaroo. This concept dates from Joseph Leidy's 1865 reconstruction of Hadrosaurus, the first to depict a dinosaur in a bipedal posture.[47] Henry Fairfield Osborn, former president of the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) in New York City, who believed the creature stood upright, further reinforced the notion after unveiling the first complete T. rex skeleton in 1915. It stood in this upright pose for nearly a century, until it was dismantled in 1992.[48] By 1970, scientists realized this pose was incorrect and could not have been maintained by a living animal, as it would have resulted in the dislocation or weakening of several joints, including the hips and the articulation between the head and the spinal column.[49] Despite its inaccuracies, the AMNH mount inspired similar depictions in many films and paintings (such as Rudolph Zallinger's famous mural The Age Of Reptiles in Yale University's Peabody Museum of Natural History) until the 1990s, when films such as Jurassic Park introduced a more accurate posture to the general public. Modern representations in museums, art, and film show T. rex with its body approximately parallel to the ground and tail extended behind the body to balance the head.[18] Image File history File links Tyrannosaurusrex01. ... Image File history File links Tyrannosaurusrex01. ... Allosaurus by Charles R. Knight. ... Image File history File links Description: a plastik of a tyrannosaurus in front of the senckenberg. ... Image File history File links Description: a plastik of a tyrannosaurus in front of the senckenberg. ... T. Rex The Senckenberg Museum in Frankfurt is the largest museum of natural history in Germany. ... Species Macropus rufus Macropus giganteus Macropus fuliginosus Macropus antilopinus A kangaroo is a marsupial from the family Macropodidae (macropods, meaning large foot). In common use the term is used to describe the largest species from this family, the Red Kangaroo, the Antilopine Kangaroo, and the Eastern and Western Grey Kangaroo... Joseph Leidy (1823–1891) was an American paleontologist. ... Species H. foulkii Leidy, 1858 (type) Hadrosaurus (Greek: ἁδρος, hadros + σαυρος, sauros = sturdy lizard) is a dubious genus of hadrosaurid dinosaur. ... Henry Fairfield Osborn (August 8, 1857 — November 6, 1935) was an American paleontologist and geologist. ... Main Lobby in the Theodore Roosevelt Memorial. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Dislocation (joint dislocation) occurs when bones at a joint move from their normal position. ... For other uses, see Joint (disambiguation). ... The spinal cord is a part of the vertebrate nervous system that is enclosed in and protected by the vertebral column (it passes through the spinal canal). ... Rudolph Franz Zallinger (born November 12, 1919 in Irkutsk, Siberia, died August 1, 1995) was an American-based artist notable for his mural Age of Reptiles at the Yale Peabody Museum completed in 1947. ... Yale redirects here. ... The Peabody Museum of Natural History at Yale University was founded by the philanthropist George Peabody in 1866 at the behest of his nephew Othniel Charles Marsh, the early paleontologist. ... Jurassic Park is a 1993 science fiction film directed by Steven Spielberg, based on the novel of the same name by Michael Crichton. ...


Arms

Closeup of forelimb; specimen at National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC.
Closeup of forelimb; specimen at National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC.

When Tyrannosaurus rex was first discovered, the humerus was the only element of the forelimb known.[50] For the initial mounted skeleton as seen by the public in 1915, Osborn substituted longer, three-fingered forelimbs like those of Allosaurus.[35] However, a year earlier, Lawrence Lambe described the short, two-fingered forelimbs of the closely-related Gorgosaurus.[51] This strongly suggested that T. rex had similar forelimbs, but this hypothesis was not confirmed until the first complete T. rex forelimbs were identified in 1989, belonging to MOR 555 (the "Wankel rex").[52] The remains of "Sue" also include complete forelimbs.[1] T. rex 'arms' are very small relative to overall body size, measuring only one meter (3 ft) long. However, they are not vestigial but instead show large areas for muscle attachment, indicating considerable strength. This was recognized as early as 1906 by Osborn, who speculated that the forelimbs may have been used to grasp a mate during copulation.[53] It has also been suggested that the forelimbs were used to assist the animal in rising from a prone position.[49] Another possibility is that the forelimbs held struggling prey while it was dispatched by the tyrannosaur's enormous jaws. This hypothesis may be supported by biomechanical analysis. T. rex forelimb bones exhibit extremely thick cortical bone, indicating that they were developed to withstand heavy loads. The biceps brachii muscle of a full-grown Tyrannosaurus rex was capable of lifting 199 kg (438 lb) by itself; this number would only increase with other muscles (like the brachialis) acting in concert with the biceps. A T. rex forearm also had a reduced range of motion, with the shoulder and elbow joints allowing only 40 and 45 degrees of motion, respectively. In contrast, the same two joints in Deinonychus allow up to 88 and 130 degrees of motion, respectively, while a human arm can rotate 360 degrees at the shoulder and move through 165 degrees at the elbow. The heavy build of the arm bones, extreme strength of the muscles, and limited range of motion may indicate a system designed to hold fast despite the stresses of a struggling prey animal.[54] Closeup of arm of Tyrannosaurus rex fossil at the National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC; digital photo by User:Postdlf, 2/20/05 File links The following pages link to this file: Tyrannosaurus rex User:Postdlf/images Categories: GFDL images ... Closeup of arm of Tyrannosaurus rex fossil at the National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC; digital photo by User:Postdlf, 2/20/05 File links The following pages link to this file: Tyrannosaurus rex User:Postdlf/images Categories: GFDL images ... Inside the National Museum of Natural History, underneath the rotunda. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... The humerus is a long bone in the arm or fore-legs (animals) that runs from the shoulder to the elbow. ... Species type (Marsh, 1878) Paul, 1987 Mateus , 2006 jimmadseni Chure, 2000 vide Glut, 2003 Synonyms Creosaurus Marsh, 1878 Labrosaurus Marsh, 1879 Camptonotus Marsh, 1879  ?Epanterias Cope, 1878 Allosaurus (IPA: ) was a large (up to 11. ... Lawrence Morris Lambe (1849-1934) was a famous geologist and palaeontologist from the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC). ... Binomial name Gorgosaurus libratus Lambe, 1914 Gorgosaurus, meaning fierce lizard (from the Greek: gorgos/γορργος meaning terrible or fierce and saurus/σαυρος meaning lizard) is a genus of carnivorous dinosaur that reached 7 to 8 metres (27 to 30 feet) in length, with an estimated weight of 2. ... Look up Hypothesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A vestigial organ is an organ whose original function is considered to have been lost or reduced during evolution. ... For other uses of Muscle, see Muscle (disambiguation). ... A pair of lions copulating in the Maasai Mara, Kenya. ... For other uses, see Biomechanical. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... A person flexing his biceps brachii In human anatomy, the biceps brachii is a muscle on the upper arm that acts to flex the elbow. ... Brachialis is a flexor muscle in the upper arm. ... Species D. antirrhopus (type) Ostrom, 1969 Deinonychus (pronounced ) (Greek δεινος, terrible and ονυξ/ονυχος, claw) was a genus of carnivorous dromaeosaurid dinosaur. ...


Soft tissue

In the March 2005 issue of Science, Mary Higby Schweitzer of North Carolina State University and colleagues announced the recovery of soft tissue from the marrow cavity of a fossilized leg bone, from a 68-million-year-old Tyrannosaurus. The bone had been intentionally, though reluctantly, broken for shipping and then not preserved in the normal manner, specifically because Schweitzer was hoping to test it for soft tissue.[55] Designated as the Museum of the Rockies specimen 1125, or MOR 1125, the dinosaur was previously excavated from the Hell Creek Formation. Flexible, bifurcating blood vessels and fibrous but elastic bone matrix tissue were recognized. In addition, microstructures resembling blood cells were found inside the matrix and vessels. The structures bear resemblance to ostrich blood cells and vessels. Whether an unknown process, distinct from normal fossilization, preserved the material, or the material is original, the researchers do not know, and they are careful not to make any claims about preservation.[56] If it is found to be original material, any surviving proteins may be used as a means of indirectly guessing some of the DNA content of the dinosaurs involved, because each protein is typically created by a specific gene. The absence of previous finds may merely be the result of people assuming preserved tissue was impossible, therefore simply not looking. Since the first, two more tyrannosaurs and a hadrosaur have also been found to have such tissue-like structures.[57] Research on some of the tissues involved have suggested that birds are closer relatives to tyrannosaurs than other modern animals.[58] Science is the academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and is considered one of the worlds most prestigious scientific journals. ... North Carolina State University is a public, coeducational, extensive research university located in Raleigh, North Carolina, United States. ... The Hell Creek Formation is the division of Upper Cretaceous rocks in North America. ... f you all The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... A blood cell is any cell of any type normally found in blood. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Distribution of Ostriches. ...


In studies reported in the journal Science in April 2007, Asara and colleagues concluded that seven traces of collagen proteins detected in purified T. rex bone most closely match those reported in chickens, followed by frogs and newts. The discovery of proteins from a creature tens of millions of years old, along with similar traces the team found in a mastodon bone at least 160,000 years old, upends the conventional view of fossils and may shift paleontologists' focus from bone hunting to biochemistry. Until these finds, most scientists presumed that fossilization replaced all living tissue with inert minerals. Paleontologist Hans Larsson of McGill University in Montreal, who was not part of the studies, called the finds "a milestone", and suggested that dinosaurs could "enter the field of molecular biology and really slingshot paleontology into the modern world."[59] Tropocollagen triple helix. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Subsequent studies in April 2008 confirmed the close connection of T. rex to modern birds. Postdoctoral biology researcher Chris Organ at Harvard University announced, "With more data, they would probably be able to place T. rex on the evolutionary tree between alligators and chickens and ostriches." Co-author John M. Asara added, "We also show that it groups better with birds than modern reptiles, such as alligators and green anole lizards."[60] Harvard redirects here. ... For other uses, see Alligator (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Distribution of Ostriches. ... An Anole is a reptile of the family Polychrotidae Anole could refer specifically to any of the following lizards: Carolina anole or Green Anole Puerto Rican Crested Anole Culebra Island Giant Anole Brown Anole Knight Anole Blue Anole Anole could also refer to the Marvel comics character, Anole (comics) Category...


Skin

Main article: Feathered dinosaurs
Model of a 1½ month old Tyrannosaurus with a coat of downy feathers, Zoological Museum, Copenhagen.

In 2004, the scientific journal Nature published a report describing an early tyrannosauroid, Dilong paradoxus, from the famous Yixian Formation of China. As with many other theropods discovered in the Yixian, the fossil skeleton was preserved with a coat of filamentous structures which are commonly recognized as the precursors of feathers. It has also been proposed that Tyrannosaurus and other closely-related tyrannosaurids had such protofeathers. However, rare skin impressions from adult tyrannosaurids in Canada and Mongolia show pebbly scales typical of other dinosaurs.[61] While it is possible that protofeathers existed on parts of the body which have not been preserved, a lack of insulatory body covering is consistent with modern multi-ton mammals such as elephants, hippopotamus, and most species of rhinoceros. As an object increases in size, its ability to retain heat increases due to its decreasing surface area-to-volume ratio. Therefore, as large animals evolve in or disperse into warm climates, a coat of fur or feathers loses its selective advantage for thermal insulation and can instead become a disadvantage, as the insulation traps excess heat inside the body, possibly overheating the animal. Protofeathers may also have been secondarily lost during the evolution of large tyrannosaurids like Tyrannosaurus, especially in warm Cretaceous climates.[62] Sinornithosaurus by Jim Robins Feathered dinosaurs are regarded by many paleontologists as transitional fossils between birds and dinosaurs (see Dinosaur-bird connection). ... The down of birds is a layer of fine feathers found under the tougher exterior feathers. ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... Dilong paradoxus was an ancestor of Tyrannosaurus rex and had a covering of feathers. ... The Yixian Formation is a geological formation in Liaoning, Peoples Republic of China, that stems from the early Cretaceous period. ... For other uses, see Feather (disambiguation). ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Thermal insulation Thermal insulation on the Huygens probe Rockwool Insulation, 1600 dpi scan against the grain Rockwool Insulation, 1600 dpi scan with the grain The term thermal insulation can refer to materials used to reduce the rate of heat transfer, or the methods and... For other uses, see Elephant (disambiguation). ... Hippo redirects here. ... For other uses, see Rhinoceros (disambiguation). ... Area is the measure of how much exposed area any two dimensional object has. ... For other uses, see Volume (disambiguation). ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ...


Thermoregulation

Main article: Physiology of dinosaurs

Tyrannosaurus, like most dinosaurs, was long thought to have an ectothermic ("cold-blooded") reptilian metabolism. The idea of dinosaur ectothermy was challenged by scientists like Robert Bakker and John Ostrom in the early years of the "Dinosaur Renaissance", beginning in the late 1960s.[63][64] Tyrannosaurus rex itself was claimed to have been endothermic ("warm-blooded"), implying a very active lifestyle.[6] Since then, several paleontologists have sought to determine the ability of Tyrannosaurus to regulate its body temperature. Histological evidence of high growth rates in young T. rex, comparable to those of mammals and birds, may support the hypothesis of a high metabolism. Growth curves indicate that, as in mammals and birds, T. rex growth was limited mostly to immature animals, rather than the indeterminate growth seen in most other vertebrates.[39] The physiology of dinosaurs has historically been a controversial subject, particularly thermoregulation. ... Cold-blooded organisms, more technically known as poikilothermic, are animals that have no internal metabolic mechanism for regulating their body temperatures. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Robert T. Bakker (Bob Bakker), born in Bergen, New Jersey, 1945, is a famous American paleontologist who has helped re-shape modern theories about dinosaurs, particularly by adding support to the theory that some dinosaurs were homeothermic (warm-blooded). ... John Ostrom John H. Ostrom (February 18, 1928 – July 16, 2005) was an American paleontologist who revolutionized modern understanding of dinosaurs in the 1960s, when he demonstrated that dinosaurs are more like big non-flying birds than they are like lizards (or saurians), an idea first proposed by Thomas Henry... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A warm-blooded (homeothermic) animal is one that can keep its core body temperature at a nearly constant level regardless of the temperature of the surrounding environment (that is, to maintain thermal homeostasis) . This can involve not only the ability to generate heat, but also the ability to cool down... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... This inflorescence of the terrestrial orchid Spathoglottis plicata shows indeterminate growth; note that the opening of flowers and production of fruits is proceding upwards on the shoot. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Oxygen isotope ratios in fossilized bone are sometimes used to determine the temperature at which the bone was deposited, as the ratio between certain isotopes correlates with temperature. In one specimen, the isotope ratios in bones from different parts of the body indicated a temperature difference of no more than 4 to 5°C (7 to 9°F) between the vertebrae of the torso and the tibia of the lower leg. This small temperature range between the body core and the extremities was claimed by paleontologist Reese Barrick and geochemist William Showers to indicate that T. rex maintained a constant internal body temperature (homeothermy) and that it enjoyed a metabolism somewhere between ectothermic reptiles and endothermic mammals.[65] Other scientists have pointed out that the ratio of oxygen isotopes in the fossils today does not necessarily represent the same ratio in the distant past, and may have been altered during or after fossilization (diagenesis).[66] Barrick and Showers have defended their conclusions in subsequent papers, finding similar results in another theropod dinosaur from a different continent and tens of millions of years earlier in time (Giganotosaurus).[67] Ornithischian dinosaurs also showed evidence of homeothermy, while varanid lizards from the same formation did not.[68] Even if Tyrannosaurus rex does exhibit evidence of homeothermy, it does not necessarily mean that it was endothermic. Such thermoregulation may also be explained by gigantothermy, as in some living sea turtles.[69][70] This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... The degree Celsius (°C) is a unit of temperature named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701–1744), who first proposed a similar system in 1742. ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... This article is about the vertebrate bone. ... The field of geochemistry involves study of the chemical composition of the Earth and other planets, chemical processes and reactions that govern the composition of rocks and soils, and the cycles of matter and energy that transport the Earths chemical components in time and space, and their interaction with... A warm-blooded (homeothermic) animal is one that can keep its core body temperature at a nearly constant level regardless of the temperature of the surrounding environment (that is, to maintain thermal homeostasis) . This can involve not only the ability to generate heat, but also the ability to cool down... In geology and oceanography, diagenesis is any chemical, physical, or biological change undergone by a sediment after its initial deposition and during and after its lithification, exclusive of surface alteration (weathering) and metamorphism. ... Species Coria & Salgado, 1995 (type) Giganotosaurus (meaning giant southern lizard, derived from the Ancient Greek gigas/γιγας meaning giant, notos/νοτος meaning south wind and saurus/σαυρος meaning lizard)[1] is a genus of carcharodontosaurid dinosaur that lived 93 to 89 million years ago during the Turonian stage of the Late Cretaceous Period. ... Suborders Thyreophora Cerapoda    Ornithopoda    Marginocephalia Ornithischia is an order of beaked, herbivorous dinosaurs. ... Species Many, see text. ... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... Gigantothermy is a phenomenon with significance in biology and paleontology, whereby large, bulky ectothermic animals are more easily able to maintain a constant, relatively high body temperature that smaller animals by virtue of their greater volume to surface area ratio. ... Genera Family Cheloniidae (Oppel, 1811) Caretta Chelonia Eretmochelys Lepidochelys Natator Family Dermochelyidae Dermochelys Family Protostegidae (extinct) Family Toxochelyidae (extinct) Family Thalassemyidae (extinct) Sea turtles (Superfamily Chelonioidea) are turtles found in all the worlds oceans except the Arctic Ocean . ...


Footprints

The probable Tyrannosaurus rex footprint from New Mexico.
The probable Tyrannosaurus rex footprint from New Mexico.

Two isolated fossilized footprints have been tentatively assigned to Tyrannosaurus rex. The first was discovered in Philmont, New Mexico in 1983 by American geologist Charles Pillmore. Originally thought to belong to a hadrosaurid, examination of the footprint revealed a large 'heel' unknown in ornithopod dinosaur tracks, and traces of what may have been a hallux, the dewclaw-like fourth digit of the tyrannosaur foot. The footprint was published as the ichnogenus Tyrannosauripus pillmorei in 1994, by Martin Lockley and Adrian Hunt. Lockley and Hunt suggested that it was very likely the track was made by a Tyrannosaurus rex, which would make it the first known footprint from this species. The track was made in what was once a vegetated wetland mud flat. It measures 83 centimeters (33 in) long by 71 cm (28 in) wide.[71] For other uses, see New Mexico (disambiguation). ... A footprint is an impression left by a foot or shoe, for example an indentation in soft ground or snow, or a mark left by mud etc from the sole of the foot. ... Philmont Scout Ranch is the oldest of the high-adventure bases operated by the Boy Scouts of America, along with the Florida High Adventure Sea Base and a collection of programs in the Boundary Waters. ... For other uses, see New Mexico (disambiguation). ... Genera Lambeosaurinae    Corythosaurus    Hypacrosaurus    Lambeosaurus    Parasaurolophus Hadrosaurinae    Anasazisaurus    Anatotitan    Edmontosaurus    Hadrosaurus    Maiasaura    Prosaurolophus    Saurolophus    Shantungosaurus Hadrosaurids or duck-billed dinosaurs are members of the family Hadrosauridae, and include ornithopods such as Edmontosaurus and Parasaurolophus. ... Families Hypsilophodontidae* Rhabdodontidae Dryosauridae Camptosauridae Iguanodontidae Hadrosauridae Ornithopods are a group of bird-hipped dinosaurs who started out as small, bipedal running grazers, and grew in size and numbers until they became one of the most successful groups of herbivores in the Cretaceous world, and dominated the North American landscape. ... Toes on foot. ... An ichnotaxon (plural ichnotaxa) is defined by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature as a taxon based on the fossilized work of an organism. Ichnotaxa are names used to identify and distinguish morphologically distinctive trace fossils. ...


A second footprint that may have been made by a Tyrannosaurus was first reported in 2007 by British paleontologist Phil Manning, from the Hell Creek Formation of Montana. This second track measures 76 cm (30 in) long, shorter than the track described by Lockley and Hunt. Whether or not the track was made by Tyrannosaurus is unclear, though Tyrannosaurus and Nanotyrannus are the only large theropods known to have existed in the Hell Creek Formation. Further study of the track (a full description has not yet been published) will compare the Montana track with the one found in New Mexico.[72] The Hell Creek Formation is the division of Upper Cretaceous rocks in North America. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Locomotion

A sequence of sauropod footprints. No such sequence has yet been reported for tyrannosaurs, making gait and speed estimates difficult.
A sequence of sauropod footprints. No such sequence has yet been reported for tyrannosaurs, making gait and speed estimates difficult.

There are two main issues concerning the locomotory abilities of Tyrannosaurus: how well it could turn; and what its maximum straight-line speed was likely to have been. Both are relevant to the debate about whether it was a hunter or a scavenger (see below). Families Brachiosauridae Camarasauridae Cetiosauridae Diplodocidae Euhelopodidae Nemegtosauridae Titanosauridae Vulcanodontidae Sauropoda, the sauropods, are a suborder or infraorder of the saurischian (lizard-hipped) dinosaurs. ...


Tyrannosaurus may have been slow to turn, possibly taking one to two seconds to turn only 45° – an amount that humans, being vertically oriented and tail-less, can spin in a fraction of a second.[73] The cause of the difficulty is rotational inertia, since much of Tyrannosaurus’ mass was some distance from its center of gravity (like a human carrying a heavy timber) - although it might have reduced the average distance by arching its back and tail and pulling its head and forelimbs close to its body (rather like the way an ice skater pulls his or her arms closer in order to spin faster).[74] Increasing the mass increases the rotational inertia of an object. ...


Scientists have produced a wide range of maximum speed estimates, mostly around 11 meters/second (25 mph), but a few as low as 5-11 meters/second (12-25 mph), and a few as high as 20 meters/second (45 mph). Researchers have to rely on various estimating techniques because, while there are many tracks of very large theropods walking, so far none have been found of very large theropods running - and this absence may indicate that they did not run.[75] Scientists who think that Tyrannosaurus was able to run point out that hollow bones and other features that would have lightened its body may have kept adult weight to a mere 5 tons or so, or that other animals like ostriches and horses with long, flexible legs are able to achieve high speeds through slower but longer strides. Additionally, some have argued that Tyrannosaurus had relatively larger leg muscles than any animal alive today, which could have enabled fast running (40–70 km/h or 25–45 mph).[76] A trackway is a set of impressions in the soft earth, usually a set of footprints, left by a life-form. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Distribution of Ostriches. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ...

Skeletal anatomy of a T. rex right leg.
Skeletal anatomy of a T. rex right leg.

Jack Horner and Don Lessem argued in 1993 that Tyrannosaurus was slow and probably could not run (no airborne phase in mid-stride), because its ratio of femur (thigh bone) to tibia (shin bone) length was greater than 1, as in most large theropods and like a modern elephant.[52] However, Holtz (1998) noted that tyrannosaurids and some closely related groups had significantly longer distal hindlimb components (shin plus foot plus toes) relative to the femur length than most other theropods), and that tyrannosaurids and their close relatives had a tightly interlocked metatarsus that more effectively transmitted locomotory forces from the foot to the lower leg than in earlier theropods ("metatarsus" means the foot bones, which function as part of the leg in digitigrade animals). He therefore concluded that tyrannosaurids and their close relatives were the fastest large theropods.[77] Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas antiquus † Elephas beyeri † Elephas celebensis † Elephas cypriotes † Elephas ekorensis † Elephas falconeri † Elephas iolensis † Elephas planifrons † Elephas platycephalus † Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of pachyderm, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea... In zootomy, several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ... The metatarsus consists of the five long bones of the foot, which are numbered from the medial side (ossa metatarsalia I.-V.); each presents for examination a body and two extremities. ... A digitigrade is an animal that stands or walks on its digits, or toes. ...


Christiansen (1998) estimated that the leg bones of Tyrannosaurus were not significantly stronger than those of elephants, which are relatively limited in their top speed and never actually run (there is no airborne phase), and hence proposed that the dinosaur's maximum speed would have been about 11 meters/second (about 24 mph), which is about the speed of a human sprinter. But he also noted that such estimates depend on many dubious assumptions.[78]


Farlow and colleagues (1995) have argued that a 6-8 ton Tyrannosaurus would have been critically or even fatally injured if it had fallen while moving quickly, since its torso would have slammed into the ground at a deceleration of 6 g (six times the acceleration due to gravity, or about 60 meters/s²) and its tiny arms could not have reduced the impact.[7][79] However, giraffes have been known to gallop at 50 km/h (31 mph), despite the risk that they might break a leg or worse, which can be fatal even in a "safe" environment such as a zoo.[80][81] Thus it is quite possible that Tyrannosaurus also moved fast when necessary and had to accept such risks.[82][83] Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Range map The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is an African even-toed ungulate mammal, the tallest of all land-living animal species. ...

Foot of a Tyrannosaurus rex.
Foot of a Tyrannosaurus rex.

Most recent research on Tyrannosaurus locomotion does not narrow down speeds further than a range from 17 km/h (11 mph) to 40 km/h (25 mph), i.e. from walking or slow running to moderate-speed running. For example, a 2002 paper in the journal Nature used a mathematical model (validated by applying it to three living animals, alligators, chickens, and humans; additionally later eight more species including emus and ostriches[84]) to gauge the leg muscle mass needed for fast running (over 40 km/h [25 mph]). They found that proposed top speeds in excess of 40 km/h (25 mph) were unfeasible, because they would require very large leg muscles (more than approximately 40–86% of total body mass.) Even moderately fast speeds would have required large leg muscles. This discussion is difficult to resolve, as it is unknown how large the leg muscles actually were in Tyrannosaurus. If they were smaller, only 18 km/h (~11 mph) walking/jogging might have been possible.[85][76] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 2446 KB) Summary Photographer: User:Ballista Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 2446 KB) Summary Photographer: User:Ballista Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... For other uses, see Alligator (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about modern humans. ...


A study in 2007 used computer models to estimate running speeds, based on data taken directly from fossils, and claimed that T. rex had a top running speed of 8 meters per second (18 mph). An average professional football (soccer) player would be slightly slower, while a human sprinter can reach 12 m/s (27 mph). Note that these computer models predict a top speed of 17.8 m/second (about 45 mph) for a 3 kilogram (7 lb) Compsognathus[86][87] (probably a juvenile individual).[88] “Soccer” redirects here. ... Binomial name Compsognathus longipes Wagner, 1859 Compsognathus // meaning elegant jaw (Greek kompsos/κομψος meaning elegant, refined or dainty and gnathos/γναθος meaning jaw) was a small bipedal carnivorous theropod dinosaur, the size of a chicken that lived in the late Jurassic Period of what is now Europe, with fossil finds from Germany...


Those who argue that Tyrannosaurus was incapable of running estimate the top speed of Tyrannosaurus at about 17 km/h (11 mph). This is still faster than its most likely prey species, hadrosaurids and ceratopsians.[85] In addition, some advocates of the idea that Tyrannosaurus was a predator (see below) claim that tyrannosaur running speed is not important, since it may have been slow but still faster than its probable prey.[89] However, Paul and Christiansen (2000) argued that at least the later ceratopsians had upright forelimbs and the larger species may have been as fast as rhinos.[90] Healed Tyrannosaurus bite wounds on ceratopsian fossils are interpreted as evidence of attacks on living ceratopsians (see below). If the ceratopsians that lived alongside Tyrannosaurus were fast, that casts doubt on the argument that Tyrannosaurus did not have to be fast to catch its prey. Alternatively, perhaps Tyrannosaurus used ambush tactics to attack faster prey animals.[76] The debate about Tyrannosaurus’ speed seems far from finished. Genera Lambeosaurinae    Corythosaurus    Hypacrosaurus    Lambeosaurus    Parasaurolophus Hadrosaurinae    Anasazisaurus    Anatotitan    Edmontosaurus    Hadrosaurus    Maiasaura    Prosaurolophus    Saurolophus    Shantungosaurus Hadrosaurids or duck-billed dinosaurs are members of the family Hadrosauridae, and include ornithopods such as Edmontosaurus and Parasaurolophus. ... The Ceratopsia are a group of omnivorous and herbivorous, beaked dinosaurs which thrived in North America and Asia during the Cretaceous. ... For other uses, see Rhinoceros (disambiguation). ...


Feeding strategies

Profile view of a Tyrannosaurus skull (AMNH 5027).
Profile view of a Tyrannosaurus skull (AMNH 5027).

The debate about whether Tyrannosaurus was a predator or a pure scavenger is as old as the debate about its locomotion. Lambe (1917) described a good skeleton of Tyrannosaurus’ close relative Gorgosaurus and concluded that it and therefore also Tyrannosaurus was a pure scavenger, because the Gorgosaurus’ teeth showed hardly any wear.[91] This argument is no longer taken seriously, because theropods replaced their teeth quite rapidly. Ever since the first discovery of Tyrannosaurus most scientists have agreed that it was a predator, although like modern large predators it would have been happy to scavenge or steal another predator's kill if it had the opportunity.[92][93] Predator and Prey redirect here. ... For a person who scavenges, see Waste picker. ... Binomial name Gorgosaurus libratus Lambe, 1914 Gorgosaurus, meaning fierce lizard (from the Greek: gorgos/γορργος meaning terrible or fierce and saurus/σαυρος meaning lizard) is a genus of carnivorous dinosaur that reached 7 to 8 metres (27 to 30 feet) in length, with an estimated weight of 2. ...


Noted hadrosaur expert Jack Horner is currently the major advocate of the idea that Tyrannosaurus was exclusively a scavenger and did not engage in active hunting at all.[94][52] Horner has presented several arguments to support the pure scavenger hypothesis: Hadrosaurus foulkii is a hadrosaurid dinosaur species, and the first full dinosaur skeleton found in North America. ... John Jack R. Horner (born June 15, 1946) is an American paleontologist who discovered and named the Maiasaura, providing the first clear evidence that dinosaurs cared for their young. ...

Cast of a Tyrannosaurus rex braincase at the Australian Museum, Sydney.
Cast of a Tyrannosaurus rex braincase at the Australian Museum, Sydney.
  • Tyrannosaurs had large olfactory bulbs and olfactory nerves (relative to their brain size). These suggest a highly developed sense of smell which could sniff out carcasses over great distances, as modern vultures do. Opponents of the pure scavenger hypothesis have used the example of vultures in the opposite way, arguing that the scavenger hypothesis is implausible because the only modern pure scavengers are large gliding birds, which use their keen senses and energy-efficient gliding to cover vast areas economically.[95] However, researchers from Glasgow concluded that an ecosystem as productive as the current Serengeti would provide sufficient carrion for a large theropod scavenger, although the theropod might have had to be cold-blooded in order to get more calories from carrion than it spent on foraging (see Warm-bloodedness of dinosaurs). They also suggested that modern ecosystems like Serengeti have no large terrestrial scavengers because gliding birds now do the job much more efficiently, while large theropods did not face competition for the scavenger ecological niche from gliding birds.[96]
  • Tyrannosaur teeth could crush bone, and therefore could extract as much food (bone marrow) as possible from carcass remnants, usually the least nutritious parts. Karen Chin and colleagues have found bone fragments in coprolites (fossilized dung) that they attribute to tyrannosaurs, but point out that a tyrannosaur's teeth were not well adapted to systematically chewing bone like hyenas do to extract marrow.[97]
  • Since at least some of Tyrannosaurus's potential prey could move quickly, evidence that it walked instead of ran could indicate that it was a scavenger.[94][98] On the other hand, recent analyses suggest that Tyrannosaurus, while slower than large modern terrestrial predators, may well have been fast enough to prey on large hadrosaurs and ceratopsians.[85][89] It may also have used ambush tactics to attack faster prey animals.[76]
The eye-sockets of T. rex faced mainly forwards, giving it good binocular vision.
The eye-sockets of T. rex faced mainly forwards, giving it good binocular vision.

Other evidence suggests hunting behavior in Tyrannosaurus. Stevens (2006) found that the eye-sockets of tyrannosaurs are positioned so that the eyes would point forward, giving them binocular vision slightly better than that of modern hawks. He also pointed out that the tyrannosaur lineage had a history of steadily improving binocular vision. It is hard to see how natural selection would have favored this long-term trend if tyrannosaurs had been pure scavengers, which would not have needed the advanced depth perception that stereoscopic vision provides.[13] In modern animals, binocular vision is found mainly in predators (the principal exceptions are primates, which need it for leaping from branch to branch). The Australian Museum is the oldest museum in Australia, centering on natural history and anthropology, with collections centering on vertebrate and invertebrate zoology, as well as minerology, palaeontology, and anthropology. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... The olfactory bulb is a structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, the perception of odors. ... The olfactory nerve is the first of twelve cranial nerves. ... Orders Falconiformes (Fam. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... A zebra and wildebeests during migration The Serengeti ecosystem is located in north-western Tanzania and extends to south-western Kenya between latitudes 1 and 3 S and longitudes 34 and 36 E. It spans some 30,000 km. ... An American Black Vulture feeding on squirrel carrion For other uses, see Carrion (disambiguation). ... A calorie refers to a unit of energy. ... Scientific opinion about the life-style, metabolism and temperature regulation of dinosaurs has varied over time since the discovery of dinosaurs in the mid-19th century: Richard Owen coined the name dinosaurs in 1842 and speculated thay they were active and warm-blooded. ... Two lichens on a rock, in two different ecological niches In ecology, a niche (pronounced nich, neesh or nish)[1] is a term describing the relational position of a species or population in its ecosystem[1]. A shorthand definition is that a niche is how an organism makes a living. ... For the Dir en grey album, see The Marrow of a Bone. ... Coprolite is the name given to the mineral that results when human or animal semen is fossilized. ... This article is about the species of animal. ... Binocular vision is vision in which both eyes are used synchronously to produce a single image. ... Binocular vision is vision in which both eyes are used synchronously to produce a single image. ... For other uses, see Hawk (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... Depth perception is the visual ability to perceive the world in three dimensions. ... Binocular vision (also referred to as stereoscopic vision) is a type of visual system common in many kinds of animals where both the eyes produce only a single image in the brain. ... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ...


At the site where the very large tyrannosaur named Sue was found, a skeleton of the hadrosaurid Edmontosaurus annectens was also found, with healed tyrannosaur-inflicted damage on its tail vertebrae. The fact that the damage seems to have healed suggests that the Edmontosaurus survived a tyrannosaur's attack on a living target, i.e. the tyrannosaur had attempted active predation.[99][100] A Triceratops was found in Mexico found with bite marks on its ilium. These were also inflicted by a tyrannosaur and they too appear healed, indicating active predation by the tyrannosaur.[101] Tyrannosaurus also had a bite force estimated at 6,400 to 13,400 N, rivaling any other known taxon.[15] However, further recent investigation of these purported wounds has shown that most are infections rather than injuries (or simply damage to the fossil after death) and the few injuries are too general to be indicative of intraspecific conflict.[102] Sue, the most complete T. rex fossil yet discovered, on display at the Field Museum in Chicago, Illinois. ... Species (type) Marsh, 1892 Sternberg, 1926 Synonyms Anatosaurus Lull & Wright, 1942 Edmontosaurus (ed-MON-toh-sawr-us) meaning Edmonton lizard (after where it was found, in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada and Greek sauros meaning lizard) was a hadrosaurid dinosaur genus from the Maastrichtian, the last stage of the Cretaceous Period, 71... A diagram of a thoracic vertebra. ... Species (type) Marsh, 1890 Triceratops (IPA: ) was a herbivorous genus of ceratopsid dinosaur that lived during the late Maastrichtian stage of the Late Cretaceous Period, around 68 to 65 million years ago (mya) in what is now North America. ... The ilium of the pelvis is divisible into two parts, the body and the ala; the separation is indicated on the internal surface by a curved line, the arcuate line, and on the external surface by the margin of the acetabulum. ... For other uses, see Newton (disambiguation). ...


Some researchers argue that if Tyrannosaurus were a scavenger, another dinosaur had to be the top predator in the Amerasian Upper Cretaceous. Top prey were the larger marginocephalians and ornithopods. The other tyrannosaurids share so many characteristics that only small dromaeosaurs remain as feasible top predators. In this light, scavenger hypothesis adherents have suggested that the size and power of tyrannosaurs allowed them to steal kills from smaller predators.[98] Most paleontologist accept that Tyrannosaurus was both an active predator and a scavenger. Suborders Pachycephalosauria Ceratopia Marginocephalia is a group of ornithischian dinosaurs that includes the thick-skulled pachycephalosaurids, and horned ceratopsians. ... Families Hypsilophodontidae* Rhabdodontidae Dryosauridae Camptosauridae Iguanodontidae Hadrosauridae Ornithopods are a group of bird-hipped dinosaurs who started out as small, bipedal running grazers, and grew in size and numbers until they became one of the most successful groups of herbivores in the Cretaceous world, and dominated the North American landscape. ... Genera See text. ... Kleptoparasitism (literally, parasitism by theft) is a form of feeding where one animal takes prey from another that has caught, killed, or otherwise prepared it. ...


History

Henry Fairfield Osborn, president of the American Museum of Natural History, named Tyrannosaurus rex in 1905. The generic name is derived from the Greek words τυραννος (tyrannos, meaning "tyrant") and σαυρος (sauros, meaning "lizard"). Osborn used the Latin word rex, meaning "king", for the specific name. The full binomial therefore translates to "tyrant lizard king," emphasizing the animal's size and perceived dominance over other species of the time.[50] Henry Fairfield Osborn (August 8, 1857 — November 6, 1935) was an American paleontologist and geologist. ... Main Lobby in the Theodore Roosevelt Memorial. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Latin name redirects here. ...


Earliest finds

Scale model of the never-completed Tyrannosaurus rex exhibit planned for the American Museum of Natural History by H.F. Osborn.
Scale model of the never-completed Tyrannosaurus rex exhibit planned for the American Museum of Natural History by H.F. Osborn.

The vertebrae named Manospondylus by Cope in 1892 can be considered the first known specimen of Tyrannosaurus rex. Barnum Brown, assistant curator of the American Museum of Natural History, found the second Tyrannosaurus skeleton in Wyoming in 1900. This specimen was originally named Dynamosaurus imperiosus in the same paper in which Tyrannosaurus rex was described.[103] Had it not been for page order, Dynamosaurus would have become the official name. The original "Dynamosaurus" material resides in the collections of the Natural History Museum, London.[104] Image File history File links AMNH_rex_mount. ... Image File history File links AMNH_rex_mount. ... Main Lobby in the Theodore Roosevelt Memorial. ... Henry Fairfield Osborn (August 8, 1857 — November 6, 1935) was an American paleontologist and geologist. ... Barnum Brown (1873-1963) was perhaps the most famous fossil hunter of the early Twentieth Century. ... Main Lobby in the Theodore Roosevelt Memorial. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... For other similarly-named museums see Museum of Natural History. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


In total, Barnum Brown found five Tyrannosaurus partial skeletons. Brown collected his second Tyrannosaurus in 1902 and 1905 in Hell Creek, Montana. This is the holotype used to describe Tyrannosaurus rex Osborn, 1905. In 1941 it was sold to the Carnegie Museum of Natural History in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Brown's fourth and largest find, also from Hell Creek, is on display in the American Museum of Natural History in New York.[52] The Hell Creek Formation is the division of Upper Cretaceous rocks in North America. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... A holotype is one of several possible types. ... Henry Fairfield Osborn (August 8, 1857 — November 6, 1935) was an American paleontologist and geologist. ... The Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh are operated by the Carnegie Institute and located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ... Pittsburgh redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Main Lobby in the Theodore Roosevelt Memorial. ... This article is about the state. ...


Although there are numerous skeletons in the world, only one track has been documented — at Philmont Scout Ranch in northeast New Mexico. It was discovered in 1983 and identified and documented in 1994.[105] Philmont Scout Ranch is a large, rugged, mountainous ranch located near the town of Cimarron in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of the Rocky Mountains of northern New Mexico. ... For other uses, see New Mexico (disambiguation). ...


Notable specimens

Main article: Specimens of Tyrannosaurus
"Sue" the Tyrannosaurus, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, showing the forelimbs. The 'wishbone' is between the forelimbs.
"Sue" the Tyrannosaurus, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, showing the forelimbs. The 'wishbone' is between the forelimbs.

Sue Hendrickson, amateur paleontologist, discovered the most complete (more than 90%) and, until 2001 the largest, Tyrannosaurus fossil skeleton known in the Hell Creek Formation near Faith, South Dakota, on August 12, 1990. This Tyrannosaurus, nicknamed "Sue" in her honor, was the object of a legal battle over its ownership. In 1997 this was settled in favor of Maurice Williams, the original land owner, and the fossil collection was sold at auction for USD 7.6 million, making it the most expensive dinosaur skeleton to date. It has now been reassembled and is currently exhibited at the Field Museum of Natural History. A study of this specimen's fossilized bones showed that "Sue" reached full size at age 19 and died at age 28, the longest any tyrannosaur is known to have lived.[106] The "Sue" specimen apparently died from a massive bite to the head, which could only have been inflicted by another tyrannosaur.[107] Researchers reported that a subadult and a juvenile skeleton were found in the same quarry as the "Sue" specimen, which has been used to support the hypothesis that tyrannosaurs may have lived in social groups of some kind.[108] Sue, AMNH 5027, Stan, and Jane, to scale with a human. ... Image File history File links Field_fg05. ... Image File history File links Field_fg05. ... Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago The Field Museum of Natural History, in Chicago, Illinois, USA, sits on Lake Shore Drive next to Lake Michigan, part of a scenic complex known as Museum Campus Chicago. ... Bronze cast of a Tyrannosaurus furcula. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... For the 1994 film, see Amateur (film). ... The Hell Creek Formation is the division of Upper Cretaceous rocks in North America. ... Faith is a city in Meade County, South Dakota, United States. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago The Field Museum of Natural History, in Chicago, Illinois, USA, sits on Lake Shore Drive next to Lake Michigan, part of a scenic complex known as Museum Campus Chicago. ...


Another Tyrannosaurus, nicknamed "Stan", in honor of amateur paleontologist Stan Sacrison, was found in the Hell Creek Formation near Buffalo, South Dakota, in the spring of 1987. After 30,000 hours of digging and preparing, a 65% complete skeleton emerged. Stan is currently on display in the Black Hills Museum of Natural History Exhibit in Hill City, South Dakota, after an extensive world tour. This tyrannosaur, too, was found to have many bone pathologies, including broken and healed ribs, a broken (and healed) neck and a spectacular hole in the back of its head, about the size of a Tyrannosaurus tooth. Both Stan and Sue were examined by Peter Larson. Buffalo is a town located in Harding County, South Dakota. ... Hill City is a city located in Pennington County, South Dakota. ...

"Jane" at the Burpee Museum in Rockford, Illinois
"Jane" at the Burpee Museum in Rockford, Illinois

In 2001, a 50% complete skeleton of a juvenile Tyrannosaurus was discovered in the Hell Creek Formation in Montana, by a crew from the Burpee Museum of Natural History of Rockford, Illinois. Dubbed "Jane the Rockford T-Rex," the find was initially considered the first known skeleton of the pygmy tyrannosaurid Nanotyrannus but subsequent research has revealed that it is more likely a juvenile Tyrannosaurus.[109] It is the most complete and best preserved juvenile example known to date. Jane has been examined by Jack Horner, Pete Larson, Robert Bakker, Greg Erickson and several other renowned paleontologists, because of the uniqueness of her age. Jane is currently on exhibit at the Burpee Museum of Natural History in Rockford, Illinois.[110][111] Burpee Museum of Natural History The Burpee Museum of Natural History is located along the Rock River in downtown Rockford, Illinois at 737 North Main Street. ... , Nickname: The Forest City Country State County Township Elevation 715 ft (218 m) Coordinates , Area 56. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Jane is a renowned juvenile Tyrannosaurus Rex fossil discovered in the Hell Creek Formation in southern Montana. ... Binomial name Nanotyrannus lancensis Bakker, Currie & Williams, 1988 Nanotyrannus (tiny tyrant) was erected in 1988 for a small tyrannosaurid skull, previously described in 1946 (Gilmore) as Albertosaurus lancensis. ... John Jack R. Horner (born June 15, 1946) is an American paleontologist who discovered and named the Maiasaura, providing the first clear evidence that dinosaurs cared for their young. ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... Robert T. Bakker (Bob Bakker), born in Bergen, New Jersey, 1945, is a famous American paleontologist who has helped re-shape modern theories about dinosaurs, particularly by adding support to the theory that some dinosaurs were homeothermic (warm-blooded). ... A paleontologist carefully chips rock from a column of dinosaur vertebrae. ...


Also in 2001, Dr. Jack Horner discovered a specimen of T. rex around 10% larger than "Sue". Dubbed C. rex (or "Celeste" after Jack's wife), this specimen is currently under study.


In a press release on April 7, 2006, Montana State University revealed that it possessed the largest Tyrannosaurus skull yet discovered. Discovered in the 1960s and only recently reconstructed, the skull measures 59 inches (150 cm) long compared to the 55.4 inches (141 cm) of “Sue’s” skull, a difference of 6.5%.[112][113] April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Appearances in popular culture

Main article: Cultural depictions of Tyrannosaurus
Tyrannosaurus rex as it appears in Jurassic Park, Universal Studios.

Since it was first described in 1905, Tyrannosaurus rex has become the most widely-recognized dinosaur in popular culture. It is the only dinosaur which is routinely referred to by its full scientific name (Tyrannosaurus rex) among the general public, and the scientific abbreviation T. rex has also come into wide usage (commonly misspelled "T-Rex").[1] Robert T. Bakker notes this in The Dinosaur Heresies and explains that a name like "Tyrannosaurus rex is just irresistible to the tongue."[6] A computer-generated from the 1993 Steven Spielberg film Jurassic Park. ... For the feature film based on this book, see Jurassic Park (film). ... This article is about the American media conglomerate. ... Popular culture (or pop culture) is the widespread cultural elements in any given society that are perpetuated through that societys vernacular language or lingua franca. ... Robert T. Bakker Dr. Robert T. Bakker (Bob Bakker), born March 24, 1945, in Bergen County, New Jersey, is an American paleontologist who has helped re-shape modern theories about dinosaurs, particularly by adding support to the theory that some dinosaurs were homeothermic (warm-blooded). ... The Dinosaur Heresies: New Theories Unlocking the Mystery of the Dinosaurs and Their Extinction was a 1986 book published by Robert T. Bakker, a prominent paleontologist. ...


Museum exhibits featuring T. rex are very popular; an estimated 10,000 visitors flocked to Chicago's Field Museum on the opening day of its "Sue" exhibit in 2003.[114] T. rex has appeared numerous times on television and in films, notably (in chronological order) The Lost World, King Kong, The Land Before Time, Jurassic Park, Toy Story, Toy Story 2, Walking with Dinosaurs, and Night at the Museum. A number of books and comic strips, including Calvin and Hobbes, have also featured Tyrannosaurus, which is typically portrayed as the biggest and most terrifying carnivore of all. At least one musical group, the band T.Rex, is named after the species. Tyrannosaurus-related toys, including numerous video games and other merchandise, remain popular. Various businesses have capitalized on the popularity of Tyrannosaurus rex by using it in advertisements. This article is about motion pictures. ... This article is about the 1925 film. ... This is about the original movie and novel. ... This article is about the 1988 film. ... Jurassic Park is a 1993 science fiction film directed by Steven Spielberg, based on the novel of the same name by Michael Crichton. ... Toy Story is a 1995 CGI animated feature film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures and Buena Vista Distribution It grossed $191,773,049 in the United States and it took in a grand total of $354,300,000 worldwide. ... -1... Walking with Dinosaurs was a six-part television series produced by the BBC, narrated by Kenneth Branagh, and first aired in the UK in 1999. ... Night at the Museum is a 2006 American adventure comedy film. ... This article is about the comic strip, the sequential art form as published in newspapers and on the Internet. ... Listen to this article (3 parts) (info) Part 1ʉۢ Part 2ʉۢ Part 3 This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2006-01-29, and may not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... T.Rex (originally known as Tyrannosaurus Rex, also occasionally spelt T Rex or T-Rex), were an English rock band fronted by Marc Bolan. ... A teddy bear A toy is an object used in play. ... Computer and video games redirects here. ... // Advert redirects here. ...


References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Brochu, C.R. 2003. Osteology of Tyrannosaurus rex: insights from a nearly complete skeleton and high-resolution computed tomographic analysis of the skull. Memoirs of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology. 7: 1-138.
  2. ^ a b Sue's vital statistics. Sue at the Field Museum. Field Museum of Natural History. Retrieved on 2007-09-15.
  3. ^ a b c d Erickson, Gregory M.; Makovicky, Peter J.; Currie, Philip J.; Norell, Mark A.; Yerby, Scott A.; & Brochu, Christopher A. (2004). "Gigantism and comparative life-history parameters of tyrannosaurid dinosaurs". Nature 430 (7001): 772–775. doi:10.1038/nature02699. 
  4. ^ Henderson, Donald M. (1999). "Estimating the masses and centers of mass of extinct animals by 3-D mathematical slicing". Paleobiology 25 (1): 88–106. 
  5. ^ Anderson, John F.; Hall-Martin, Anthony J.; & Russell, Dale A. (1985). "Long bone circumference and weight in mammals, birds and dinosaurs". Journal of Zoology 207 (1): 53–61. 
  6. ^ a b c Bakker, Robert T. (1986). The Dinosaur Heresies. New York: Kensington Publishing, 481pp. ISBN 978-0688042875. 
  7. ^ a b Farlow, James O.; Smith, Matthew B.; & Robinson, John M. (1995). "Body mass, bone "strength indicator", and cursorial potential of Tyrannosaurus rex". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 15 (4): 713–725. 
  8. ^ Seebacher, Frank. (2001). "A new method to calculate allometric length-mass relationships of dinosaurs". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21 (1): 51–60. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2001)021[0051:ANMTCA]2.0.CO;2. 
  9. ^ Christiansen, Per; & Fariña, Richard A. (2004). "Mass prediction in theropod dinosaurs". Historical Biology 16 (2-4): 85–92. doi:10.1080/08912960412331284313. 
  10. ^ dal Sasso, Cristiano; Maganuco, Simone; Buffetaut, Eric; & Mendez, Marcos A. (2005). "New information on the skull of the enigmatic theropod Spinosaurus, with remarks on its sizes and affinities". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 25 (4): 888–896. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2005)025[0888:NIOTSO]2.0.CO;2. 
  11. ^ Calvo, Jorge O.; & Coria, Rodolfo A. (1998). "New specimen of Giganotosaurus carolinii (Coria & Salgado, 1995), supports it as the as the largest theropod ever found". Gaia 15: 117–122.  [not printed until 2000]
  12. ^ Quinlan, Elizibeth D.; Derstler, Kraig; & Miller, Mercedes M. (2007). "Anatomy and function of digit III of the Tyrannosaurus rex manus". Geological Society of America Annual Meeting - Abstracts with Programs: 77.  [abstract only]
  13. ^ a b Stevens, K.A. (2006). "Binocular vision in theropod dinosaurs". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 26: 321–330. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2006)26[321:BVITD]2.0.CO;2.  and copy at [1] Also Sight for 'Saur Eyes: T. rex vision was among nature's best (press release) has a good picture of a T rex skull
  14. ^ Snively, E., Henderson, D.M., and Phillips, D.S. (2006). "= Fused and vaulted nasals of tyrannosaurid dinosaurs: Implications for cranial strength and feeding mechanics". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 51 (3): 435–454. 
  15. ^ a b Erickson, G.M.; Van Kirk, S.D.; Su, J.; Levenston, M.E.; Caler, W.E.; and Carter, D.R. (1996). "Bite-force estimation for Tyrannosaurus rex from tooth-marked bones.". Nature 382: 706–708. doi:10.1038/382706a0. 
  16. ^ Meers, M.B. (August 2003). "Maximum bite force and prey size of Tyrannosaurus rex and their relationships to the inference of feeding behavior". Historical Biology: A Journal of Paleobiology 16 (1): 1–12. doi:10.1080/0891296021000050755. 
  17. ^ a b c Holtz, T.R. 1994. The phylogenetic position of the Tyrannosauridae: implications for theropod systematics. Journal of Palaeontology 68(5): 1100–1117.
  18. ^ a b c d Paul, G.S. 1988. Predatory Dinosaurs of the World. New York: Simon & Schuster. 464pp.
  19. ^ Smith, J.B. (December 2005). "Heterodonty in Tyrannosaurus rex: implications for the taxonomic and systematic utility of theropod dentitions". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 25 (4): 865–887. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2005)025[0865:HITRIF]2.0.CO;2.  Copy at [2]
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Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago The Field Museum of Natural History, in Chicago, Illinois, USA, sits on Lake Shore Drive next to Lake Michigan, part of a scenic complex known as Museum Campus Chicago. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Phil Currie, born in Toronto, formerly the head of Dinosaur Research at the Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology in Drumheller, Alberta, is now a researcher and prominent palaeontologist at the University of Alberta in Edmonton. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Dale A. Russell is a geologist/palaeontologist, currently Research Professor at The Department of Marine Earth and Atmospheric Sciences (MEAS) of North Carolina State University. ... Robert T. Bakker Dr. Robert T. Bakker (Bob Bakker), born March 24, 1945, in Bergen County, New Jersey, is an American paleontologist who has helped re-shape modern theories about dinosaurs, particularly by adding support to the theory that some dinosaurs were homeothermic (warm-blooded). ... James Farlow is a vertebrate paleontologist, specialising on dinosaur trace fossils, biomechanics and physiology. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Dr. Rodolfo Coria is an Argentine paleontologist and current director of the Museo Carmen Funes in Plaza Huincul, Neuquén Province, Argentina. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Smithsonian is a monthly magazine published by the Smithsonian Institution of the United States in Washington, DC External link Smithsonian webpage Categories: Smithsonian Institution | United States magazines | Stub ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Species type (Marsh, 1878) Paul, 1987 Mateus , 2006 jimmadseni Chure, 2000 vide Glut, 2003 Synonyms Creosaurus Marsh, 1878 Labrosaurus Marsh, 1879 Camptonotus Marsh, 1879  ?Epanterias Cope, 1878 Allosaurus (IPA: ) was a large (up to 11. ... Big Al as depicted in this program. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Kenneth Carpenter is a Paleontologist at the Denver Museum of Natural History and author or co-author of a number of books on dinosaurs and Mesozoic life. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

See also

  • Farlow, J. O. (2000). "Theropod Locomotion". American Zoologist 40 (4): 640–663. The Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. doi:10.1093/icb/40.4.640.  - a good survey of research

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Tyrannosaurus
Wikispecies has information related to:
Tyrannosaurus
Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of
Wikijunior Dinosaurs/T-Rex
Dinosaurs Portal
  • Tyrannosauridae "Tree of Life" page, very comprehensive survey by major authority Tom Holtz.
  • "The secret of T. rex's colossal size: a teenage growth spurt", The Guardian, August 12, 2004. 
  • Tyrannosaurus in the Dino Directory
  • Sue's homepage
  • Stan's homepage
  • Tree of Life discussing Tyrannosauridae "Tree of Life" page, very comprehensive survey by major authority Tom Holtz.
  • Unearthing Tyrannosaurus rex
  • T.rex juvenile Jane
  • NBCI's Taxonomy Browser
  • Cretaceous Hell Creek Faunal Facies is an example of one tyrannosaur environment, in the Hell Creek Formation of Montana
  • Bristol University study on bite forces of predators
  • Museum of Unnatural Mystery – Bite force etc. of T. rex
  • Stanford University on bite force of T. rex
  • How Tyrannosaurus might have had sex
  • Recent Discovery of Soft Tissue

Image File history File links Wikispecies-logo. ... Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation that aims to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species (including animalia, plantae, fungi, bacteria, archaea, and protista). ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Hell Creek Formation is the division of Upper Cretaceous rocks in North America. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
T. rex- EnchantedLearning.com (738 words)
Until recently, Tyrannosaurus rex was the biggest known carnivorous dinosaur; Giganotosaurus and Carcharodontosaurus are slightly bigger.
Tyrannosaurus rex was a fierce predator that walked on two powerful legs.
Tyrannosaurus rex was up to 40 feet (12.4 m) long, about 15 to 20 feet (4.6 to 6 m) tall.
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