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Encyclopedia > Typhus
Typhus
Classification & external resources
Rash caused by Epidemic typhus.
ICD-10 A75.1
ICD-9 080-083
DiseasesDB 29240
MedlinePlus 001363
eMedicine med/2332 

Typhus is any one of several similar diseases caused by louse-borne bacteria. The name comes from the Greek typhos, meaning smoky or lazy, describing the state of mind of those affected with typhus. Rickettsia is endemic in rodent hosts, including mice and rats, and spreads to humans through mites, fleas and body lice. The arthropod vector flourishes under conditions of poor hygiene, such as those found in prisons or refugee camps, amongst the homeless, or until the middle of the 20th century, in armies in the field. In tropical countries, typhus is often mistaken for dengue fever. Original caption: Rash in a man with epidemic typhus in Burundi. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Binomial name Salmonella enterica Salmonella enterica is a species of Salmonella bacterium. ... For a similar disease with a similar name, see typhus. ... Binomial name Salmonella enterica (ex Kauffmann & Edwards 1952) Le Minor & Popoff 1987 Salmonella enterica is a flagellated, Gram-negative bacterium, and a member of the genus Salmonella. ... Species S. enterica Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria that causes typhoid fever, paratyphoid and foodborne illness. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... Typhon (Typhaon, Typhoeus, Typhus), in Greek mythology, was the final son of Gaia, this time with Tartarus, the offspring of the Earth and the cavernous void beneath: But when Zeus had driven the Titans from heaven, huge Earth bare her youngest child Typhoeus of the love of —Hesiod, Theogony... This article is about the medical term. ... Suborders Anoplura (sucking lice) Rhyncophthirina Ischnocera (avian lice) Amblycera (chewing lice) Lice (singular: louse), also known as fly babies, (order Phthiraptera) are an order of over 3,000 species of wingless phthiraptra. ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Look up vector in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... “Dengue Fever” redirects here. ...

Contents

Types of typhus

Epidemic typhus

Epidemic typhus (also called "Jail Fever", "Hospital Fever", "Ship fever", "Famine fever", "Petechial Fever", and "louse-borne typhus")[1] is so named because the disease often causes epidemics following wars and natural disasters. The causative organism is Rickettsia prowazekii, transmitted by the human body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus).[2] Feeding on a human who carries the bacillus infects the louse. R. prowazekii grows in the louse's gut and is excreted in its feces. The disease is then transmitted to an uninfected human who scratches the louse bite (which itches) and rubs the feces into the wound. The incubation period is one to two weeks. R. prowazekii can remain viable and virulent in the dried louse feces for many days. Typhus will eventually kill the louse, though the disease will remain viable for many weeks in the dead louse. Binomial name da Rocha-Lima, 1916 Rickettsia prowazekii is a species of gram negative, rod shaped, aerobic bacteria that is the etiologic agent of epidemic typhus, transmitted in the feces of lice and fleas. ... Families Echinophthiriidae (seal lice) Enderleinellidae Haematopinidae (ungulate lice) Hamophthiriidae Hoplopleuridae (armoured lice) Hybothiridae Linognathidae (pale lice) Microthoraciidae Neolinognathidae Pecaroecidae Pedicinidae Pediculidae (body lice) Phthiridae (public lice) Polyplacidae (spiny rat lice) Ratemiidae Sucking lice (Anoplura) have around 500 species and represent the smaller of the two traditional suborders of lice. ... Horse feces Feces, faeces, or fæces (see spelling differences) is a waste product from an animals digestive tract expelled through the anus (or cloaca) during defecation. ... Incubation period, also called the latent period or latency period, is the time elapsed between exposure to a pathogenic organism, or chemical or radiation, and when symptoms and signs are first apparent. ...


The symptoms set in quickly, and are among the most severe of the typhus family. They include severe headache, a sustained high fever, cough, rash, severe muscle pain, chills, falling blood pressure, stupor, sensitivity to light, and delirium. A rash begins on the chest about five days after the fever appears, and spreads to the trunk and extremities but does not reach the palms and soles. A symptom common to all forms of typhus is a fever which may reach 39°C (102°F). A headache (cephalalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A rash is a change in skin which affects its color, appearance, or texture. ... This article is about the mental state and medical condition. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


The infection is treated with antibiotics. Intravenous fluids and oxygen may be needed to stabilize the patient. The mortality rate is 10% to 60%, but is vastly lower if antibiotics such as tetracycline are used early. Infection can also be prevented via vaccination. Brill-Zinsser disease is a mild form of epidemic typhus which recurs in someone after a long period of latency (similar to the relationship between chickenpox and shingles). This type of recurrence can also occur in immunosuppressed patients. An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Tetracycline (INN) (IPA: ) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by the streptomyces bacterium, indicated for use against many bacterial infections. ... Chickenpox is the common name for Varicella zoster, classically one of the childhood infectious diseases caught by and survived by almost every child. ... Herpes zoster, colloquially known as shingles, is the reactivation of varicella zoster virus, leading to a crop of painful blisters over the area of a dermatome. ... Immunosuppression is the medical suppression of the immune system. ...


Epidemic typhus hits hardest during times of war and privation. For example, typhus killed many thousands of prisoners in Nazi Germany concentration camps during World War II. The abysmally low standards of hygiene enforced in camps such as Theresienstadt and Bergen-Belsen created conditions where diseases such as typhus flourished. A possible modern scenario for typhus epidemics would be in refugee camps during a major famine or natural disaster. This form of typhus is also known as "prison fever" or "ship fever", because it becomes prevalent in crowded conditions in prisons and aboard ships. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Location of the concentration camp in the Czech Republic Gate Concentration camp Theresienstadt was a concentration camp set up by the Gestapo in the fortress and garrison city Terezín (German name Theresienstadt), located in what is now the Czech Republic. ... dont you know this is bad info This article is about the Nazi concentration camp. ...


Endemic typhus

Endemic typhus (also called "flea-borne typhus" and "murine typhus" or "rat flea typhus") is caused by the bacteria Rickettsia prowazkeii, and is transmitted by the fleas that infest rats. [3] Less often, endemic typhus is caused by Rickettsia felis and transmitted by fleas carried by cats or possums. Symptoms of endemic typhus include headache, fever, chills, myalgia, nausea, vomiting, and cough. Endemic typhus is highly treatable with antibiotics.[3] Most people recover fully, but death may occur in the elderly, severely disabled or patients with a depressed immune system. For other uses, see Flea (disambiguation). ... Species 50 species; see text *Several subfamilies of Muroids include animals called rats. ... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... For other uses, see Possum (disambiguation). ... A headache (cephalalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Look up chill in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Myalgia means muscle pain and is a symptom of many diseases and disorders. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Emesis redirects here. ...


Scrub typhus

Scrub typhus (also called "chigger-borne typhus") is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi and transmitted by chiggers, which are found in areas of heavy scrub vegetation. Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle pain, cough, and gastrointestinal symptoms. More virulent strains of O. tsutsugamushi can cause hemorrhaging and intravascular coagulation. Scrub typhus is a form of typhus caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi and transmitted by chiggers, which are found in areas of heavy scrub vegetation. ... Species See text. ... Harvest mites (genus Trombicula; also known as red bugs, trombiculid mites, scrub-itch mites, berry bugs or, in their larval stage, as chiggers) are mites in the family Trombiculidae that live in forests and grasslands. ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), also called consumptive coagulopathy, is a pathological process in the body where the blood starts to coagulate throughout the whole body. ...


Vaccine

The first major step in the development of the vaccine was Charles Nicolle's 1909 discovery that lice were the vectors for epidemic typhus. This made it possible to isolate the bacteria causing the disease and develop a vaccine; he was awarded the 1928 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for this work. Nicolle attempted a vaccine but was not successful in making one that worked on a large enough scale.[4] A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... Dr. Charles Jules Henry Nicolle (September 21, 1866 - February 28, 1936) was a bacteriologist who earned the 1928 Nobel Prize in Medicine for his identification of lice as the transmitter of epidemic typhus. ... Suborders Anoplura (sucking lice) Rhyncophthirina Ischnocera (avian lice) Amblycera (chewing lice) Lice (singular: louse) (order Phthiraptera) are an order of over 3000 species of wingless parasitic insects. ... In epidemiology, a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. ... Emil Adolf von Behring was the first person to receive the Nobel Prize in physiology or Medicine, for his work on the treatment of diphtheria. ...


Henrique da Rocha Lima in 1916 then proved that the bacteria Rickettsia prowazekii was the agent responsible for typhus; he named bacteria after H. T. Ricketts and Stanislaus von Prowazek, two zoologists who died investigating a typhus epidemic in a prison camp in 1915. Once these crucial facts were recognized, Rudolf Weigl in 1930 was able to fashion a practical and effective vaccine production method by grinding up the guts of infected lice that had been drinking blood. It was, however, very dangerous to produce, and carried a high likelihood of infection to those who were working on it. Henrique da Rocha Lima (1879–1956) was a Brazilian physician, pathologist and infectologist. ... Howard Taylor Ricketts (1871-1910) was an American pathologist after whom the Rickettsiaceae family and the Rickettsiales are named. ... Stanislaus von Prowazek (1875-1915) was a Czech zoologist and parasitologist, who along with pathologist Henrique da Rocha Lima discovered the pathogen of epidemic typhus. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Rudolf Weigl Professor Rudolf Stefan Weigl (1883 - 1957) was a famous Czech-Polish biologist and inventor of the first effective vaccine for epidemic typhus. ...


A safer mass-production-ready method using egg yolks was developed by Herald R. Cox in 1938.[5] This vaccine was used heavily by 1943. Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardised products on production lines. ... An egg yolk surrounded by the egg white An egg yolk is the part of an egg which serves as the food source for the developing embryo inside. ... Herald Rea Cox (1907 -1986), was an American bacteriologist. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


History

Civilian Public Service worker distributes rat poison for typhus control in Gulfport, Mississippi, ca. 1945.
Civilian Public Service worker distributes rat poison for typhus control in Gulfport, Mississippi, ca. 1945.

The first description of typhus was probably given in 1083 at a convent near Salerno, Italy.[6] In 1546, Girolamo Fracastoro, a Florentine physician, described typhus in his famous treatise on viruses and contagion, De Contagione et Contagiosis Morbis.[7] Image File history File links CPS141ratpoison. ... Image File history File links CPS141ratpoison. ... Civilian Public Service (CPS) provided conscientious objectors in the United States an alternative to military service during World War II. From 1941 to 1947 nearly 12,000 draftees, unwilling to do any type of military service, performed work of national importance in 152 CPS camps throughout the United States and... Location of Gulfport in the State of Mississippi Coordinates: , Country United States State Mississippi County Harrison Founded Incorporated Government  - Mayor Brent Warr Area  - City  64. ... Events Sancho I of Aragon conqueres Graus. ... Salerno is a town in Campania, south-western Italy, the capital of the province of the same name. ... // Events Spanish conquest of Yucatan Peace between England and France Foundation of Trinity College, Cambridge by Henry VIII of England Katharina von Bora flees to Magdeburg Science Architecture Michelangelo Buonarroti is made chief architect of St. ... Girolamo Fracastoro (Fracastorius) (1478‑1553) was an Italian physician, scholar and poet. ... Florence (Italian, Firenze) is a city in the center of Tuscany, in central Italy, on the Arno River, with a population of around 400,000, plus a suburban population in excess of 200,000. ...


Before a vaccine was developed in World War II, typhus was a devastating disease for humans and has been responsible for a number of epidemics throughout history.[8] These epidemics tend to follow wars, famine, and other conditions that result in mass causalties. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... An epidemic is generally a widespread disease that affects many individuals in a population. ... For other uses of War, see War (disambiguation). ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ...


During the second year of the Peloponnesian War (430 BC), the city-state of Athens in ancient Greece was hit by a devastating epidemic, known as the Plague of Athens, which killed, among others, Pericles and his two elder sons. The plague returned twice more, in 429 BC and in the winter of 427/6 BC. Epidemic typhus is one of the strongest candidates for the cause of this disease outbreak, supported by both medical and scholarly opinions.[9][10] “Athenian War” redirects here. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC - 430s BC - 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC Years: 435 BC 434 BC 433 BC 432 BC 431 BC - 430 BC - 429 BC 428 BC... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... The History of Athens is one of the longest of any city in Europe and in the world. ... The city-state of Athens in ancient Greece was hit by a devastating epidemic, known as the Plague of Athens, during the second year of the Peloponnesian War (430 BC) when an Athenian victory still seemed within reach. ... Pericles or Perikles (ca. ...


Typhus also arrived in Europe with soldiers who had been fighting on the isle of Cyprus. The first reliable description of the disease appears during the Spanish siege of Moorish Granada in 1489. These accounts include descriptions of fever and red spots over arms, back and chest, progressing to delirium, gangrenous sores, and the stink of rotting flesh. During the siege, the Spaniards lost 3,000 men to enemy action but an additional 17,000 died of typhus. For the terrain type see Moor Moors is used in this article to describe the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus and the Maghreb, whose culture is often called Moorish. For other meanings look at Moors (Meaning) or Blackamoors. ... For other uses, see Granada (disambiguation). ... Events March 14 - The Queen of Cyprus, Catherine Cornaro, sells her kingdom to Venice. ...


Typhus was also common in prisons (and in crowded conditions where lice spreads easily), where it was known as Gaol fever or Jail fever. Gaol fever often occurs when prisoners are frequently huddled together in dark, filthy rooms. Imprisonment until the next term of court was often equivalent to a death sentence. It was so infectious that prisoners brought before the court sometimes infected the court itself. Following the Assize held at Oxford in 1577, later deemed the Black Assize, over 300 died from Epidemic typhus, including Sir Robert Bell Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer. The outbreak that followed, between 1557 to 1559, killed about 10% of the English population. During the Lent Assize Court held at Taunton (1730) typhus caused the death of the Lord Chief Baron, as well as the High Sheriff, the sergeant, and hundreds of others. During a time when there were 241 capital offenses--more prisoners died from 'gaol fever' than were put to death by all the public executioners in the realm. In 1759 an English authority estimated that each year a fourth of the prisoners had died from Gaol fever.[11] In London, typhus frequently broke out among the ill-kept prisoners of Newgate Gaol and then moved into the general city population. Suborders Anoplura (sucking lice) Rhyncophthirina Ischnocera (avian lice) Amblycera (chewing lice) Lice (singular: louse) (order Phthiraptera) are an order of over 3000 species of wingless parasitic insects. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... The Black Assize was a plague that struck the town of Oxford in England in 1557. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Typhus. ... Sir Robert Bell (Unknown — 1577) of Beaupre Hall, Norfolk, was a Speaker of the House of Commons (1572-1576), during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. Knighted 1577, Of Counsel Kings Lynn 1560, Recorder from 1561, Bencher Middle Temple 1565, Autumn Reader 1565, Lent Reader 1571, Of Counsel Great... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... The Courts of Assize, or Assizes, is the name of criminal courts in several countries. ... Taunton is the county town of Somerset, England. ... Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer is the first baron of the Exchequer. ... The High Sheriff is, or was, a law enforcement position in Anglosphere countries. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Newgate Prison is one of the most infamous prisons of English history. ...

A U.S. soldier is demonstrating DDT-hand spraying equipment. DDT was used to control the spread of typhus-carrying lice.
A U.S. soldier is demonstrating DDT-hand spraying equipment. DDT was used to control the spread of typhus-carrying lice.

Epidemics occurred throughout Europe from the 16th to the 19th centuries, and occurred during the English Civil War, the Thirty Years' War and the Napoleonic Wars. During Napoleon's retreat from Moscow in 1812, more French soldiers died of typhus than were killed by the Russians. A major epidemic occurred in Ireland between 1816-19, and again in the late 1830s, and yet another major typhus epidemic occurred during the Great Irish Famine between 1846 and 1849. The Irish typhus spread to England, where it was sometimes called "Irish fever" and was noted for its virulence. It killed people of all social classes, since lice were endemic and inescapable, but it hit particularly hard in the lower or "unwashed" social strata. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 486 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (700 × 864 pixel, file size: 75 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 486 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (700 × 864 pixel, file size: 75 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century &#8212; 19th century &#8212; 20th century &#8212; more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... Combatants Sweden  Bohemia Denmark-Norway (Until 1643) Dutch Republic France Scotland England Saxony  Holy Roman Empire ( Catholic League) Spain Austria Bavaria Commanders Frederick V Buckingham Leven Gustav II Adolf â€  Johan Baner Cardinal Richelieu Louis II de Bourbon Turenne Christian IV of Denmark Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar Johann Georg I of... Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Sicily  Spain[3]  Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Italy Naples [5] Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[6] Saxony[7] Denmark-Norway [8] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich João Francisco de Saldanha Oliveira e Daun Gebhard von... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... Great Irish Famine may also refer to Great Irish Famine (1740-1741). ...


In America, a typhus epidemic killed the son of Franklin Pierce in Concord, New Hampshire in 1843 and struck in Philadelphia in 1837. Several epidemics occurred in Baltimore, Memphis and Washington DC between 1865 and 1873. Typhus fever was also a significant killer during the US Civil War, although typhoid fever was the more prevalent cause of US Civil War "camp fever". Typhoid is a completely different disease from typhus. Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804 – October 8, 1869) was an American politician and the fourteenth President of the United States, serving from 1853 to 1857. ... Location in Merrimack County, New Hampshire Coordinates: Country United States State New Hampshire County Merrimack County Incorporated 1733  - City Manager Thomas J. Aspell, Jr. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... Baltimore redirects here. ... For other uses, see Memphis (disambiguation). ... Flag Seal Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location Location of Washington, D.C., with regard to the surrounding states of Maryland and Virginia. ... This is about the disease typhoid fever. ...


During World War I typhus caused three million deaths in Russia and more in Poland and Romania. De-lousing stations were established for troops on the Western front but the disease ravaged the armies of the Eastern front, with over 150,000 dying in Serbia alone. Fatalities were generally between 10 to 40 percent of those infected, and the disease was a major cause of death for those nursing the sick. Some historians assert that the disease may serve as a model for the use of biological weapons while in the field. Between 1918 and 1922 typhus caused at least 3 million deaths out of 20–30 million cases. In Russia after World War I, during a civil war between the White and Red armies, typhus killed three million, largely civilians. Even larger epidemics in the post-war chaos of Europe were only averted by the widespread use of the newly discovered DDT to kill the lice on millions of refugees and displaced persons. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... White army may refer to: The military arm of the White movement, a loose coalition of anti-Bolshevik forces in the Russian Civil War The Saudi Arabian National Guard The National Guard of Kuwait This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... DDT or Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethane is the first modern pesticide and is one of the best known synthetic pesticides. ...


During World War II typhus struck the German army as it invaded Russia in 1941.[5] In 1942 and 1943 typhus hit French North Africa, Egypt and Iran particularly hard.[12] Typhus epidemics killed inmates in the Nazi Germany concentration camps, infamous pictures of typhus victims' mass graves could be seen in footage shot at Bergen-Belsen concentration camp.[5] Thousands of prisoners held in appalling conditions in Nazi concentration camps such Theresienstadt and Bergen-Belsen also died of typhus during World War II[5], including Anne Frank and her sister Margot. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The German Army (German: [1], [IPA: heɐ]  ) is the land component of the Bundeswehr (Federal Defence Forces) of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In various forms, France had colonial possessions since the beginning of the 17th century until the 1960s. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933&#8211;1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... dont you know this is bad info This article is about the Nazi concentration camp. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Location of the concentration camp in the Czech Republic Gate Concentration camp Theresienstadt was a concentration camp set up by the Gestapo in the fortress and garrison city Terezín (German name Theresienstadt), located in what is now the Czech Republic. ... dont you know this is bad info This article is about the Nazi concentration camp. ... Annelies Marie Anne Frank ( ) (June 12, 1929 – early March, 1945) was a European Jewish girl (born in Germany, stateless since 1941, but she claimed to be Dutch as she grew up in the Netherlands) who wrote a diary while in hiding with her family and four friends in Amsterdam during...


Following the development of a vaccine during World War II epidemics occur only in Eastern Europe, the Middle East and parts of Africa. Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


Cultural references

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • (1847) In Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bronte, an outbreak of typhus occurs in Jane's school Lowood, highlighting the unsanitary conditions the girls live in.
  • (c. 1974) In Little House on the Prairie (TV Series), an outbreak of typhus hits Walnut Grove killing several. It is traced to below market cost corn meal residents had been purchasing to avoid the high cost of the local mill. The corn meal had been infested by rats.

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... This article is about the Victorian novel. ... Charlotte Bront - idealized portrait, 1873 (based on a drawing by George Richmond, 1850) Charlotte Bront (April 21, 1816 - March 31, 1855) was an English writer. ... How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York was a pioneering work of photojournalism by Jacob Riis, a Danish immigrant reporter, published in 1890, in which he documented the squalid living conditions in the slums of New York City. ... Jacob Riis in 1906 Jacob August Riis (May 3, 1849 - May 26, 1914), a Danish-American muckraker journalist, photographer, and social reformer, was born in Ribe, Denmark. ... Little House on the Prairie is a childrens book by Laura Ingalls Wilder that was published in 1935. ... Walnut Grove is the name of many communities in the US, including: Walnut Grove, Alabama Walnut Grove, Arizona Walnut Grove, Arkansas Walnut Grove, California Walnut Grove, Georgia Walnut Grove, Illinois Walnut Grove, Indiana Walnut Grove, Iowa Walnut Grove, Kentucky Walnut Grove, Maryland Walnut Grove, Minnesota Walnut Grove, Mississippi Walnut Grove... Cornmeal is dried, ground maize corn. ... The term mill, depending on context, can refer to: Mill (factory) – a place of business for making articles of manufacture; e. ... Patrick OBrian (12 December 1914 – 2 January 2000; born as Richard Patrick Russ) was an English novelist and translator, best known for his Aubrey–Maturin series of novels set in the Royal Navy during the Napoleonic Wars and centered on the friendship of Captain Jack Aubrey and the Irish... The Kerguelen Archipelago is in the southern Indian Ocean at 49°20 S, 70°20 E. The main island Kerguelen, originally called Desolation Island, is 6,675 km2 and it is surrounded by another 300 smaller outcrops, forming an archipelago of 7,215 km². The climate is cold, very windy...

References

  1. ^ Diseases P-T at sedgleymanor.com. Retrieved on 2007-07-17.
  2. ^ Gray, Michael W. Rickettsia, typhus and the mitochondrial connection Nature 396, 109 - 110 (12 November 1998)].
  3. ^ a b Information on Murine Typhus (Fleaborne Typhus) or Endemic Typhus Texas Department of State Health Services (2005).
  4. ^ Gross, Ludwik (1996) How Charles Nicolle of the Pasteur Institute discovered that epidemic typhus is transmitted by lice: reminiscences from my years at the Pasteur Institute in Paris Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. Vol. 93, pp. 10539-10540.
  5. ^ a b c d Nuernberg Military Tribunal, Volume I pp. 508-511
  6. ^ Maintenace of human-fed live lice in the laboratory and production of Weigl's exanthematous typhus vaccine by Waclaw Szybalski (1999)
  7. ^ Fracastoro, Girolama, De Contagione et Contagiosis Morbis (1546).
  8. ^ Zinsser, Hans. Rats, Lice and History: A Chronicle of Pestilence and Plagues. Originally published in Boston in 1935, later edition in 1963. Most recent edition 1996, Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers, New York. ISBN 1-884822-47-9.
  9. ^ At a January 1999 medical conference at the University of Maryland, Dr. David Durack, consulting professor of medicine at Duke University notes: "Epidemic typhus fever is the best explanation. It hits hardest in times of war and privation, it has about 20 percent mortality, it kills the victim after about seven days, and it sometimes causes a striking complication: gangrene of the tips of the fingers and toes. The Plague of Athens had all these features." see also: http://www.umm.edu/news/releases/athens.html
  10. ^ Gomme, A. W., edited by A. Andrewes and K. J. Dover. An Historical Commentary on Thucydides, Volume 5. Book VIII Oxford University Press, 1981. ISBN 0-19-814198-X.
  11. ^ Ralph D. Smith, Comment, Criminal Law -- Arrest -- The Right to Resist Unlawful Arrest, 7 NAT. RESOURCES J. 119, 122 n.16 (1967) (hereinafter Comment) (citing John Howard, The State of Prisons 6-7 (1929)) (Howard's observations are from 1773 to 1775). Copied from State v. Valentine May 1997 132 Wn.2d 1, 935 P.2d 1294
  12. ^ Zarafonetis, Chris J. D. Internal Medicine in World War II, Volume II, Chapter 7

  Results from FactBites:
 
Typhus - Health Centers - Channel3000.com | WISC (568 words)
Typhus is an infectious disease that is spread by lice or fleas.
Typhus is caused by one of two types of bacteria: Rickettsia typhiand Rickettsia prowazekii.
Endemic typhus is sometimes called "jail fever." Lice and fleas of flying squirrels spread the bacteria.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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