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Encyclopedia > Typhoon Tip
Typhoon Tip
Category 5 typhoon (SSHS)

Typhoon Tip at its record peak intensity on October 12, 1979
Formed October 4, 1979
Dissipated October 19, 1979
Highest
winds
305 km/h (190 mph) (1-minute sustained)
Lowest pressure 870 hPa (mbar)
(Worldwide record low)
Fatalities 86 direct, 13 indirect
Damage Unknown
Areas
affected
Guam, Japan
Part of the
1979 Pacific typhoon season

Typhoon Tip was the largest and most intense tropical cyclone on record. The nineteenth tropical storm, twelfth typhoon, and third super typhoon of the 1979 Pacific typhoon season, Tip developed out of a disturbance in the monsoon trough on October 4 near Pohnpei. Initially, a tropical storm to its northwest hindered the development and motion of Tip, though after it tracked further north Tip was able to intensify. After passing Guam, it rapidly intensified and reached peak winds of 306 km/h (190 mph) and a worldwide record low pressure of 870 mbar (hPa) on October 12. At its peak strength, it was also the largest tropical cyclone on record with a diameter of 2220 km (1380 mi). It slowly weakened as it continued west-northwestward, and later turned to the northeast under the influence of an approaching trough. Tip made landfall on southern Japan on October 19, and became an extratropical cyclone shortly thereafter. The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale is a scale classifying most Western Hemisphere tropical cyclones that exceed the levels of tropical depression and tropical storm and thereby become hurricanes; the categories it divides hurricanes into are distinguished by the intensities of their respective sustained winds. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... For the song by the Smashing Pumpkins, see 1979 (song). ... October 4 is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by the Smashing Pumpkins, see 1979 (song). ... October 19 is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by the Smashing Pumpkins, see 1979 (song). ... Kilometre per hour (American spelling: kilometer per hour) is a unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector). ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ... HPA means Physiology Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis: The hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal glands work together to regulate hormone levels and maintain homeostasis. ... A millibar (mbar, also mb) is 1/1000th of a bar, a unit for measurement of pressure. ... The 1979 Pacific typhoon season has no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1979, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between June and December. ... The name Tip has been used for four tropical cyclones in the northwest Pacific Ocean. ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004 Hurricane and Typhoon redirect here. ... The 1979 Pacific typhoon season has no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1979, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between June and December. ... Monsoon in the Vindhya mountain range, central India A monsoon is a heavy rainy season which lasts for several months and has lasting climatic effects. ... A trough is an elongated region of relatively low atmospheric pressure, often associated with fronts. ... October 4 is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... World Class Surf of Pohnpeis Palikir Pass a. ... Hurricane Charley nearing landfall after its rapid deepening phase Rapid deepening is when the minimum sea-level pressure of a tropical cyclone decreases drastically in a short period of time. ... A millibar (mbar, also mb) is 1/1000th of a bar, a unit for measurement of pressure. ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... A mile is a unit of length, usually used to measure distance, in a number of different systems, including Imperial units, United States customary units and Norwegian/Swedish mil. ... A trough is an elongated region of relatively low atmospheric pressure, often associated with fronts. ... Hurricane Charley making landfall on August 13, 2004 at its peak intensity. ... October 19 is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A fictitious synoptic chart of an extratropical cyclone affecting the UK & Ireland. ...


Airforce Reconaissance flew into the typhoon for 60 missions, making Tip one of the most closely observed tropical cyclones of all time.[1] Rainfall from the typhoon breached a flood-retaining wall at a United States Marine Corps training camp in the Kanagawa Prefecture of Japan, leading to a fire which injured 68 and killed 13 Marines. Elsewhere in the country, it led to widespread flooding and 42 deaths. 44 were killed or left unaccounted for due to shipwrecks offshore. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. ... Kanagawa Prefecture ) is a prefecture located in the southern Kantō region of HonshÅ«, Japan. ...

Contents

Storm history

Storm path
Storm path

Three circulations developed within the monsoon trough that extended from the Philippines to the Marshall Islands. A disturbance to the southwest of Guam developed into Tropical Storm Roger on October 3, and later on the same day a tropical disturbance which later became Typhoon Tip organized to the south of Pohnpei. Strong flow from across the equator was drawn into the circulation of Roger, initially preventing significant development of the disturbance which would become Tip. Despite the unfavorable air pattern, the tropical disturbance near Pohnpei gradually organized as it moved westward. Due to the large-scale circulation pattern into Tropical Storm Roger, the tropical disturbance moved erratically and slowly executed a cyclonic loop a short distance to the southeast of Chuuk. A Reconnaissance Aircraft flight into the system late on October 4 confirmed the existence of a closed low-level circulation, and early on October 5 the Joint Typhoon Warning Center issued its first warning on Tropical Depression Twenty-Three.[1] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x1024, 394 KB) Summary Typhoon Tip (1979) track. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x1024, 394 KB) Summary Typhoon Tip (1979) track. ... Monsoon in the Vindhya mountain range, central India A monsoon is a heavy rainy season which lasts for several months and has lasting climatic effects. ... A trough is an elongated region of relatively low atmospheric pressure, often associated with fronts. ... The 1979 Pacific typhoon season has no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1979, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between June and December. ... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... World Class Surf of Pohnpeis Palikir Pass a. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... October 4 is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 5 is the 278th day of the year (279th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) is a joint United States Navy–United States Air Force task force located at Naval Pacific Meteorology and Oceanography Center in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. ...


While executing a loop near Chuuk, the tropical depression intensified into Tropical Storm Tip, though the storm initially failed to organize significantly due to the influence of Tropical Storm Roger. Reconnaissance Aircraft provided the track of the surface circulation, as satellite estimated the center being about 60 km (38 mi) from its true position. After drifting erratically for several days, Tip turned to a steady northwest motion on October 8. By the 8th, Tropical Storm Roger had become an extratropical cyclone, resulting in the southerly flow being entrained into Tip. Additionally, an area of the Tropical Upper Tropospheric Trough moved to the north of Guam, providing an excellent outflow channel the north of Tip. Initially, the storm was predicted to continue northwestward and make landfall on Guam, though early on October 9 it turned to the west, passing about 45 km (28 mi) south of the island. Later that day, Tip intensified to attain typhoon status.[1] October 8 is the 281st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (282nd in leap years). ... A fictitious synoptic chart of an extratropical cyclone affecting the UK & Ireland. ... A Tropical Upper Tropospheric Trough (TUTT) is a trough situated in upper-level (at about 200 hPa) tropics. ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004 Hurricane and Typhoon redirect here. ... October 9 is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Typhoon Tip near peak strength

As a result of very favorable conditions for development, Typhoon Tip rapidly intensified in the open waters of the western Pacific Ocean. Late on October 10, the typhoon attained the equivalence of a Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Scale, and the next day it became a super typhoon. The central pressure dropped 92 mbar (hPa) from October 9 to 11, during which the circulation pattern of Typhoon Tip increased to a record diameter of 2220 km (1380 mi). The typhoon continued to intensify further, and early on October 12 Reconnaissance Aircraft recorded a world record-low pressure of 870 mbar (hPa) with winds of 305 km/h (190 mph) while located about 840 km (520 mi) west-northwest of Guam. At the time of its peak strength, its eye was 15 km (9.3 mi) wide.[1] Image File history File links 23WTIP.jpg Summary Typhoon Tip shortly before its maximum intensity of 870 mb. ... Image File history File links 23WTIP.jpg Summary Typhoon Tip shortly before its maximum intensity of 870 mb. ... Global Tropical Cyclone Tracks Cyclogenesis is the technical term describing the development or strengthening of a surface low pressure system, or cyclone, in the atmosphere. ... Hurricane Charley nearing landfall after its rapid deepening phase Rapid deepening is when the minimum sea-level pressure of a tropical cyclone decreases drastically in a short period of time. ... October 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years). ... The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale is a scale classifying most Western Hemisphere tropical cyclones that exceed the levels of tropical depression and tropical storm and thereby become hurricanes; the categories it divides hurricanes into are distinguished by the intensities of their respective sustained winds. ... NASA QuikSCAT image of Typhoon Nesat (2005) showing the near-surface winds generated by the storm 10 meters above the ocean. ... The use of water pressure - the Captain Cook Memorial Jet in Lake Burley Griffin in Canberra, Australia. ... A millibar (mbar, also mb) is 1/1000th of a bar, a unit for measurement of pressure. ... October 11 is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... A millibar (mbar, also mb) is 1/1000th of a bar, a unit for measurement of pressure. ... Eye of Category 4 Hurricane Isabel seen from the International Space Station on September 15, 2003 The eye is a region of mostly calm weather found at the center of strong tropical cyclones. ...


At its peak intensity, the temperature inside the eye of Typhoon Tip was 30° C (86° F) and described as exceptionally high. A weather officer on the Reconnaissance Aircraft mission at the peak intensity of Tip described an unusual double-helix spiral striation in the eye from the base of the wall cloud to the top. After peaking in intensity, Tip weakened to a 230 km/h (145 mph) typhoon and remained at that intensity for several days as it continued west-northwestward. For five days after reaching its peak strength, the average radius of winds stronger than 55 km/h (35 mph) extended over 1100 km (685 mi). On October 17, Tip began to steadily weaken as its size reduced, and the next day it began recurving northeastward under the influence of a mid-level trough. After passing about 65 km (45 mi) east of Okinawa, it accelerated its forward motion to 75 km/h (46 mph), and on October 19 Tip made landfall on the Japanese island of Honshū with winds of about 130 km/h (80 mph). The typhoon continued rapidly northeastward through the country and became an extratropical cyclone over northern Honshū a few hours after moving ashore. The extratropical remnant of Tip continued to the northeastward before losing its identity on October 21 to the east of the Kamchatka Peninsula.[1] Eye of Category 4 Hurricane Isabel seen from the International Space Station on September 15, 2003 The eye is a region of mostly calm weather found at the center of strong tropical cyclones. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... October 17 is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A trough is an elongated region of relatively low atmospheric pressure, often associated with fronts. ... This article is about the prefecture. ... October 19 is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hurricane Charley making landfall on August 13, 2004 at its peak intensity. ... HonshÅ« (本州 Literally Main State) is the largest island of Japan, called the Mainland; it is south of Hokkaido across the Tsugaru Strait, north of Shikoku across the Inland Sea, and northeast of Kyushu across the Kanmon Strait. ... A fictitious synoptic chart of an extratropical cyclone affecting the UK & Ireland. ... October 21 is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 71 days remaining. ... Kamchatka is home to many volcanoes, including Avachinsky shown here. ...


Impact and records

The relative sizes of the United States, Typhoon Tip and Cyclone Tracy (the largest and smallest tropical cyclones recorded)
The relative sizes of the United States, Typhoon Tip and Cyclone Tracy (the largest and smallest tropical cyclones recorded)

The typhoon produced heavy rainfall early in its lifetime while passing near Guam, including a total of 23.1 cm (9.09 in) at Andersen Air Force Base.[1] The outer rainbands of the large circulation of Tip produced moderate rainfall in the mountainous regions of the Philippine island of Luzon.[2] Illustrating the extremes in tropical cyclone sizes. ... Lowest pressure 950 hPa (mbar)[1] Damage $4 billion (1998 AUD)[2] $2. ... A B-1B at Andersen This B-2 Spirit was photographed in 2004 at Andersen Andersen Air Force Base is a base of the United States Air Force on the island of Guam in the Pacific Ocean. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Thunderstorm. ... Map of the Philippines showing the island groups of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. ...


During recurvature, Typhoon Tip passed about 65 km (40 mi) east of Okinawa. There, sustained winds reached 72 km/h) (44 mph) with gusts to 112 km/h (69 mi). Sustained winds in Japan are unknown though of at least minimal typhoon strength. The passage of the typhoon through the archipelago resulted in millions of dollars in damage to the agricultural and fishing industries of the country.[1] Eight ships were grounded or sunk by Tip, leaving 44 fishermen dead or unaccounted for. A Chinese freighter broke in half as a result of the typhoon, though its crew of 46 were rescued.[2] Heavy rainfall from the typhoon breached a flood-retaining wall at Camp Fuji, a training facility for the United States Marine Corps near Yokosuka. The fuel caught on fire, killing thirteen marines, injuring 68,[1] and causing moderate damage to the facility. The facility's barracks were destroyed,[3] along with fifteen huts and several other buildings.[4] The barracks were rebuilt,[3] and a memorial was established for those who lost their lives in the fire.[4] The rainfall led to over 600 mudslides throughout the mountainous regions of Japan, and also flooded more than 22,000 homes. 42 people died throughout the country, with another 71 missing and 283 injured.[2] This article is about the prefecture. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. ... A view of Yokosuka from Verny Park. ... Mudslide in La Conchita, California A mudslide is a landslide of mud. ...


Typhoon Tip was the largest tropical cyclone on record with a diameter of 1380 miles (2220 km), almost double the previous record set by Typhoon Marge in August of 1951. It was also the most intense tropical cyclone on record with a pressure of 870 mbar (hPa), 6 mbar lower than previous record set by Super Typhoon June in 1975.[1] The records set by Tip still stand, though due to the end of routine Reconnaissance Aircraft in the western Pacific Ocean in August of 1987, modern researchers questioned if Tip is the strongest on record. After a detailed study, three researchers determined two typhoons, Angela in 1995 and Gay in 1992, maintained higher Dvorak numbers than Tip, and believed that one or both of the two may have been more intense than Tip.[5] Additionally, Cyclone Monica of the 2005 Australian cyclone season registered an unofficial Dvorak estimate of 869 mbar;[6] however, due to lack of direct observations, it is unknown if Tip maintains the world record or not.[5] The 1951 Pacific typhoon season has no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1951, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between June and December. ... A millibar (mbar, also mb) is 1/1000th of a bar, a unit for measurement of pressure. ... The 1975 Pacific typhoon season has no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1975, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between June and December. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... A military aircraft used for monitoring enemy activity, usually carrying no armament. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 1995 Pacific typhoon season has no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1995, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between June and December. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 1992 Pacific typhoon season has no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1992, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between June and December. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... The Dvorak Technique (developed in 1974 by Vernon Dvorak) is a widely used system to estimate tropical cyclone intensity based solely on visible and infrared satellite images. ... Lowest pressure 905 hPa (mbar) Damages Pending assessment Fatalities None recorded Areas affected Far North Queensland, coastal Northern Territory Part of the 2005-06 Southern Hemisphere tropical cyclone season Cyclone Monica, also designated Severe Tropical Cyclone Monica, was a tropical cyclone that affected northern Australia from April 17, 2006 until... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... A millibar (mbar, also mb) is 1/1000th of a bar, a unit for measurement of pressure. ... Surface weather map of the Labor Day Hurricane of 1935 moving up the west coast of Florida Tropical cyclone obervation has been carried out over the past couple of centuries in various ways: the passage of typhoons, hurricanes, as well as other tropical cyclones have been detected by word of...


See also

Tropical cyclones Portal

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x662, 320 KB) http://eol. ... This is a list of notable tropical cyclones, subdivided by basin and reason for notability. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i George M. Dunnavan & John W. Dierks (1980). An Analysis of Super Typhoon Tip (October 1979). Joint Typhoon Warning Center. Retrieved on 2007-01-24.
  2. ^ a b c Debi Iacovelli and Tim Vasquez (1998). Supertyphoon Tip: Shattering all records. Monthly Weather Log. Retrieved on 2007-01-25.
  3. ^ a b United States Naval Construction Force (2004). History of the U.S. Naval Mobile Construction Battalion FOUR. Retrieved on 2007-01-25.
  4. ^ a b Camp Fuji Fire Memorial. United States Marine Corps (2006). Retrieved on 2007-01-25.
  5. ^ a b Karl Hoarau, Gary Padgett, and Jean-Paul Hoarau (2004). Have there been any typhoons stronger than Super Typhoon Tip?. American Meteorological Society. Retrieved on 2007-01-24.
  6. ^ Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (2006). Data for Cyclone Monica. Retrieved on 2007-01-24.


2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 24 is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 25 is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 25 is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 25 is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 24 is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 24 is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

The most powerful tropical cyclones by area of development or impact

Australia This article is about weather phenomena. ...

Central Pacific

East Pacific

North Atlantic

North Indian

South Indian

South Pacific

West Pacific

Cyclone Inigo (2003) The 2002-03 Southern Hemisphere tropical cyclone season ran from July 1, 2002 through June 30, 2003. ...

Hurricane Ioke (2006) Lowest pressure 920 hPa (mbar) Damages Unknown Fatalities 0 Areas affected Johnston Atoll, Wake Island, Minami Torishima, southwestern and south-central Alaska Part of the 2006 Pacific hurricane season and the 2006 Pacific typhoon season Hurricane Ioke (also Typhoon Ioke, international designation 0612, JTWC designation 01C also sometimes called Super...

Hurricane Linda (1997) Lowest pressure 902 mbar (hPa)East Pacific record Damages None reported Fatalities None Areas affected Open Pacific Ocean waters, Socorro Island Part of the 1997 Pacific hurricane season Hurricane Linda was a tropical cyclone of the 1997 Pacific hurricane season. ...

Hurricane Wilma (2005) Lowest pressure 882 mbar (hPa; 26. ...

Cyclone 05B (1999) Lowest pressure < 912 hPa (mbar) Fatalities 10,000+ direct Damages $4. ...

Cyclone Gafilo (2004) Cyclone Gafilo was a powerful tropical cyclone which struck Madagascar in March 2004, causing devastating damage. ...

Cyclone Zoe (2002) Severe tropical cyclone Zoe was one of the most intense tropical cyclones which have been detected at Southern Pacific Ocean. ...

Typhoon Tip (1979)


 
 

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