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Encyclopedia > Typhon
Zeus darting his lightning at Typhon, Chalcidian black-figured hydria, ca. 550 BC, Staatliche Antikensammlungen (Inv. 596)
Zeus darting his lightning at Typhon, Chalcidian black-figured hydria, ca. 550 BC, Staatliche Antikensammlungen (Inv. 596)

In Greek mythology, Typhon (ancient Greek: Τυφῶν), also Typhoeus (Τυφωεύς), Typhaon (Τυφάων) or Typhus (Τυφώς) is the final son of Gaia, with Tartarus; Typhon attempts to replace Zeus as the king of gods and men. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 502 pixelsFull resolution (2016 × 1264 pixel, file size: 948 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 502 pixelsFull resolution (2016 × 1264 pixel, file size: 948 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... A hydria is a type of Greek pottery used for carrying water. ... Centuries: 7th century BC - 6th century BC - 5th century BC Decades: 600s BC - 590s BC - 580s BC - 570s BC - 560s BC - 550s BC - 540s BC - 530s BC - 520s BC - 510s BC - 500s BC Events and Trends Carthage conquers Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica 559 BC - King Cambyses I of Anshan dies... The Staatliche Antikensammlungen (State Collections of Antiques) in the Kunstareal of Munich is a museum for the Bavarian states antique collections for Greek, Etruscan and Roman art. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... For other uses, see Gaia. ... In classic Greek mythology, below Heaven, Earth, and Pontus is Tartarus, or Tartaros (Greek Τάρταρος, deep place). ...

Contents

Accounts

Hesiod narrates Typhon's birth: Roman bronze bust, the so-called Pseudo-Seneca, now identified by some as possibly Hesiod Hesiod (Hesiodos, ) was an early Greek poet and rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BC. Hesiod and Homer, with whom Hesiod is often paired, have been considered the earliest Greek poets whose work has survived...

But when Zeus had driven the Titans from heaven,
mother Earth bare her youngest child Typhoeus of the love of
Tartarus, by the aid of fries Aphrodite. —Hesiod, Theogony 820-822.

In the alternative account of the origin of Typhaon, the Homeric Hymn to Apollo makes the monster Typhaon at Delphi a son of Hera in her Minoan form, produced out of herself, like a monstrous version of Hephaestus, and whelped in a cave in Cilicia and confined there in the enigmatic land of the Arimi— en Arimois (Iliad, ii. 781-783). It was in Cilicia that Zeus battled with the ancient monster and overcame him, in a more complicated story: It was not an easy battle, and Typhon temporarily overcame Zeus, cut the "sinews" from him and left him in the "leather sack", the korukos that is the etymological origin of the korukion atron, the Korykian or Corycian Cave in which Zeus suffers temporary eclipse as if in the Land of the Dead. The region of Cilicia in southeastern Anatolia had many opportunities for coastal Hellenes' connection with the Hittites to the north. From the first reappearance of the Hittite myth of Illuyankas, it has been seen as a prototype of the battle of Zeus and Typhon. [1] Walter Burkert and Calvert Watkins each note the close agreements. Watkins' How to Kill a Dragon: Aspects of Indo-European Poetics (Oxford University Press) 1995, reconstructs in disciplined detail the flexible Indo-European poetic formula that underlies myth, epic and magical charm texts of the lashing and binding of Typhon. The Birth of Venus, (detail) by Sandro Botticelli, 1485 For other uses, see Aphrodite (disambiguation). ... Theogony (Greek: Θεογονία, theogonia = the birth of God(s)) is a poem by Hesiod describing the origins and genealogies of the gods of the ancient Greeks, composed circa 700 BC. The title of the work comes from the Greek words for god and seed. // Hesiods Theogony is a large-scale... The anonymous Homeric Hymns are a collection of ancient Greek hymns. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Delphi (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hera (disambiguation). ... The Minoan language is a non-Hellenic language of Crete that was spoken before the invasion of Mycenaean armies. ... This image is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ... title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... The Corycian Cave is located on the slopes of Mount Parnassus, in Greece. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from KaneÅ¡ who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... In Hittite Mythology, Illuyankas was a dragon slain by Teshub. ... Walter Burkert (born Neuendettelsau (Bavaria), February 2, 1931), the most eminent living scholar of Greek myth and cult, is an emeritus professor of classics at the University of Zurich, Switzerland who has also taught in the United Kingdom and the United States. ... Calvert Watkins is a professor Emeritus of linguistics and the classics at Harvard University and professor-in-residence at UCLA. His doctoral dissertation was Indo-European Origins of the Celtic Verb I. The Sigmatic Aorist (Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 1962), which deeply reflected the structuralist approach of Jerzy Kurylowicz... For other uses, see Indo-European. ...


The inveterate enemy of the Olympian gods is described in detail by Hesiod[2] as a vast grisly monster with a hundred snakelike heads "with dark flickering tongues" flashing fire from their eyes and a din of voices and a hundred serpents issuing from his thighs, a feature shared by many primal monsters of Greek myth that extend in serpentine or scaly coils from the waist down. The titanic struggle created earthquakes and tsunamis.[3] Once conquered by Zeus' thunderbolts, Typhon was cast into Tartarus, the common destiny of many such archaic adversaries, or he was confined beneath Mount Aetna, also known as Mount Etna,(Pindar, Pythian Ode 1.19 - 20; Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 370), where "his bed scratches and goads the whole length of his back stretched out against it," or in other volcanic regions, where he is the cause of eruptions. Twelve Olympians, also known as the Dodekatheon (Greek: Δωδεκάθεον < δωδεκα, dodeka, twelve + θεον, theon, of the gods), in Greek religion, were the principal gods of the Greek pantheon, residing atop Mount Olympus. ... Heracles and the Lernaean Hydra by Gustave Moreau: The Hydra is perhaps the best known mythological multi-headed animal, also popularised in many fantasy settings. ... For other uses, see Serpent (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of Etna, see Etna (disambiguation). ... Etna redirects here. ... Pindar (or Pindarus) (probably born 522 BC in Cynoscephalae, a village in Boeotia; died 443 BC in Argos), was perhaps the greatest of the nine lyric poets of ancient Greece. ... This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ...


Typhon is thus the chthonic figuration of volcanic forces, as Hephaestus (Roman Vulcan) is their "civilized" Olympian manifestation. Amongst his children by Echidna are Cerberus, the serpent-like Lernaean Hydra, the Chimera, the hundred-headed dragon Ladon, the half-woman half-lion Sphinx, the two-headed wolf Orthus, Ethon the eagle who tormented Prometheus, and the Nemean Lion. For other uses, see Chthon (disambiguation). ... Vulcan, in Roman mythology, is the son of Jupiter and Juno, and husband of Maia and Venus. ... In the most ancient layers of Greek mythology Echidna (ekhis, meaning she viper) was called the Mother of All Monsters. Echidna was described by Hesiod as a female monster spawned in a cave, who mothered with her mate Typhoeus (or Typhon) every major monster in the Greek myths, (Theogony, 295... Heracles and threatened Cerberus, Attic black-figure neck-amphora, ca. ... For other uses, see Hydra. ... Chimera from Arezzo. ... Dragons play a role in Greek mythology. ... For other uses, see Sphinx (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Orthrus (also called Orthros, Orthos, Orthus, Orth and Orphus) was a two-headed dog. ... In Greek mythology, Ethon or The Eagle Kaukasios was a gigantic eagle born of the monsters Typhon and Echidna. ... For other uses, see Prometheus (disambiguation). ... The Nemean Lion (Latin: Leo Nemaeus) was a vicious monster in Greek mythology that lived in Nemea. ...


Typhon is also the father of hot dangerous storm winds which issue forth from the stormy pit of Tartarus, according to Hesiod. Zephyrus, the Greek god of the west wind and the goddess Chloris, from a 1875 engraving by William-Adolphe Bouguereau In Greek mythology, the Anemoi (in Greek, Άνεμοι — winds) were wind gods who were each ascribed a cardinal direction, from which their respective winds came, and were each associated with various...


His name is apparently derived from the Greek "typhein", to smoke, hence it is considered to be a possible etymology for the word typhoon, supposedly borrowed by the Persians (as طوفان Tufân) and Arabs to describe the cyclonic storms of the Indian Ocean. The Greeks also frequently represented him as a storm-daemon, especially in the version where he stole Zeus's thunderbolts and wrecked the earth with storms (cf. Hesiod, Theogony; Nonnus, Dionysiaca). Not to be confused with Entomology, the scientific study of insects. ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... This article is about the meteorological phenomenon. ...


Since Herodotus, Typhon has been identified with the Egyptian Set (interpretatio Graeca). In the Orphic tradition, Typhon leads the Titans when they attack and kill Dionysus, just as Set is responsible for the murder of Osiris. Furthermore, the slaying of Typhon by Zeus is analogous to the killing of Vritra by Indra (also a lightning deity), and possibly the two stories are ultimately derived from a common Indo-European milkshake. Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... In Egyptian mythology, Set (also spelled Sutekh, Setesh, Seteh, Seth) is an ancient god, who was originally the god of the desert, one of the two main biomes that constitutes Egypt, the other being the small fertile area on either side of the Nile. ... Interpretatio graeca is a Latin term for the common tendency of ancient Greek writers to equate foreign divinities to members of their own pantheon. ... The head of Orpheus, from an 1865 painting by Gustave Moreau. ... This article is about the ancient deity. ... In Egyptian mythology, Set (also spelled Sutekh, Setesh, Seteh, Seth) is an ancient god, who was originally the god of the desert, one of the two main biomes that constitutes Egypt, the other being the small fertile area on either side of the Nile. ... For other uses, see Osiris (disambiguation). ... In the early Vedic religion, Vritra (Sanskrit: वृत्र (Devanāgarī) or (IAST)) the enveloper, was an Asura and also a serpent or dragon, the personification of drought and enemy of Indra. ... For other uses, see Indra (disambiguation). ...


Notes

  1. ^ W. Porzig, "Illuyankas und Typhon", Kleinasiatische Forschung I.3 (1930) pp 379-86.
  2. ^ Theogony 820-868
  3. ^ "The whole earth seethed, and sky and sea: and the long waves raged along the beaches round and about, at the rush of the deathless gods: and there arose an endless shaking." (Hesiod, Theogony).

Theogony (Greek: Θεογονία, theogonia = the birth of God(s)) is a poem by Hesiod describing the origins and genealogies of the gods of the ancient Greeks, composed circa 700 BC. The title of the work comes from the Greek words for god and seed. // Hesiods Theogony is a large-scale...

References

Walter Burkert (born Neuendettelsau (Bavaria), February 2, 1931), the most eminent living scholar of Greek myth and cult, is an emeritus professor of classics at the University of Zurich, Switzerland who has also taught in the United Kingdom and the United States. ... Robert von Ranke Graves (24 July 1895 – 7 December 1985) was an English poet, scholar, and novelist. ... One of the founders of modern studies in Greek mythology, Karl (Carl, Károly) Kerényi (January 19, 1897 - April 14, 1973) was born in Hungary but became a citizen of Switzerland in 1943. ... Calvert Watkins is a professor Emeritus of linguistics and the classics at Harvard University and professor-in-residence at UCLA. His doctoral dissertation was Indo-European Origins of the Celtic Verb I. The Sigmatic Aorist (Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 1962), which deeply reflected the structuralist approach of Jerzy Kurylowicz...

External links

  • Typhoeus at Theoicompiled sources of myth in classical literature


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Typhon (220 words)
Typhon is the offspring of Gaia and Tartarus.
Typhon's hundred, horrible heads touched the stars, venom dripped from his evil eyes, and lava and red-hot stones poured from his gaping mouths.
Echidna and Typhon's children are the Nemean Lion, Cerberus, Ladon, the Chimera, the Sphinx, and the Hydra.
Mythical Creatures and Monsters (6982 words)
Crommyonian Sow was the offspring of Typhon and Echidna.
The Nemean Lion was an offspring of Typhon and Echidna.
Ladon was an offspring of Typhon and Echidna, or of Phorcys and Ceto.
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