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Encyclopedia > Typhoid fever
Typhoid fever
Classification & external resources
Salmonella typhi bacteria
ICD-10 A01.0
ICD-9 002
DiseasesDB 27829
eMedicine oph/686  med/2331
MeSH D014435

Typhoid fever, also known as enteric fever,[1] is an illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar typhi. Common worldwide, it is transmitted by the fecal-oral route — the ingestion of food or water contaminated with feces from an infected person.[2] The bacteria then multiply in the blood stream of the infected person and are absorbed into the digestive tract and eliminated with the waste. For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ... Species S. enterica Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria that causes typhoid fever, paratyphoid and foodborne illness. ... Elektra is a 2005 movie directed by Rob Bowman. ... This article is about a Marvel Comics villain. ... Image File history File links Salmonella_typhi. ... Species Salmonella bongori Salmonella enterica Salmonella arizonae Salmonella enteritidis Salmonella typhi Salmonella typhimurium Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria that causes typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, and foodborne illness. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Binomial name Salmonella enterica Salmonella enterica is a species of Salmonella bacterium. ... Many diseases can be passed when fecal particles from one host are introduced into the mouth of another potential host. ... Horse feces Feces, faeces, or fæces (see spelling differences) is a waste product from an animals digestive tract expelled through the anus (or cloaca) during defecation. ...

Contents

Symptoms

Typhoid fever is characterized by a sustained fever as high as 40°C (104°F), profuse sweating, gastroenteritis, and diarrhea. Less commonly a rash of flat, rose-colored spots may appear.[3] This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Gastroenteritis involves diarrhea or vomiting, with noninflammatory infection of the upper small bowel, or inflammatory infection of the colon, both part of the gastrointestinal tract. ... Types 5-7 on the Bristol Stool Chart are often associated with diarrhea Diarrhea (in American English) or diarrhoea (in British English) is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause... A rash is a change in skin which affects its color, appearance, or texture. ...


Classically, the course of untreated typhoid fever is divided into four individual stages, each lasting approximately one week. In the first week, there is a slowly rising temperature with relative bradycardia, malaise, headache and cough. Epistaxis is seen in a quarter of cases and abdominal pain is also possible. There is leukopenia with eosinopenia and relative lymphocytosis, a positive diazo reaction and blood cultures are positive for Salmonella typhi or paratyphi. The classic Widal test is negative in the first week. Bradycardia, as applied to adult medicine, is defined as a resting heart rate of under 60 beats per minute, though it is seldom symptomatic until the rate drops below 50 beat/min. ... For the plant referred to as nosebleed plant, see Yarrow. ... Leukopenia or leukocytopenia refers to a decrease in the number of circulating white blood cells (leukocytes) in the blood. ... Eosinophil granulocyte Image of an eosinophil Eosinophil Eosinophil Eosinophil granulocytes, commonly referred to as eosinophils (or less commonly as acidophils), are white blood cells that are responsible for combating infection by parasites in the body. ... Lymphocytosis is an increase in the number of lymphocytes in the blood. ... The Widal test is a serological test for Salmonella typhi. ...


In the second week of the infection, the patient lies prostrated with high fever in plateau around 40°C and bradycardia (Sphygmo-thermic dissociation), classically with a dicrotic pulse wave. Delirium is frequent, frequently calm, but sometimes agitated. This delirium gives to typhoid the nickname of "nervous fever". Rose spots appear on the lower chest and abdomen in around 1/3 patients. There are rhonchi in lung bases. The abdomen is distended and painful in the right lower quadrant where borborygmi can be heard. Diarrhea can occur in this stage: six to eight stools in a day, green with a characteristic smell, comparable to pea-soup. However, constipation is also frequent. The spleen and liver are enlarged (hepatosplenomegaly) and tender and there is elevation of liver transaminases. The Widal reaction is strongly positive with antiO and antiH antibodies. Blood cultures are sometimes still positive at this stage. Rhonchi is the coarse rattling sound somewhat like snoring, usually caused by secretion in a bronchial airways. Category: ... Borborygmus is the rumbling noise produced by the movement of gas through the intestines. ... In biochemistry, a transaminase or an aminotransferase is an enzyme that catalyzes a type of reaction between an amino acid and an α-keto acid. ...


In the third week of typhoid fever a number of complications can occur:

The fever is still very high and oscillates very little over 24 hours. Dehydration ensues and the patient is delirious (typhoid state). By the end of third week defervescence commences that prolongs itself in the fourth week. Peyers patches are secondary lymphoid organs named after the 17th-century Swiss anatomist Hans Conrad Peyer. ... Grays Fig. ... Sepsis (in Greek Σήψις) is a serious medical condition caused by a severe systemic infection leading to a systemic inflammatory response. ... Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain, commonly caused by a viral infection. ... Cholecystitis is inflammation of the gall bladder. ... Endocarditis is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium. ... Osteitis is a general term for inflammation of bone. ... Defervescence (dÄ“fÉ™r vesÉ™ns, defÉ™r-), a noun, means abatement of a fever. ...


Diagnosis

Diagnosis is made by blood, bone marrow or stool cultures and with the Widal test (demonstration of salmonella antibodies against antigens O-somatic and H-flagellar). In epidemics and less wealthy countries, after excluding malaria, dysentery or pneumonia, a therapeutic trial time with chloramphenicol is generally undertaken while awaiting the results of Widal test and blood cultures.[4] blood culture Blood culture is microbiological culture of blood. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up stool in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Widal test is a serological test for Salmonella typhi. ... Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key. ... An antigen is any molecule that is recognized by antibodies. ... In epidemiology, an epidemic (from [[Latin language] epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Dysentery is the inflammation of the intestine causing severe diarrhea. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ... Chloramphenicol is a bacteriostatic antibiotic originally derived from the bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae, isolated by David Gottlieb, and introduced into clinical practice in 1949. ...


Treatment

Doctor administering a typhoid vaccination at a school in San Augustine County, Texas. Photograph by John Vachon, April 1943.
Doctor administering a typhoid vaccination at a school in San Augustine County, Texas. Photograph by John Vachon, April 1943.

Typhoid fever in most cases is not fatal. Antibiotics, such as ampicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and ciprofloxacin, have been commonly used to treat typhoid fever in developed countries. Prompt treatment of the disease with antibiotics reduces the case-fatality rate to approximately 1%. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 587 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 880 pixel, file size: 270 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 587 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 880 pixel, file size: 270 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... African American boy. ... An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... Ampicillin is a beta-lactam antibiotic that has been used extensively to treat bacterial infections since 1961. ... Chloramphenicol is a bacteriostatic antibiotic originally derived from the bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae, isolated by David Gottlieb, and introduced into clinical practice in 1949. ... Co-trimoxazole is a bacteriostatic antibiotic combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, in the ratio of 1 to 5, used in the treatment of a variety of bacterial infections. ... Ciprofloxacin is the generic international name for the synthetic antibiotic manufactured and sold by Bayer Pharmaceutical under the brand names Cipro, Ciproxin and Ciprobay (and other brand names in other markets, e. ...


When untreated, typhoid fever persists for three weeks to a month. Death occurs in between 10% and 30% of untreated cases. Vaccines for typhoid fever are available and are advised for persons traveling in regions where the disease is common (especially Asia, Africa and Latin America). Typhim Vi is an intramuscular killed-bacteria vaccination and Vivotif is an oral live bacteria vaccination, both of which protect against typhoid fever. Neither vaccine is 100% effective against typhoid fever and neither protects against unrelated typhus. A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ...


Resistance

Resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and streptomycin is now common, and these agents have not been used as first line treatment now for almost 20 years. Typhoid that is resistant to these agents is known as multidrug-resistant typhoid (MDR typhoid). Streptomycin is an antibiotic drug, the first of a class of drugs called aminoglycosides to be discovered, and was the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis. ...


Ciprofloxacin resistance is an increasing problem, especially in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. Many centres are therefore moving away from using ciprofloxacin as first line for treating suspected typhoid originating in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Thailand or Vietnam. For these patients, the recommended first line treatment is ceftriaxone. Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Ceftriaxone (INN) (IPA: ) is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic. ...


There is a separate problem with laboratory testing for reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin: current recommendations are that isolates should be tested simultaneously against ciprofloxacin (CIP) and against nalidixic acid (NAL), and that isolates that are sensitive to both CIP and NAL should be reported as "sensitive to ciprofloxacin", but that isolates testing sensitive to CIP but not to NAL should be reported as "reduced sensitivity to ciprofloxacin". However, an analysis of 271 isolates showed that around 18% of isolates with a reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (MIC 0.125–1.0 mg/l) would not be picked up by this method.[5] It not certain how this problem can be solved, because most laboratories around the world (including the West) are dependent disc testing and cannot test for MICs. Nalidixic acid is the basis for quinolone antibiotics. ...


Transmission

Death rates for Typhoid Fever in the U.S. 1906-1960

Flying insects feeding on feces may occasionally transfer the bacteria through poor hygiene habits and public sanitation conditions. Public education campaigns encouraging people to wash their hands after toileting and before handling food are an important component in controlling spread of the disease. According to statistics from the United States Center for Disease Control, the chlorination of drinking water has led to dramatic decreases in the transmission of typhoid fever in the U.S.. Image File history File links Typhoid_stats. ... Image File history File links Typhoid_stats. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta is recognized as the lead United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people by providing credible information to enhance health decisions, and promoting health through strong partnerships with state health departments and other organizations. ... Chlorination is the process of adding the element chlorine to water as a method of water purification to make it fit for human consumption as drinking water. ...


A person may become an asymptomatic carrier of typhoid fever, suffering no symptoms, but capable of infecting others. According to the Centers for Disease Control approximately 5% of people who contract typhoid continue to carry the disease after they recover. An asymptomatic carrier (or just carrier), is a person who is infected with an infectious disease or carries the abnormal gene of a recessive genetic disorder, but displays no symptoms. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta is recognized as the lead United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people by providing credible information to enhance health decisions, and promoting health through strong partnerships with state health departments and other organizations. ...


Epidemiology

Locations of typhoid outbreaks worldwide

With an estimated 16-33 million cases of typhoid annually resulting in 500,000 to 600,000 deaths In endemic areas, the World Health Organisation identifies typhoid as a serious public health problem. Its incidence is highest in children between the ages of 5 and 19 years.[6] Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... Image File history File links Typhoid_feverI.gif‎ Description: World Map showing locations of typhoid fever outbreaks Author: United States Center for Disease Control (CDC) Source: http://www. ... Image File history File links Typhoid_feverI.gif‎ Description: World Map showing locations of typhoid fever outbreaks Author: United States Center for Disease Control (CDC) Source: http://www. ... For other meanings of the acronym WHO, see WHO (disambiguation) WHO flag Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the World Health Organization (WHO) is an agency of the United Nations, acting as a coordinating authority on international public health. ...


Heterozygous advantage

It is thought that cystic fibrosis may have risen to its present levels (1 in 1600 in UK) due to the heterozygous advantage that it confers against typhoid fever. The CFTR protein is present in both the lungs and the intestinal epithelium, and the mutant cystic fibrosis form of the CFTR protein prevents entry of the typhoid bacterium into the body through the intestinal epithelium. A heterozygote advantage (heterozygous advantage or overdominance) describes the case in which in which the heterozygote genotype has a higher relative fitness than either the homozygote dominant or homozygote recessive genotype. ... Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter-class protein that functions in transporting chloride ions across epithelial cells found in the lung, liver, pancreas, digestive tract, reproductive tract, and skin. ...


History

Around 430–426 B.C., a devastating plague, which some believe to have been typhoid fever, killed one third of the population of Athens, including their leader Pericles. The balance of power shifted from Athens to Sparta, ending the Golden Age of Pericles that had marked Athenian dominance in the ancient world. Ancient historian Thucydides also contracted the disease, but he survived to write about the plague. His writings are the primary source on this outbreak. The cause of the plague has long been disputed, with modern academics and medical scientists considering epidemic typhus the most likely cause. However, a 2006 study detected DNA sequences similar to those of the bacterium responsible for typhoid fever.[7] Other scientists have disputed the findings, citing serious methodologic flaws in the dental pulp-derived DNA study.[8] The disease is most commonly transmitted through poor hygiene habits and public sanitation conditions; during the period in question, the whole population of Attica was besieged within the Long Walls and lived in tents. This article is about large epidemics. ... The History of Athens is one of the longest of any city in Europe and in the world. ... Pericles or Perikles (ca. ... For other uses see Sparta (disambiguation). ... The Age of Pericles is the term used to denote the historical period (roughly) from the end of the Persian Wars to either the death of Pericles or the end of the Peloponnesian War. ... Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Typhus. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Attica (in Greek: Αττική, Attike; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a periphery (subdivision) in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece. ... The Long Walls generally refers to the walls connecting Athens to its port at Piraeus which were constructed in the mid 5th century BC, destroyed by the Spartans in 404 BC after Athens defeat in the Peloponnesian War, and rebuilt again with Persian support during the Corinthian War. ...


In the late 19th century, typhoid fever mortality rate in Chicago averaged 65 per 100,000 people a year. The worst year was 1891, when the typhoid death rate was 174 per 100,000 persons.[9] The most notorious carrier of typhoid fever—but by no means the most destructive—was Mary Mallon, also known as Typhoid Mary. In 1907, she became the first American carrier to be identified and traced. She was a cook in New York; some believe she was the source of infection for several hundred people. She is closely associated with forty-seven cases and three deaths.[10] Public health authorities told Mary to give up working as a cook or have her gall bladder removed. Mary quit her job but returned later under a false name. She was detained and quarantined after another typhoid outbreak. She died of pneumonia after 26 years in quarantine. Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... Typhoid Mary in a 1909 newspaper illustration Mary Mallon (September 23, 1869 – November 11, 1938), also known as Typhoid Mary, was the first person in the United States to be identified as a healthy carrier of typhoid fever. ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the state. ... The gallbladder (or cholecyst) is a pear-shaped organ that stores bile (or gall) until the body needs it for digestion. ... A pseudonym (Greek: , pseudo + -onym: false name) is an artificial, fictitious name, also known as an alias, used by an individual as an alternative to a persons legal name. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In 1897, Almroth Edward Wright developed an effective vaccine. Sir Almroth Edward Wright (1861-1947) was a British bacteriologist and immunologist. ...


Most developed countries saw declining rates of typhoid fever throughout first half of 20th century due to vaccinations and advances in public sanitation and hygiene. Antibiotics were introduced in clinical practice in 1942, greatly reducing mortality. At the present time, incidence of typhoid fever in developed countries is around 0.5 cases per 100,000 people per year.


An outbreak in the Democratic Republic of Congo in 2004-05 recorded more than 42,000 cases and 214 deaths.[6]


Famous typhoid victims

Famous people who have succumbed to the disease include:

Abigail Smith Adams she was (November 11, 1744 – October 28, 1818) was the wife of John Adams, the second President of the United States, and is seen as the second First Lady of the United States though that term was not coined until after her death. ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (Francis Charles Augustus Albert Emmanuel, of the Saxe-Coburg-Gotha branch of the House of Wettin) (26 August 1819 - 14 December 1861) was the husband and consort of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... A prince consort, generally speaking, is the husband of a Queen regnant, unless he himself is a king. ... Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819–22 January 1901) was a Queen of the United Kingdom, reigning from 20 June 1837 until her death. ... John Buford, Jr. ... Stephen Arnold Douglas (nicknamed the Little Giant because he was short but was considered by many a giant in politics) was an American politician from the western state of Illinois, and was the Democratic Party nominee for President in 1860. ... Alexander Alexandrovich Friedman or Friedmann (Александр Александрович Фридман) (June 16, 1888 – September 16, 1925) was a Russian cosmologist and mathematician. ... Mark Hanna Mark A. Hanna (September 24, 1837–February 15, 1904), born Marcus Alonzo Hanna, was an industrialist and Republican politician from Ohio. ... K.B.Hedgewar Dr. Keshava Baliram Hedgewar (April 1, 1889 - June 21, 1940) was an Indian nationalist. ... Karl Ludwig, Archduke of Austria (30 July 1833 - 19 May 1896) was the father of Franz Ferdinand of Austria, whose shooting occasioned the start of World War I. He was born at Schönbrunn in Vienna, the son of Franz Karl Josef of Austria (1802-1878) and his wife Sophie... Tsar Nicholas II (18 May 1868 to 17 July 1918)1 was the last crowned Emperor of Russia. ... Mary Henrietta Kingsley (October 13, 1862 - June 3, 1900) was an English writer and explorer who greatly influenced European ideas about Africa and African people. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Leland Stanford, Jr. ... For other people known as Henry, Prince of Wales see Henry, Prince of Wales (disambiguation) Henry Frederick Stuart, Prince of Wales ( February 19, 1594 - November 6, 1612) was the eldest son of King James VI of Scotland/ James I of England and Anne of Denmark. ... This article is about the title Prince of Wales. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... Evangelista Torricelli portrayed on the frontpage of Lezioni dEvangelista Torricelli. ... Charles Trenet (May 18, 1913, Narbonne, France – February 19, 2001, Créteil, France) was a French singer and songwriter, most famous for his recordings from the late 1930s through the mid-1950s, though his career continued through the 1990s. ... Godfrey Weitzel (November 1, 1835 – March 19, 1884) was a major general in the Union army during the American Civil War, as well as the acting Mayor of New Orleans during the Federal occupancy of the city. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Wilbur Wright (April 16, 1867 - May 30, 1912), the elder of the Wright brothers, seen as one of the fathers of heavier-than-air flight. ... Ignacio Zaragoza Ignacio Zaragoza Seguín (March 24, 1829 – September 8, 1862) was a general in the Mexican Army, best known for his 1862 victory against the French invading forces in the Battle of Puebla on May 5 (the Cinco de Mayo). ... Maria Isabella Boyd (May 4, 1844 – June 11, 1900), best known as Belle Boyd, was a Confederate spy in the American Civil War. ...

See also

Brigadier General Frederick Fuller Russell, MD (1870, Auburn, New York, USA-December 29, 1960) was a U.S. Army physician who developed an American typhoid vaccine in 1909. ... Mary Mallon (September 23, 1869 – November 11, 1938), also known as Typhoid Mary, was an Irish immigrant who was the first known healthy carrier of typhoid fever in the United States. ...

References

  1. ^ Kotton C. Typhoid fever. MedlinePlus. URL: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001332.htm. Accessed on: May 4, 2007.
  2. ^ Giannella RA (1996). "Salmonella", Baron's Medical Microbiology (Baron S et al, eds.), 4th ed., Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1. 
  3. ^ CDC Typhoid Fever. Center for Disease Control (2005-10-25). Retrieved on 2007-10-02.
  4. ^ Ryan KJ, Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology, 4th ed., McGraw Hill. ISBN 0838585299. 
  5. ^ Cooke FJ, Wain J, Threlfall EJ (2006). "Fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella Typhi (letter)". Brit Med J 333 (7563): 353–4. 
  6. ^ a b Typhoid Fever. World Health Organisation. Retrieved on [[2007-08-28]].
  7. ^ Papagrigorakis MJ, Yapijakis C, Synodinos PN, Baziotopoulou-Valavani E (2006). "DNA examination of ancient dental pulp incriminates typhoid fever as a probable cause of the Plague of Athens". Int J Infect Dis 10 (3): 206–14. PMID 16412683}. 
  8. ^ Shapiro B, Rambaut A, Gilbert M (2006). "No proof that typhoid caused the Plague of Athens (a reply to Papagrigorakis et al.)". Int J Infect Dis 10 (4): 334–5; author reply 335–6. PMID 16730469. 
  9. ^ 1900 Flow of Chicago River Reversed. Chicago Timeline. Chicago Public Library. Retrieved on 2007-02-08.
  10. ^ Nova: The Most Dangerous Woman in America.

MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Gale's Encyclopedia of Medicine, published by Thomas Gale in 1999, ISBN

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Typhoid Fever - LoveToKnow 1911 (6749 words)
'vmpov, the intestine) is a specific infectious fever characterized mainly by its insidious onset, by, a peculiar course of the temperature, by marked abdominal symptoms occurring in connexion with a specific lesion of the bowels, by an eruption upon the skin, by its uncertain duration, and by a liability to relapses.
Other changes common to most fevers are also to be observed, such as softening of the muscular tissues generally, and particularly of the heart, and evidences of complications affecting chest or other organs, which not infrequently arise.
In an outbreak of enteritis and typhoid fever at Leavesden Asylum, investigated by Dr A. Shadwell in 1899, the source of mischief was traced to contamination of the well, which was 250 ft. deep in the chalk.
Typhoid Fever Symptoms And Treatments (761 words)
The fever is of uncertain duration and liable to frequent relapses.
Typhoid fever is an infectious disease and children contract it from those who have had it, or from carriers.
Typhoid fever usually develops in a child who has a great accumulation of toxic waste and other putrefactive material in his intestine, resulting from wrong diet and faulty style of living.
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