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Encyclopedia > Typewriter
Mechanical desktop typewriters, such as this Underwood Five, were long time standards of government agencies, newsrooms, and sales offices. They have been largely replaced by IBM Selectrics and newer electronic models. Models like this are occasionally still seen in urban sales offices that use paper invoices.
This Smith Premier typewriter, purchased around the end of the 19th century, was found abandoned in the Bodie ghost town. This early example had separate keys for upper- and lower-case letters.
This Smith Premier typewriter, purchased around the end of the 19th century, was found abandoned in the Bodie ghost town. This early example had separate keys for upper- and lower-case letters.

A typewriter is a mechanical, electromechanical, or electronic device with a set of "keys" that, when pressed, cause characters to be printed on a document, usually paper. Image File history File links Underwoodfive. ... Image File history File links Underwoodfive. ... The Underwood typewriter was the forerunner of the modern typewriter. ... IBM Selectric The IBM Selectric typewriter (occasionally known as the IBM Golfball typewriter) is an influential electric typewriter design. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 136 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 136 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Smith Corona is a US company who manufactures typewriters. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... In engineering, electromechanics combines electromagnetism and mechanics. ... This article is about the engineering discipline. ... For the similarly-named Surrealist journal, see Documents (journal). ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ...


In the late 19th century and at the start of the 20th century, a person who operated such a device was sometimes called a typewriter but it then became more common to call the person a typist.


For much of the 20th century, typewriters were indispensable tools in business offices and for many (if not all) professional writers. By the 1980s, however, word processor applications on personal computers largely overtook the tasks previously accomplished with typewriters. However, typewriters are still popular in the developing world and among some niche markets. A word processor (also more formally known as a document preparation system) is a computer application used for the production (including composition, editing, formatting, and possibly printing) of any sort of viewable or printed material. ... A niche market is a focused, targetable portion of a market sector. ...


As of 2006, the following companies manufacture typewriters and accessories: Smith-Corona, Olivetti, Adler-Royal, Olympia, Brother, and Nakajima. Olivetti is the only western company still manufacturing manual typewriters. All other current models are electronic. Smith Corona is a US company who manufactures typewriters. ... Olivetti Lettera 22, 1950 Ing. ... The Royal Typewriter Company was a leading manufacturer of typewriters along with Underwood and Remington. ... Brother Industries, Ltd. ...

Contents

History

Early innovations

Types in a 1920s typewriter
Types in a 1920s typewriter
An index typewriter with a circular keyboard is one of many designs of early typewriters that did not become widely adopted.
An index typewriter with a circular keyboard is one of many designs of early typewriters that did not become widely adopted.
Fr. Azevedo's typewriter
Fr. Azevedo's typewriter

No single person can be credited with the invention of the typewriter. As with the light bulb, automobile, telephone, and telegraph, a number of people contributed insights and inventions that eventually resulted in commercially successful instruments. In fact, historians have estimated that some form of typewriter was invented 52 times as tinkerers tried to come up with a workable design.[1] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2689x1998, 1143 KB) Summary types in a 1920s typewriter Author: Mohylek 16:38, 12 September 2006 (UTC) Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Typewriter Metadata... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2689x1998, 1143 KB) Summary types in a 1920s typewriter Author: Mohylek 16:38, 12 September 2006 (UTC) Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Typewriter Metadata... Image File history File linksMetadata Index_typewriter. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Index_typewriter. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (568x880, 165 KB) Summary Fr. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (568x880, 165 KB) Summary Fr. ... The light bulb is one of the most significant inventions in the history of the human race, illuminating the darkness of the evening and bringing light indoors at all times in order focus on the task at hand. ... “Car” and “Cars” redirect here. ... For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ... Telegraph and Telegram redirect here. ...


In 1714, Henry Mill obtained a patent in Britain for a machine that, from the patent, appears similar to a typewriter, but nothing further is known.[2] Other early developers of typewriting machines include Pellegrino Turri, who also invented carbon paper. Many of these early machines, including Turri's, were developed to enable the blind to write. Henry Mill patented the first typewriter in 1714. ... A sheet of carbon paper, coating side down. ...


In 1829, William Austin Burt patented a machine called the "Typographer." Like many other early machines, it is sometimes listed as the "first typewriter"; the Science Museum (London) describes it merely as "the first writing mechanism whose invention was documented," but even that claim may be excessive, since Turri's machine is well known.[3] Even in the hands of its inventor, it was slower than handwriting. Burt and his promoter John D. Sheldon never found a buyer for the patent, and it was never commercially produced. Because it used a dial to select each character rather than keys, it was called an "index typewriter" rather than a "keyboard typewriter," if it is to be considered a typewriter at all. From 1829 to 1870, many printing or typing machines were patented by inventors in Europe and America, but none went into commercial production. Charles Thurber developed multiple patents; his first, in 1843, was developed as an aid to the blind. See Charles Thurber's 1845 Chirographer, as an example. William Austin Burt (1792—August 18, 1858) was an inventor, legislator, surveyor, and millwright. ... A typographer (from the Greek words typos = form and grapho = write) practices typography (the art and technique of selecting and arranging type styles, point sizes, line lengths, line leading, character spacing, and word spacing for typeset applications). ... The Science Museum on Exhibition Road, South Kensington, London is part of the National Museum of Science and Industry. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


In 1855, the Italian Giuseppe Ravizza created a prototype typewriter called "Cembalo scrivano o macchina da scrivere a tasti." It was an advanced machine that let the user see the writing as it was typed.


In 1861, Father Francisco João de Azevedo, a Brazilian priest, made his own typewriter with basic materials and tools, such as wood and knives. D. Pedro I, the Brazilian emperor, in that same year, presented a gold medal to Father Azevedo for this invention. Many Brazilian people as well as the Brazilian federal government recognize Fr. Azevedo as the real inventor of the typewriter, a claim that has been the subject of some controversy.[4] Pedro I, Emperor of Brazil (pron. ...


In 1864, the Austrian Peter Mitterhofer created a typewriter, but it was never produced commercially. Mitterhofer continued to improve his original model and created five different enhanced typewriters until 1868.

In 1865, Rev. Rasmus Malling-Hansen of Denmark invented the Hansen Writing Ball, which went into commercial production in 1870 and was the first commercially sold typewriter. It was a success in Europe and was reported as being used in offices in London as late as 1909.[5] In addition, Malling-Hansen used a solenoid escapement to return the carriage on some of his models and was a responsible candidate for the first "electric" typewriter. From the book Hvem er Skrivekuglens Opfinder?, written by Malling-Hansen's daughter, Johanne Agerskov, we know that, in 1865, Malling-Hansen made a porcelain model of the keyboard of his writing ball and experimented with different placements of the letters to achieve the fastest writing speed. Malling-Hansen placed the letters on short pistons that went directly through the ball and down to the paper. This, together with placement of the letters so that the fastest writing fingers struck the most frequently used letters, made the Hansen Writing Ball the first typewriter to produce text substantially faster than a person could write by hand. Rasmus Malling-Hansen - 1877 Rasmus Malling-Hansen - 1887 The first model of the writing ball, patented in 1870 The writing ball - model from 1874 The best known model of the writing ball - this one is from 1878 An old picture of Malling-Hansens tombstone in Garnisons churchyard in Copenhagen. ... The Hansen Writing Ball is one of the most finely crafted and impressive of the early typewriters. ... Various solenoid actuators from Trombetta Motion Technologies A solenoid is a loop of wire, often wrapped around a metallic core, which produces a magnetic field when an electrical current is passed through it. ... The Hansen Writing Ball is one of the most finely crafted and impressive of the early typewriters. ...


Malling-Hansen developed his typewriter further through the 1870s and 1880s and made many improvements, but the writing head remained the same. On the first model of the writing ball from 1870, the paper was attached to a cylinder inside a wooden box. In 1874, the cylinder was replaced by a carriage, moving beneath the writing head. Then, in 1875, the well-known tall model was patented and it was the first of the writing balls that worked without electricity. Malling-Hansen attended the world exhibitions in Vienna in 1873 and Paris in 1878. At both exhibitions, he received the first-prize medals for his invention.[6][7][8]


The first typewriter to be commercially successful was invented in 1867 by Christopher Sholes,[1] Carlos Glidden and Samuel W. Soule. Sholes soon disowned the machine and refused to use or even to recommend it.[1] The patent (US 79,265) was sold for $12,000 to Densmore and Yost, who made an agreement with E. Remington and Sons (then famous as a manufacturer of sewing machines) to commercialize what was known as the Sholes and Glidden Type-Writer. Remington started production of its first typewriter on March 1, 1873, in Ilion, New York. Another early typewriter manufacturer was Underwood. Wisconsin Historical Marker Christopher Latham Sholes (February 14, 1819 - February 17, 1890) is an American who contributed to the development of the typewriter. ... Carlos Glidden along with Invented the Remington typewriter. ... Samuel W. Sholes was one of the three men who helped invent The Remington Typewriter. ... E. Remington and Sons (1816-1886) was a manufacturer of firearms and typewriters. ... A modern machine (Singer Symphonie 300) A sewing machine is a mechanical (or electromechanical) device that joins fabric using thread. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Ilion is a village in Herkimer County, New York, USA. The population was 8,610 at the 2000 census. ... “NY” redirects here. ... The Underwood typewriter was the forerunner of the modern typewriter. ...


The ability to view what is typed, as it is typed, is taken for granted today. In most early keyboard typewriters, however, the typebars struck upward against the bottom of the platen. Thus, what was typed was not visible until the typing of subsequent lines caused it to scroll into view. The difficulty with any other arrangement was ensuring that the typebars fell back into place reliably when the key was released. This was eventually achieved with various ingenious mechanical designs and so-called "visible typewriters" were introduced in 1895. Surprisingly, the older style continued in production to as late as 1915. A typebar is an arm inside a typewriter with a characters on the end of it. ... In letterpress printing, a platen is the perfectly flat steel (or earlier, wooden) plate which is pressed onto the back of paper to cause an impression to be made from the type. ...


Standardization

By about 1920, the "manual" or "mechanical" typewriter had reached a somewhat standardized design. There were minor variations from one manufacturer to another, but most typewriters followed the concept that each key was attached to a typebar that had the corresponding letter molded, in reverse, into its striking head. When a key was struck briskly and firmly, the typebar hit a ribbon (usually made of inked fabric) stretched in front of a cylindrical platen that moved back and forth. The paper was rolled around by the typewriter's platen, which was then rotated by the "carriage return" lever (at the far left) into position for each new line of text. Some ribbons were inked in black and red stripes, each being half the width and the entire length of the ribbon. A lever on most machines allowed switching between colors, which was useful for bookkeeping entries where negative amounts had to be in red. A typebar is an arm inside a typewriter with a characters on the end of it. ... An ink is a liquid containing various pigments and/or dyes used for coloring a surface to render an image or text. ... It has been suggested that Textile be merged into this article or section. ...


In the 1940s, a silent typewriter was marketed, but it failed, leading some observers to the conclusion that the clickety-clack of the typical typewriter was a consumer preference.[1]


Electric designs

Although electric typewriters would not achieve widespread popularity until nearly a century later, the basic groundwork for the electric typewriter was laid by the Universal Stock Ticker, invented by Thomas Edison in 1870. This device remotely printed letters and numbers on a stream of paper tape from input generated by a specially designed typewriter at the other end of a telegraph line. Stock Ticker working replica Ticker tape was used by ticker tape machines, the Ticker tape timer, stock ticker machines, or just stock tickers. ... “Edison” redirects here. ...


The first electric typewriter was produced by the Blickensderfer Manufacturing Company, of Stamford, Connecticut, in 1902. While never marketed commercially, this was the first known typewriter to use a typewheel rather than individual typebars, although the element was cylindrical rather than ball-shaped. The next step in the development of the electric typewriter came in 1909, when Charles and Howard Krum file a patent for the first practical teletype machine in 1909. The Krums' machine also used a typewheel rather than individual typebars. While innovative, neither of these machines reached the business or personal consumer. The Blickensderfer Typewriter was designed by George C Blickensderfer (1850-1917) in 1893. ... Nickname: Location in Connecticut Coordinates: , NECTA Region Settled 1641 Incorporated (city) 1893 Consolidated 1949 Government  - Type Mayor-Board of representatives  - Mayor Dannel Malloy (Dem) Area  - City 134. ...


Electrical typewriter designs removed the direct mechanical connection between the keys and the element that struck the paper. Not to be confused with later electronic typewriters, electric typewriters contained only a single electrical component: the motor. Where the keystroke had previously moved a typebar directly, now it engaged mechanical linkages that directed mechanical power from the motor into the typebar. This was also true of the forthcoming IBM Selectric.


IBM and Remington Rand electric typewriters were the leading models until IBM introduced the IBM Selectric typewriter, which replaced the typebars with a spherical element (or typeball) slightly larger than a golf ball, with the reverse-image letters molded around its surface. The Selectric used a system of latches, metal tapes, and pulleys driven by an electric motor to rotate the ball into the correct position and then strike it against the ribbon and platen. The typeball moved laterally in front of the paper instead of the former platen-carrying carriage moving the paper across a stationary print position. IBM Selectric The IBM Selectric typewriter (occasionally known as the IBM Golfball typewriter) is an influential electric typewriter design. ...

Replaceable IBM typeballs with clip, 2 Euro coin to compare
Replaceable IBM typeballs with clip, 2 Euro coin to compare

The typeball design had many advantages, especially the elimination of "jams" (when more than one key was struck at once and the levers became entangled) and in the ability to change the typeball, allowing multiple fonts to be used in a single document. Selectric mechanisms were widely incorporated into computer terminals in the 1970s, because the typing mechanism (a) was reasonably fast and jam-free, (b) could produce high quality output compared to competitors such as Teletype machines, (c) could be initiated by a short, low-force mechanical action, (d) did not require the movement of a heavy "type basket" to shift between lower- and upper-case, and (e) did not require the platen roller assembly to move from side to side (a problem with continuous-feed paper). The IBM 2741 terminal was a popular example of a Selectric-based computer terminal, and similar mechanisms were employed as the console devices for many IBM System/360 computers. These mechanisms used "ruggedized" designs compared to those in standard commercial typewriters. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1243x865, 225 KB) Beschreibung Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Typewriter IBM Selectric typewriter ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1243x865, 225 KB) Beschreibung Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Typewriter IBM Selectric typewriter ... A teleprinter (teletypewriter, teletype or TTY) is a now largely obsolete electro-mechanical typewriter which can be used to communicate typed messages from point to point through a simple electrical communications channel, often just a pair of wires. ...


IBM also gained an advantage by marketing more heavily to schools than did Remington, with the idea that students who learned to type on an IBM Electric would later choose IBM typewriters over the competition in the workplace as businesses replaced their old manual models.[citation needed]


Later models of IBM Executives and Selectrics replaced inked fabric ribbons with "carbon film" ribbons that had a dry black or colored powder on a clear plastic tape. These could be used only once, but later models used a cartridge that was simple to replace. A side effect of this technology was that the text typed on the machine could be easily read from the used ribbon, raising issues where the machines were used for preparing classified documents (ribbons had to be accounted for to ensure that typists didn't carry them from the facility). In fact, a document reconstructed from a used carbon ribbon was the key to solving a crime in an episode of Columbo. Columbo is an American crime fiction TV series starring Peter Falk as Lieutenant Columbo, a homicide detective with the Los Angeles Police Department. ...

Electronic typewriter - the final stage in typewriter development. A 1989 Canon Typestar 110
Electronic typewriter - the final stage in typewriter development. A 1989 Canon Typestar 110

A variation known as "Correcting Selectrics" introduced a correction feature, where a sticky tape in front of the print ribbon could remove the black-powdered image of a typed character, eliminating the need for white dab-on paint or hard erasers that could tear the paper. These machines also introduced selectable "pitch" so that the typewriter could be switched between pica (10 characters per inch) and elite (12 per inch), even within one document. Even so, all Selectrics were monospaced—each character and letterspace was allotted the same width on the page, from a capital "W" to a period. Although IBM had produced a successful typebar-based machine with three levels of proportional spacing, called the IBM Executive, no proportionally spaced Selectric office typewriter was ever introduced. There were, however, two other machines with fully proportional spacing: the expensive Selectric Composer, which was capable of right-margin justification and was considered a typesetting machine rather than a typewriter; and the more reasonably priced IBM Electronic Typewriter 50, which was capable of proportional spacing but not right-justifying. By 1970, as offset printing began to replace letterpress printing, the Composer would be adapted as the output unit for a typesetting system. The system included a computer-driven input station to capture the key strokes on magnetic tape and insert the operator's format commands, and a Composer unit to read the tape and produce the formatted text for photo reproduction. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1800x1132, 637 KB) The 1989 Canon Typestar 110 typewriter (electronic) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Typewriter Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1800x1132, 637 KB) The 1989 Canon Typestar 110 typewriter (electronic) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Typewriter Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the... Canon Inc. ... “Font” redirects here. ... The IBM Electric typewriters were a series of electric typewriters that IBM manufactured, starting in the late 1940s. ... Typesetting involves the presentation of textual material in an aesthetic form on paper or some other media. ... Offset lithography printing process Offset printing is a widely used printing technique where the inked image is transferred (or offset) from a plate to a rubber blanket, then to the printing surface. ... Letterpress printing is the oldest printing technique, in which a raised surface is inked and then pressed against a smooth substance to obtain an image in reverse. ...


The final major development of the typewriter was the "electronic" typewriter. Most of these replaced the typeball with a daisy wheel mechanism (a disk with the letters molded on the outside edge of the "petals"). A plastic daisy-wheel was much simpler and cheaper than the typeball but also wore out more easily. Some electronic typewriters were in essence dedicated word processors with internal memory and cartridge or diskette external memory-storage devices. Unlike the Selectrics and earlier models, these really were "electronic" and relied on integrated circuits and multiple electromechanical components. A daisy wheel printer is a type of computer printer that produces high-quality type, and is often referred to as a letter quality printer (this in contrast to high-quality dot-matrix printers, capable of near-letter-quality, or NLQ, output). ... A word processor (also more formally known as a document preparation system) is a computer application used for the production (including composition, editing, formatting, and possibly printing) of any sort of viewable or printed material. ...


Computer/typewriter hybrids

Towards the end of the commercial popularity of typewriters in the 1980s, a number of hybrid designs combining features of computer printers and typewriters were introduced. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Children playing on a Amstrad CPC 464 in the 1980s. ... A computer printer, or more commonly a printer, produces a hard copy (permanent human-readable text and/or graphics) of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper transparencies]]. Many printers are primarily used as computer peripherals, and are attached by a printer cable to...


These typically incorporated keyboards from existing models of typewriters and the printing mechanism of dot-matrix printers. The generation of teletypes with impact pin-based printing engines was not adequate for the demanding quality required for typed output. Newly developed, thermal transfer technologies used in thermal label printers had become technically feasible for typewriters. A dot matrix printer or impact matrix printer normally refers to a type of computer printer with a print-head that runs back and forth on the page and prints by impact, striking an ink-soaked cloth ribbon against the paper, much like a typewriter. ... A teleprinter (teletypewriter, teletype or TTY) is a now largely obsolete electro-mechanical typewriter which can be used to communicate typed messages from point to point through a simple electrical communications channel, often just a pair of wires. ... In regards to printing a thermal transfer printer has a print-head containing many small resistive heating pins that on contact, depending on the type of thermal transfer printer, melt wax-based ink onto ordinary paper or burn dots onto special coated paper. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


IBM produced a series of typewriters called Thermotronic with letter-quality output and correcting tape along with printers tagged Quietwriter. Brother extended the life of their typewriter product line with similar products. DEC meanwhile had the DECwriter. IBM redirects here. ... Brother Industries, Ltd. ... The DEC logo Digital Equipment Corporation was a pioneering American company in the computer industry. ...


The development of these proprietary printing engines provided the vendors with exclusive markets in consumable ribbons and the possibility to use standardised printing engines with varying degrees of electronic and software sophistication to develop product lines.


The increasing dominance of personal computers and the introduction of low-cost, truly high-quality, laser and inkjet printer technologies are replacing typewriters. 1993 Apple LaserWriter Pro 630 laser printer A laser printer is a common type of computer printer that rapidly produces high quality text and graphics on plain paper. ... Inkjet printers are a type of computer printer that operates by propelling tiny droplets of liquid ink onto paper. ...


Legacy

Even with the proliferation of the personal computer and word processing software, typewriters continued to be used in offices and schools for specialized applications such as filling out pre-printed forms and addressing envelopes. However, modern computer programs, in conjunction with adaptable printers, enable computer users to accomplish such tasks. Word processing, in its now-usual meaning, is the use of a word processor to create documents using computers. ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ...


The monospaced, stark, and slightly uneven look of typewritten text can have some artistic appeal, and some people, young and old, prefer to use a typewriter. However, there are text processing programs for computers that can give this "personalized" appearance to even mass-produced documents and envelopes.

The QWERTY layout of typewriter keys became a de facto standard and continues to be used long after the reasons for its adoption (including reduction of key/lever entanglements) have ceased to apply.
The QWERTY layout of typewriter keys became a de facto standard and continues to be used long after the reasons for its adoption (including reduction of key/lever entanglements) have ceased to apply.

In some third-world and developing countries, where personal computers are not so common, individuals provide services as on-the-spot letter writers in parks, plazas, and other public areas. For a fee, they accept dictation from customers who may be illiterate or do not own a typewriter. In Mexico, for example, such a thing can be seen daily on Calle Heroes de Cañonero in downtown Tampico. typewriter keyboard, from nl wikipedia Credited to: http://www. ... For the song by Linkin Park, see QWERTY (song). ... This article is about a city in Mexico. ...


Keyboard layout

The 1874 Sholes & Glidden typewriters established the QWERTY layout for the letter keys. During the period in which Sholes and his colleagues were experimenting with this invention, other keyboard arrangements were apparently tried, but these are poorly documented. The tantalizing near-alphabetical sequence on the "home row" of the QWERTY layout (d-f-g-h-j-k-l) demonstrates that a straightforward alphabetical arrangement was the original starting point.[9] The QWERTY layout of keys has become the de facto standard for English-language typewriter and computer keyboards. Other languages written in the Latin alphabet sometimes use variants of the QWERTY layouts, such as the French AZERTY, the Italian QZERTY, and the German QWERTZ layouts. For the song by Linkin Park, see QWERTY (song). ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... The Azerty keyboard layout on a laptop sold in Belgium. ... The QWERTY Layout QWERTY (pronounced kwerty) is the modern-day layout of letters on most English language computer and typewriter keyboards. ... The QWERTZ keyboard layout used in Germany and Austria. ...


The QWERTY layout is not the most efficient, since it requires a touch-typist to move his or her fingers between rows to type the most common letters. A popular story suggests that it was used for early typewriters because it was inefficient; it slowed a typist down so as to reduce the frequency of the typewriter's typebars wedging together and jamming the machine. Another story is that the QWERTY layout allowed early typewriter salesmen to impress their customers by being able to easily type out the example word "typewriter" without having learnt the full keyboard layout, because "typewriter" can be spelled purely on the top row of the keyboard. The most likely explanation is that the QWERTY arrangement was designed to reduce the likelihood of internal clashing by placing commonly used combinations of letters farther from each other inside the machine.[10] This allowed the user to type faster without jamming. Unfortunately, no definitive explanation for the QWERTY keyboard has been found, and typewriter aficionados continue to debate the issue.


A number of radically different layouts, such as the Dvorak keyboard, have been proposed to reduce the perceived inefficiencies of QWERTY, but these have not been able to displace the QWERTY layout; their proponents claim considerable advantages, but so far none has been widely used. The Blickensderfer typewriter with its DHIATENSOR layout may have possibly been the first attempt at optimizing the keyboard layout for efficiency advantages. The Dvorak Simplified Keyboard layout // The Dvorak Simplified Keyboard (pronounced ) is a keyboard layout patented in 1936 by Dr. August Dvorak, an educational psychologist and professor of education[1] at the University of Washington in Seattle,[2] and William Dealey as an alternative to the more common QWERTY layout. ... The Blickensderfer Typewriter was designed by George C Blickensderfer (1850-1917) in 1893. ...


Many old typewriters do not contain a separate key for the numeral 1, and some even older ones also lack the numeral zero. Typists learned the habit of using the lowercase letter l for the digit 1, and the uppercase O for the zero. Some still carry the habit of using the letter l instead of the numeral 1 with them when typing on a computer, sometimes leading to errors, especially when working with numerical data.[citation needed] For other uses, see Data (disambiguation). ...


Computer jargon

Several words of the 'typewriter age' have survived into the personal computer era. Examples include:

  • carbon copy – now in its abbreviated form "CC" designating copies of email messages (with no carbon involved, at least not until potential printouts);
  • cursor – a marker used to indicate where the next character will be printed
  • carriage return (CR) – indicating an end of line and return to the first column of text (and on some computer platforms, advancing to the next line)
  • line feed (LF), aka 'newline' – standing for moving the cursor to the next on-screen line of text in a word processor document (and on the eventual printout(s) of the document).
Because the typebars of this typewriter strike upwards, the typist in this French postcard, c. 1910, could not have seen characters as they were typed.

Carbon copying, often abbreviated to c. ... E-mail, or email, is short for electronic mail and is a method of composing, sending, and receiving messages over electronic communication systems. ... On a typewriter, the cursor is a vertical line indicating the position at which the next character will be printed. ... Originally, carriage return was the term for the key, lever, or mechanism on a typewriter that would cause the cylinder on which the paper was held (the carriage) to return to the left side of the paper after a line of text had been typed, and would often move it... In computing, line feed (LF) is a control character indicating that one line should be fed out. ... A cursor is a movable marker that indicates a position. ... Typist at typewriter, from French postcard, c. ...

Effect on culture

When Remington first started marketing typewriters, the company assumed the machine would not be used for composing but for transcribing dictation, and that the person typing would be a woman. Flowers were printed on the casing of early models to make the machine seem more comfortable for women to use. In the United States, women often started in the professional workforce as typists; in fact, according to the 1910 U.S. census, 81 percent of typists were female. With more women brought out of the home and into offices, there was some concern about the effects this would have on the morals of society, both by moralists and pornographers. The "typewriter girl" became part of the iconography of early-twentieth-century pornography. The "Tijuana bibles" — dirty comic books produced in Mexico for the American market, starting in the 1930s — often featured women typists. In one panel, a businessman in a three-piece suit, ogling his secretary’s thigh, says, "Miss Higby, are you ready for—ahem!—er—dictation?"[1] The cover of a typical Tijuana bible. ...


Correction methods

According to the standards taught in secretarial schools in the mid-1900s, a business letter was supposed to have no mistakes and no visible corrections. Accuracy was prized as much as speed. Indeed, typing speeds, as scored in proficiency tests and typewriting speed competitions, included a deduction of ten words for every mistake. Corrections were, of course, necessary, and several methods were used. A business letter is a letter written in formal language (English), usually used when writing from one business organization to another, or for correspondence between such organizations and their customers, clients and other external parties. ...


The traditional method involved the use of a special typewriter eraser made of hard rubber that contained an abrasive material. It was in the shape of a thin, flat, disk, approximately 2-in (50-mm) in diameter by 1/8-in (3-mm) thick, allowing for erasure of individual typed letters. Business letters were typed on heavyweight, high-rag-content bond paper, not merely to provide a luxurious appearance, but also to stand up to erasure. Typewriter erasers were often equipped with a brush for clearing eraser crumbs and paper dust, and using the brush properly was an important element of typewriting skill (if erasure detritus fell into the typewriter, a small buildup could cause the typebars to jam in their narrow supporting grooves).


Erasing a set of carbon copies was particularly difficult, and called for the use of a device called an eraser shield to prevent the pressure of erasure on the upper copies from producing carbon smudges on the lower copies.


Paper companies produced a special form of typewriter paper called erasable bond (for example, Eaton's Corrasable Bond). This incorporated a thin layer of material that prevented ink from penetrating and was relatively soft and easy to remove from the page. An ordinary soft pencil eraser could quickly produce perfect erasures on this kind of paper. However, the same characteristics that made the paper erasable made the characters subject to smudging due to ordinary friction and deliberate alteration after the fact, making it unacceptable for business correspondence, contracts, or any archival use. Eatons Corrasable Bond is a trademarked name for a brand of erasable typing paper. ...


In the 1950s and 1960s, correction fluid made its appearance, under brand names such as Liquid Paper, Wite-Out and Tipp-Ex. This was a kind of opaque, white, fast-drying paint that produced a fresh white surface onto which a correction could be retyped. However, when held to the light, the covered-up characters were visible, as was the patch of dry correction fluid (which was never perfectly flat, and never a perfect match for the color, texture, and luster of the surrounding paper). The standard trick for solving this problem was photocopying the corrected page, but this was possible only with high quality photocopiers. A bottle of correction fluid Correction fluid is an opaque, white fluid applied to paper to mask errors in text. ... Liquid Paper, a brand name of whiteout, white-out, or opaque correction fluid, is used to cover up mistakes on paper without retyping the entire sheet. ... A standard bottle of Wite-Out Wite-Out is a trademark for a line of correction fluid manufactured by the American corporation BIC. Wite-Out dates to 1966, when George Kloosterhouse, an insurance-company clerk, sought to address a problem he observed in correction fluid available at the time: a... Tipp-Ex is a brand of correction fluid and other related products that is popular throughout Europe. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Dry correction products (such as correction paper) under brand names such as "Ko-Rec-Type" were introduced in the 1970s and functioned like white carbon paper. A strip of the product was placed over the letters needing correction, and the incorrect letters were retyped, causing the black character to be overstruck with a white overcoat. Similar material was soon incorporated in carbon-film electric typewriter ribbons; like the traditional two-color black-and-red inked ribbon common on manual typewriters, a black/white correcting ribbon became commonplace on electric typewriters. Correction paper, or correction film, its plastic based equivalent, is a tab of plastic with one side coated with white correction material. ...


The pinnacle of this kind of technology was the IBM Electronic Typewriter series. These machines, and similar products from other manufacturers, used a separate correction ribbon and a character memory. With a single keystroke, the typewriter was capable of automatically reversing and overstriking the previous characters with minimal marring of the paper. White cover-up or plastic lift-off correction ribbons are used with fabric ink or carbon film typing ribbons, respectively. IBM redirects here. ...


Typing speed records and speed contests

During the 1920s through 1940s, typing speed was an important secretarial qualification and typing contests were popular, publicized by typewriter companies as promotional tools.


As of 2005, Barbara Blackburn is the fastest English language typist in the world, according to The Guinness Book of World Records. Using the Dvorak Simplified Keyboard, she has maintained 150 words per minute (wpm) for 50 minutes, and 170 wpm for shorter periods. She has been clocked at a peak speed of 212 wpm. Blackburn, who failed her typing class in high school, first encountered the Dvorak keyboard in 1938, quickly learned to achieve very high speeds, and occasionally toured giving speed-typing demonstrations during her secretarial career. She appeared on The David Letterman Show and was deeply offended by Letterman's comedic treatment of her skill.[11] 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Guinness Book of Records (or in recent editions Guinness World Records, and in previous US editions Guinness Book of World Records) is a book published annually, containing an internationally recognized collection of superlatives: both in terms of human achievement and the extrema of the natural world. ... The Dvorak Simplified Keyboard layout // The Dvorak Simplified Keyboard (pronounced ) is a keyboard layout patented in 1936 by Dr. August Dvorak, an educational psychologist and professor of education[1] at the University of Washington in Seattle,[2] and William Dealey as an alternative to the more common QWERTY layout. ... The Late Show with David Letterman is an hour-long weeknight comedy and talk show broadcast by CBS from the Ed Sullivan Theater on Broadway in New York City. ... David Michael Letterman (born April 12, 1947, in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA) is an award-winning American comedian, late night talk show host, television producer, philanthropist, and IRL IndyCar Series car owner. ...


Popular software named "Mavis Beacon Teaches Typing" had led many people to assume that there is a woman named Mavis Beacon who is a very good typist. However, Mavis Beacon is a fictional promotional character commonly represented as an African American female. Mavis Beacon Teaches Typing is a software program for teaching touch typing. ...


Authors and writers who had unusual relationships with typewriters

Early adopters

The philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche used a typewriter in an attempt to stem his migraine headaches and his incipient blindness. Mark Twain was the first important writer to present a publisher with a typewritten manuscript (for Life on the Mississippi). Henry James dictated to a typist.[1] Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a 19th-century German philosopher. ... Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... For other uses of this name, see Henry James (disambiguation). ...


Others

William S. Burroughs wrote in some of his novels — and possibly believed — that "a machine he called the 'Soft Typewriter' was writing our lives, and our books, into existence," according to a book review in The New Yorker. And, in the film adaptation of his novel, "Naked Lunch," his typewriter is a living, insect-like entity (voiced by Burroughs himself) and actually dictates the book to him. William Seward Burroughs II (February 5, 1914) - August 2, 1997), more commonly known as William S. Burroughs (pronounced ), was an American novelist, essayist, social critic, painter and spoken word performer. ...


Ernest Hemingway used to write his books standing up in front of a Royal typewriter suitably placed on a tall bookshelf. This typewriter, still on its bookshelf, is kept in Finca Vigia, Hemingway's Havana's house (now a museum) where he lived until 1960--the year before his death. Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ... Finca Vigía (Spanish for Lookout Farm) was the home of Ernest Hemingway in San Francisco de Paula, Cuba, and now houses a museum. ... Nickname: (Spanish) City of Columns Position of Havana in the Americas Coordinates: , Country  Cuba Province Ciudad de La Habana Municipalities 15 Founded 1515a Government  - Mayor Juan Contino Aslán Area  - City 721. ...


Jack Kerouac, a fast typist at 100 words per minute, typed On the Road on a roll of paper so he wouldn't be interrupted by having to change the paper, pushing him back into the world’s inauthenticity. Within two weeks of starting to write On the Road, Kerouac had a single, single-spaced paragraph, 120 feet long. Some scholars say the scroll was shelf paper; others contend it was a Thermo-fax roll; another theory is that the roll consisted of sheets of architect’s paper taped together.[1] Another fast typist of the Beat period was Richard Brautigan, who said that he thought out the plots of his books in detail beforehand, then typed them out at speeds approaching 90 to 100 words a minute.[12] Jack Kerouac (pronounced ) (March 12, 1922 – October 21, 1969) was an American novelist, writer, poet, and artist. ... Trout Fishing in America, 1974 paperback edition. ...


Wall Street Journal writer Ellen Gamerman--who frequently covers computer and technology news--also composes her stories on a typewriter. The Wall Street Journal is an influential international daily newspaper published in New York City, New York with an average daily circulation of 1,800,607 (2002). ...


Late users

Andy Rooney, William F. Buckley Jr. were among many writers who were very reluctant to switch from typewriters to computers. plutoniym card This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... William Frank Buckley Jr. ...


Typewriters in music and other applications

The composer Leroy Anderson wrote a short piece of music for orchestra and typewriter, which has since been used as the theme for numerous radio programs. The Best of Leroy Anderson: Sleigh Ride Leroy Anderson (June 29, 1908 – May 18, 1975) was best known as an American composer of short, light concert music pieces, many of which were introduced by the Boston Pops Orchestra under the direction of Arthur Fiedler. ...


The Pulitzer Prize–winning musical comedy How To Succeed In Business Without Really Trying (music and lyrics by Frank Loesser) is a satire set in the world of big business and features typewriter sound effects in the song "A Secretary Is Not A Toy."


The Winnipeg band Poor Tree incorporates typewriters into its music. Two to three members would type a poem while reading them at the same time, interlocking the lines, words and sounds.


The Dolly Parton song "9 to 5" features typewriter noises as percussion. Dolly Rebecca Parton (born January 19, 1946) is a Grammy-winning and Academy Award-nominated American country singer, songwriter, composer, author, actress and philanthropist. ... 9 to 5 is the title of a hit song for the 1980 film comedy Nine to Five starring Jane Fonda, Lily Tomlin and, in her film debut, Dolly Parton. ...


The Tom Tom Club used the clacking keys of a typewriter to open its 1981 single Wordy Rappinghood. Tom Tom Club was a New Wave band, a side project set up by Tina Weymouth and Chris Frantz who were also members of the Talking Heads. ... Tom Tom Club was Tom Tom Clubs 1981 first album and contained the UK hit singles: Wordy Rappinghood, which reached No. ...


On the album "Taking Tiger Mountain By Strategy," Brian Eno takes a typewriter solo in the song "China My China."


Multi-instrumentalist and composer Yann Tiersen has used the typewriter as a percussion instrument in a number of his compositions, notably "Pas si simple" on his 1996 album Rue des Cascades. Yann Tiersen (born June 23, 1970) is a French New Age/Avant-Garde Musician and composer known for his versatility, minimalist compositions, and virtuosity as a multi-instrumentalist. ... Rue des Cascades (Street of the Waterfalls) is the second album by the musician and composer Yann Tiersen. ...


Typewriters in songs and ambient typewriter sounds are present throughout the 1985 movie Brazil.


The All Girl Summer Fun Band song "Dear Mr. and Mrs. Troublemaker" begins with the singer dictating the salutation of a letter while typing it, eventually deciding on the song's title. The number of keystrokes are entirely mismatched to the length of the words being spoken. The All Girl Summer Fun Band is a musical group. ...


On an early Janis Joplin demo, featuring Jefferson Airplane & Hot Tuna guitarist Jorma Kaukonen, somebody (uncredited, but rumored to be Grace Slick) can be heard typing in the next room, with Jorma commenting on the unintentional and obtrusive percussion.


"The Office," a bar in the Pittsburgh area in the 1970s, featured phone booths with background sounds that included typewriters and other office noises for those who wanted to let their spouses know where they were.


Forensic identification

William Faulkner's Underwood Universal Portable sits in his office at Rowan Oak, which is now maintained by the University of Mississippi in Oxford as a museum.
William Faulkner's Underwood Universal Portable sits in his office at Rowan Oak, which is now maintained by the University of Mississippi in Oxford as a museum.

Because of the tolerances of the mechanical parts, slight variation in the alignment of the letters and their uneven wear, each typewriter has its individual "signature" or "fingerprint," allowing a typewritten document to be tracked back to the typewriter it was produced on. In the Eastern Bloc, typewriters (together with printing presses, copy machines, and later computer printers) were a controlled technology, with secret police in charge of maintaining files of the typewriters and their owners. (In the Soviet Union, the organization in charge of typewriters was the First Department of the KGB.) This posed a significant risk for dissidents and samizdat authors. This method of identification was also used in the trial of Alger Hiss. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The Underwood typewriter was the forerunner of the modern typewriter. ... Rowan Oak is William Faulkners former home in Oxford, Mississippi. ... The University of Mississippi, also known as Ole Miss, is a public, coeducational research university located in Oxford, Mississippi. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Fingerprint: A fingerprint is an imprint made by the pattern of ridges on the pad of a human finger. ... Forensic identification is the application of forensic science and technology to identify specific objects from the traces they leave, often at a crime scene. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... A small, much-used Xerox copier in a high school library. ... A computer printer, or more commonly a printer, produces a hard copy (permanent human-readable text and/or graphics) of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper transparencies]]. Many printers are primarily used as computer peripherals, and are attached by a printer cable to... This article is about secret police as organizations. ... The First Department (Первый отдел, Pervyj Otdel) was in charge of secrecy and political security of the workplace of every enterprise or institution of the Soviet Union that dealt with any kind of technical or scientific information (plants, R&D institutions... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Samizdat, book published by Pathfinder Press containing a collection of forbidden Trotskyist Samizdat texts. ... Alger Hiss testifying Alger Hiss (November 11, 1904 – November 15, 1996) was a U.S. State Department official involved in the establishment of the United Nations. ...


Leopold and Loeb were firmly identified with kidnapping after a typewriter they used to type up a ransom note was traced back to a typewriter they owned. Nathan Leopold (left) and Richard Loeb (center) under arrest Nathan Freudenthal Leopold, Jr. ... The term ransom refers to the practice of holding a prisoner to extort money or property extorted to secure their release, or to the sum of money involved. ...


Black/white computer printers have their "fingerprints" as well, but to a lesser degree. Modern color printers and photocopiers typically add printer identification encoding—a steganographic pattern of minuscule yellow dots, encoding the printer's serial number—to the printout. A computer printer, or more commonly a printer, produces a hard copy (permanent human-readable text and/or graphics) of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper transparencies]]. Many printers are primarily used as computer peripherals, and are attached by a printer cable to... Printer identification encoding is a technology used by many manufacturers of printers, in which the model, serial number and other identifying information about the printer is printed on every page produced. ... Steganography is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one apart from the intended recipient knows of the existence of the message; this is in contrast to cryptography, where the existence of the message itself is not disguised, but the content is obscured. ... A serial number is a unique number that is one of a series assigned for identification which varies from its successor or predecessor by a fixed discrete integer value. ...


Other forensic identification method can involve analysis of the ribbon ink. The word forensic (from Latin: forensis - forum) refers to something of, pertaining to, or used in a court of law. ...


See also

Office This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...

Printers and Fonts A desk is a furniture form and a class of table. ... A Typewriter desk is an antique desk form meant to hold a typewriter in an efficient position for the typist. ... Any list of desk forms and types encountered in the modern office or home, and in antique stores is incomplete and contradictory given the variations in the naming of desks . ... Illustration of a scribe writing Writing, in its most common sense, is the preservation of and the preserved text on a medium, with the use of signs or symbols. ... Word processing, in its now-usual meaning, is the use of a word processor to create documents using computers. ... A fountain pen is a writing instrument, more specifically a pen, that contains a reservoir of water-based ink that is fed to a nib through a feed via a combination of gravity and capillary action. ... Liquid Paper, a brand name of whiteout, white-out, or opaque correction fluid, is used to cover up mistakes on paper without retyping the entire sheet. ... Correction paper, or correction film, its plastic based equivalent, is a tab of plastic with one side coated with white correction material. ... Duplicating machines were the predecessors of modern document-reproduction technology. ... A sheet of carbon paper, coating side down. ... Mimeograph machine The mimeograph machine (commonly abbreviated to mimeo) or stencil duplicator was a printing machine that was far cheaper per copy than any other process in runs of several hundred to several thousand copies. ... In computing, hypertext is a user interface paradigm for displaying documents which, according to an early definition (Nelson 1970), branch or perform on request. ... A computer printer, or more commonly a printer, produces a hard copy (permanent human-readable text and/or graphics) of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper transparencies]]. Many printers are primarily used as computer peripherals, and are attached by a printer cable to... “Font” redirects here. ...

Typewriter Museums Type has historically had the following uses: In biology, a type is the specimen or specimens upon which an original species description is based. ... “Font” redirects here. ... For the literary term, see Postscript. ... Teletype machines in World War II A teleprinter (teletypewriter, teletype or TTY for TeleTYpe/TeleTYpewriter) is a now largely obsolete electro-mechanical typewriter which can be used to communicate typed messages from point to point through a simple electrical communications channel, often just a pair of wires. ... A daisy wheel printer is a type of computer printer that produces high-quality type, and is often referred to as a letter-quality printer (this in contrast to high-quality dot-matrix printers, capable of near-letter-quality, or NLQ, output). ... A computer printer, or more commonly a printer, produces a hard copy (permanent human-readable text and/or graphics) of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper transparencies]]. Many printers are primarily used as computer peripherals, and are attached by a printer cable to... A dot matrix printer or impact matrix printer refers to a type of computer printer with a print head that runs back and forth on the page and prints by impact, striking an ink-soaked cloth ribbon against the paper, much like a typewriter. ...

Other

Alphanumeric keyboards This is a chronological list of inventions. ... William Friedman. ... Given enough time, a chimpanzee typing at random will allegedly type out a copy of one of Shakespeares plays. ... The Office of the future is a concept dating from the 40s. ... Not a typewriter or ENOTTY is an error defined in errno. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Corporations and typewriters It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Button (computing). ... In computing, a modifier key is a special key on a computer keyboard that modifies the normal action of another key when the two are pressed in combination. ... Vintage German letter balance for home use Look up letter in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the song by Linkin Park, see QWERTY (song). ... The Dvorak Simplified Keyboard layout The Dvorak Simplified Keyboard is a keyboard layout designed by Drs. ... The term punctuation has two different linguistic meanings: in general, the act and the effect of punctuating, i. ... A dash is a punctuation mark, and is not to be confused with the hyphen, which has quite different uses. ... For other uses, see Interrobang (disambiguation). ... an index typewriter with a circular keyboard The 1874 Sholes & Glidden typewriters established the QWERTY layout for the letter keys that is used nowadays in Anglophone countries for virtually all computer keyboards and the majority of other keyboards. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A Microwriter MW4 (circa 1980) A chorded keyboard (also called a chord keyboard or chording keyboard) is a computer input device that allows the user to enter characters or commands formed by pressing several keys together, like playing a chord on a piano. ... DeQuervains Syndrome, named for Swiss surgeon Fritz De Quervain who first identified it in 1885 (also known as washerwomans sprain or De Quervains Disease), is an inflammation of the sheath or tunnel that surrounds two tendons that control movement of the thumb. ... For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ...

Encryption The IBM Electric typewriters were a series of electric typewriters that IBM manufactured, starting in the late 1940s. ... IBM Selectric The IBM Selectric typewriter (occasionally known as the IBM Golfball typewriter) is an influential electric typewriter design. ... Smith Corona is a US company who manufactures typewriters. ... Xerox Corporation (NYSE: XRX) (name pronounced ) is a global document management company, which manufactures and sells a range of color and black-and-white printers, multifunction systems, photo copiers, digital production printing presses, and related consulting services and supplies. ... “Encrypt” redirects here. ...

Use as Computer peripherals The plugboard, keyboard, lamps, and finger-wheels of the rotors emerging from the inner lid of a three-rotor German military Enigma machine (version with labels) The Enigma machine was a cipher machine used to encrypt and decrypt secret messages. ... A single-rotor Hebern machine. ... KL-7 on display at USAF Communications Agency museum. ... The advanced Russian cipher machine Fialka (M-125) has only recently been made known to the public. ... A series of three rotors from an Enigma machine, used by Germany during World War II In cryptography, a rotor machine is an electro-mechanical device used for encrypting and decrypting secret messages. ... This article is about the machine. ...

The UNIVAC 1102 or ERA 1102 was designed by Engineering Research Associates for the United States Air Forces Arnold Engineering Development Center in Tullahoma, Tennessee in response to a request for proposal issued in 1950. ... The JOHNNIAC or John (v. ... The Friden Flexowriter was a teleprinter based on a 1940s IBM product that was spun off as an independent company and later sold to the Friden Corp. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g [1] Acocella, Joan, "The Typing Life: How writers used to write", The New Yorker, April 9, 2007, a review of The Iron Whim: A Fragmented History of Typewriting (Cornell) 2007, by Darren Wershler-Henry
  2. ^ Typewriter history. precision-dynamics.com.au. Retrieved on 2006-03-10.
  3. ^ William Austin Burt's Typographer 1829. Science Museum. Retrieved on 2006-03-10.
  4. ^ Typewriter and Inventors. Retrieved on 2006-07-12.
  5. ^ Early Office Museum: Antique Typewriters. Retrieved on 2006-03-10.
  6. ^ Otto Burghagen, Die Schreibmaschine. Illustrierte Beschreibung aller gangbaren Schreibmaschinen nebst gründlicher Anleitung zum Arbeiten auf sämtlichen Systemen. Hamburg 1898.
  7. ^ Dieter Eberwein, Nietzsches Schreibkugel. Ein Blick auf Nietzsches Schreibmaschinenzeit durch die Restauration der Schreibkugel. Eberwein-Typoskriptverlag, Schauenburg 2005.
  8. ^ Johanne Agerskov, Hvem er Skrivekuglens Opfinder?. København 1925.
  9. ^ David, P.A. (1986): Understanding the Economics of QWERTY: the Necessity of History. In: Parker, William N.: Economic History and the Modern Economist. Basil Blackwell, New York and Oxford.
  10. ^ David, P.A. (1986): Understanding the Economics of QWERTY: the Necessity of History. In: Parker, William N.: Economic History and the Modern Economist. Basil Blackwell, New York and Oxford.
  11. ^ Barbara Blackburn, the World's Fastest Typist. Retrieved on 2007-03-08.
  12. ^ Foster, Edward H., Richard Brautigan, Twayne 1983.

The New Yorker is an American magazine that publishes reportage, criticism, essays, cartoons, poetry and fiction. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Patents

  • US79265  -- Type Writer Machine

External links

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First I want to thank all my many friends on the leading Internet Typewriter news group at http://groups.yahoo.com/group/typewriters This newslist should be the first port of call for anyone interested in collecting typewriters and collectively represents the richest source of typewriter knowledge anywhere.
* Paul Robert of The Virtual Typewriter Museum at http://www.typewritermuseum.org Based in Holland, Paul is one of Europe's leading collectors and an expert on Blickensderfers and much else.
* Les Owen of the Landbee Collection at www.landbee.co.uk Les is founder of Britain's biggest typewriter collection and is unfailingly generous with his knowledge and encouragement.
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