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Encyclopedia > Types of road
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Various types of road are in use around the world. These range from private access and laneways, to the stereotypical two-lane highway, to high capacity dual carriageway routes, such as freeways and motorways. The names associated with a particular type of road vary around the world. As a result, the name given to a road in one country could apply to a different type of road in another country. Image File history File links Circle-question. ... Highway in Pennsylvania, USA The Pan-American Highway, in the Peruvian town of Máncora, where it serves as the main street. ... This early German Autobahn uses a dual carriageway design. ... It has been suggested that Autobahn be merged into this article or section. ... Motorway symbol in UK, France and Ireland. ...

Contents


General

Main articles: road, street

A road is an identifiable route or path between two or more places. Roads are typically smoothed, paved, or otherwise prepared to allow easy travel; though they need not be, and historically many roads were simply recognisable routes without any formal construction or maintenance. In urban areas roads may pass along and be named as streets, serving a dual function as urban space and route. A road ascends a mountainside using hairpin bends in the French Alps. ... Rue Saint-Jacques, a street in Montreal, 1910 A street is a public parcel of land adjoining buildings in an urban context, on which people may freely assemble, interact, and move about. ... The city of San Luis Obispo, an example of an urban area. ... Rue Saint-Jacques, a street in Montreal, 1910 A street is a public parcel of land adjoining buildings in an urban context, on which people may freely assemble, interact, and move about. ...


A street is a public parcel of land adjoining buildings in an urban context, on which people may freely assemble, interact, and move about. A street can be as simple as a level patch of dirt, but is more often paved with a hard, durable surface such as cobblestone or brick. Portions may also be smoothed with asphalt, embedded with rails, or otherwise prepared to accommodate non-pedestrian traffic. Examples of streets include pedestrian streets, alleys, and center-city streets too crowded for road vehicles to pass, none of which are usually considered roads. Public is of or pertaining to the people; belonging to the people; relating to, or affecting, a nation, state, or community; opposed to private; as, the public treasury, a road or lake. ... A landform comprises a geomorphological unit. ... For other uses, see Building (disambiguation). ... An urban area is a term used to define an area where there is an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... Look up dirt in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pavement in American English refers to the durable surface for an area intended to sustain traffic, which can be either vehicular traffic or foot traffic. ... A cobblestone-covered street Cobblestones are stones used in the pavement of early streets. ... An old brick wall in English bond laid with alternating courses of headers and Brick is an artificial stone made by forming clay into rectangular blocks which are hardened, either by burning in a kiln or sometimes, in warm and sunny countries, by sun-drying. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... track Rail tracks are used on railways (or railroads), which, together with railroad switches (or points), guide trains without the need for steering. ... Look up Pedestrian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A pedestrian street is a street where pedestrian traffic is given partial or total priority over all other kinds of traffic. ... Alleys are generally less well-maintained than roads. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Central business district. ... Disruptions in organized traffic flow can create delays lasting hours. ...


Medium capacity

Main articles: highway, 2+1 road

Most countries have major roads of medium capacity designed for automobile travel that connect cities, places, other routes, or other significant points of interest. These routes are usually known by the name given to an official class of road, specific to a country. The term highway is used generically in some parts of the world, including the United States of America. Designs of such routes vary widely. They can include some characteristics of freeways and motorways such as multiple lanes of traffic, a median between lanes of opposing traffic, and access control (ramps and grade separation). They can also be as simple as a two-lane shoulderless road. Highway in Pennsylvania, USA The Pan-American Highway, in the Peruvian town of Máncora, where it serves as the main street. ... 2+1 road with cable barrier near Linköping, Sweden. ...


2+1 roads are an innovation used in Denmark and Sweden since the 1990s. They are being constructed in other countries, such as Ireland. They involve a road with a single divided carriageway, with two lanes in one direction, and one lane in the other. The format switches every few kilometres to have the two lane section on the other side of the road. See also 1990s, the band The 1990s decade refers to the years from 1990 to 1999, inclusive, sometimes informally including popular culture from the very late 1980s and from 2000 and beyond. ...


High capacity restricted access roads

Most high capacity roads are built to a higher standard than general purpose roads. In order to provide for higher traffic volumes, such routes may be operated with limited access points, and to particular types of motorised vehicles. Usually these high capacity routes are dual carriageway. Concepts that adhere to these qualities include; freeways, motorways, autoroutes, autobahns and autostrada. An extended list is detailed in the section worldwide nomenclature. This early German Autobahn uses a dual carriageway design. ... It has been suggested that Autobahn be merged into this article or section. ... Motorway symbol in UK, France and Ireland. ... Autoroute is a French word meaning, literally, a motor road, and corresponding to the words motorway or freeway in English. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into freeway. ... Autostrada is the Italian word for motorways, but is used in several countries including Poland and Romania. ...


Australia

In Australia freeways are named as either freeway or motorway, although in New South Wales some freeways are called expressways.[citation needed] This outdated[citation needed] term is used only by the earliest to be built, whereas a freeway was generally built in the 1970s or 1980s, generally without a toll (though some had relatively small government tolls that have long since passed). The term motorway was brought to prominence in the 1990s with the proliferation of private tolls,[citation needed] largely as a public rejection of the term free (due to common public ignorance of the technical use of the term with regard to roads), especially on freeways that had a toll added during this period to finance expansion. While motorways have only existed since the 1990s,[citation needed] a few do not have tolls, and a few are called freeways by governments who built them toll-free to promote political advantage.[citation needed] Tollways are not explicitly named, that is, Toll is appended to the designation.[citation needed] Tolls are usually collected at toll booths or by electronic tolling technology (first used in Melbourne, Australia "E-Tag" on CityLink). Emblems: Floral - Waratah (Telopea speciosissima); Bird - Kookaburra (Dacelo gigas); Animal - Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus); Fish - Blue Groper (Achoerodus viridis) Motto: Orta Recens Quam Pura Nites (Newly Risen, How Brightly You Shine) Slogan or Nickname: First State, Premier State Other Australian states and territories Capital Sydney Government Const. ... A toll road, turnpike or tollpike is a road on which a toll authority collects a fee for use. ... Many ETC systems use transponders like this one to electronically debit the accounts of registered cars without their stopping Transponder used in some Chilean freeways Electronic toll collection (ETC), an adaptation of military identification friend or foe technology, aims to eliminate the delay on toll roads. ... Melbourne (pronounced either or [1]) is the state capital and largest city in Victoria, Australia, and the nations second-largest city, with a population of approximately 3. ... CityLink is a tolled freeway system in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ...


Ausway (Melway) describes a freeway as: Those roads having full access control and grade separated intersections, with the primary function of servicing high volume traffic movements.[citation needed] Australian freeways can fit the definition of Californian freeway or expressway, except in New South Wales where official signposts are strictly used only on "Californian" freeway conditions.[citation needed] Typically the change between the two is not visible to the casual driver, and the signposts may seem superfluous; most maps indicate a continuation of freeway conditions, because the feature most desired is "dual carriageway" status.[citation needed] The "Californian" expressway-style upgrades are becoming more common as construction costs increase, and these cheaper upgrades typically do not keep the previous highway as a separate fully-functioning road in a single piece with an official designation.[citation needed] Therefore, while these "dual carriageways" are designated as freeways on maps and considered as freeways by the public, they are used by all types of vehicles.[citation needed] Melway (usually The Melways) is the most ubiquitous street directory for Melbourne, Australia, and its immediate surrounds. ... It has been suggested that Autobahn be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Autobahn be merged into this article or section. ... Emblems: Floral - Waratah (Telopea speciosissima); Bird - Kookaburra (Dacelo gigas); Animal - Platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus); Fish - Blue Groper (Achoerodus viridis) Motto: Orta Recens Quam Pura Nites (Newly Risen, How Brightly You Shine) Slogan or Nickname: First State, Premier State Other Australian states and territories Capital Sydney Government Const. ... Highway in Pennsylvania, USA The Pan-American Highway, in the Peruvian town of Máncora, where it serves as the main street. ...


Most freeways are between two and five lanes each way depending on the importance of the freeway. They are generally upgraded when traffic demand exceeds the infrastructure available. Roads with partial access control or no access control, of similar size and traffic volume, are given the name highway.[citation needed] Highway in Pennsylvania, USA The Pan-American Highway, in the Peruvian town of Máncora, where it serves as the main street. ...


Canada

Autoroute Ville-Marie near downtown Montréal.
Enlarge
Autoroute Ville-Marie near downtown Montréal.

In Canada, there does not appear to be a national standard for nomenclature, although freeway appears to be winning out except in Ontario where expressway or highway is used, and in Quebec where they are called autoroutes (French for 'expressway').[citation needed] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2080x1544, 666 KB) Summary Taken on May 28, 2005 above the Ville-Marie Expressway just east of the tunnel exit near Old Montreal. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2080x1544, 666 KB) Summary Taken on May 28, 2005 above the Ville-Marie Expressway just east of the tunnel exit near Old Montreal. ... Autoroute 720 (known as Autoroute Ville Marie) is a highway/tunnel that runs through downtown Montreal. ... {{Canadian City/Disable Field={{{Disable Motto Link}}}}} Motto: Concordia Salus (Salvation through harmony) Ville de Montréal, Québec, Canada Location. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English (French has some legal status but is not fully co-official) Flower White Trillium Tree Eastern White Pine Bird Common Loon Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Official languages French Flower Blue Flag Iris (Iris versicolor Linné) Tree Yellow Birch Bird Snowy Owl Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Lieutenant-Governor Lise Thibault Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 75 24 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of... The Autoroute system in the province of Quebec, Canada, is a network of expressways which operate under the same principle of controlled access as the Interstate Highway System in the United States or the 400-Series Highways in neighbouring Ontario. ...


In Ontario, while the definitions of freeway and expressway are consistent with that of the United States, highway is used far more often than freeway, especially inside the Greater Toronto Area.[citation needed] Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English (French has some legal status but is not fully co-official) Flower White Trillium Tree Eastern White Pine Bird Common Loon Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty... The Greater Toronto Area (called the GTA by local residents) is the largest metropolitan area in Canada. ...


While this has caused some confusion[citation needed] because the province applies "highway" (The King's Highway) to principal roads in its network, whether freeway or non-freeway, it is usually resolved simply by using the 400-series number to distinguish the freeway.[citation needed] Nonetheless, outside of the GTA, the 400-series numbering does not entirely solve the problem as there are non 400-series freeways built to similar standards such as the Conestoga Parkway (which includes sections of Highways 7, 8 and 85, including a long 7/8 multiplex).[citation needed] The only freeway officially labelled as such is the Macdonald-Cartier Freeway but it is usually known as Highway 401 or "the 401".[citation needed] It is not unusual for Ontario residents to refer to a numbered freeway as The (Number) versus Number (Number) for non-freeway routes.[citation needed] Several roads labelled expressways in the municipal network are actually fully controlled-access freeways such as the Gardiner Expressway and Spadina Expressway (later renamed Allen Road). The 400-series Highway network in Southern Ontario. ... The Conestoga Parkway is a freeway in Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada. ... Ontario provincial highway 7 is one of the Kings Highways in the province of Ontario, Canada. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The Conestoga Parkway is a freeway in Waterloo Region, Ontario, Canada. ... Highway 401 as part of the 400-series network Ontario provincial highway 401, The Kings Highway 401, or the Macdonald-Cartier Freeway, which is normally referred to simply as Highway 401 (pronounced four-oh-one), is a freeway that extends across Southern Ontario, Canada. ... Toronto, Ontario is one of the few North American cities that maintains a system of expressways and arterial highways at the municipal level. ... View of the Gardiner Expressway, west of downtown Toronto, from the pedestrian overpass at the foot of Roncesvalles Avenue. ... The Spadina Expressway, now known as William R. Allen Road, was proposed in the mid-1960s as part of a network of expressways in Metropolitan Toronto. ...


Other provinces use varying rules in their official road designations.


Prince Edward Island and the territories do not have freeways. Motto: Parva Sub Ingenti (Latin: The small under the protection of the great) Official languages English Flower Ladys slipper Tree Red Oak Bird Blue Jay Capital Charlottetown Largest city Charlottetown Lieutenant-Governor Barbara Oliver Hagerman Premier Pat Binns (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 4 4 Area Total...


United Kingdom

The M25, a typical motorway in the United Kingdom
The M25, a typical motorway in the United Kingdom
Main article: Motorway

In the UK the term motorway is used almost unanimously to refer to a specific type of road in the UK and Republic of Ireland. Although the terms expressway, or parkway are sometimes used [1][2], they amount to little more than street names, with motorway the only term officially recognised. UK motorways are engineered such that they are among the safest such roads in the world,[3] with almost all motorways having a full-width hard shoulder (breakdown lane), full grade-separated interchanges with long on/off ramps and a barriered central reservation which is a compulsory requirement for a motorway (the term "median strip" is unknown in British English). Without a barried central reservation, or if a multilane road fails to meet any of the other requirements to become a motorway, it is simply referred to as a dual carriageway.[citation needed] Motorway M25 just south of Heathrow Airport. ... Motorway M25 just south of Heathrow Airport. ... Motorway symbol in UK, France and Ireland. ... Dialect areas of England British English (BrE) is a term used to differentiate between the form of the English language used in the British Isles and those used elsewhere. ...


All UK motorways have an "M" prefix (e.g. M1) or, where an "A" road has been upgraded to motorway status, an "M" suffix in brackets (e.g. A1(M)).


There are very many roads in the UK which have achieved or almost achieved motorway standard (mostly "A"-prefixed primary routes) but have not been designated motorways. Examples include the A27 in Hampshire, the A34 in Berkshire and many sections of the A1 throughout England and Scotland. Hampshire (abbr. ... Berkshire (IPA: or  ; sometimes abbreviated to Berks) is a county in England and forms part of the South East England region. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen of the UK Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by...


United States

Freeways

Interstate 80 (Eastshore Freeway) in Berkeley, a typical American freeway (MUTCD definition)
Enlarge
Interstate 80 (Eastshore Freeway) in Berkeley, a typical American freeway (MUTCD definition)

In the United States of America, a freeway is a divided highway with full control of access.[4] This means two things. First, adjoining property owners do not have a legal right of access, meaning that they cannot connect their lands to the highway by constructing driveways.[5] When an existing road is converted into a freeway, all existing driveways must be removed and access to adjacent private lands must be blocked with fences or walls. Second, traffic on the highway is "free-flowing", although many non-engineers misapprehend the "free" in "freeway" to mean that such a highway must be free of charge to use. All cross-traffic (and left-turning traffic) has been relegated to overpasses or underpasses, so that there are no traffic conflicts on the main line of the highway which must be regulated by a traffic light, stop signs, or other traffic control devices. Achieving such free flow requires the construction of many bridges, tunnels, and ramp systems. The advantage of grade-separated interchanges is that freeway drivers can almost always maintain their speed at junctions since they do not need to yield to crossing traffic. Download high resolution version (1600x1152, 304 KB)Looking south above Interstate 80, the Eastshore Freeway, near Berkeley, California on a Saturday afternoon. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1152, 304 KB)Looking south above Interstate 80, the Eastshore Freeway, near Berkeley, California on a Saturday afternoon. ... Route across the United States Interstate 80 (abbreviated I-80) is the second-longest Interstate Highway in the United States. ... Interstate 80 (abbreviated I-80) is the second-longest Interstate Highway in the United States. ...


Some freeways in rural areas (such as parts of Ohio) have at-grade intersections at minor road crossings; but have grade-separated interchanges at crossings that would otherwise be signalized; therefore they are distinct from strict expressways with traffic lights. Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... An at-grade intersection is a junction at which two or more transport axes cross at the same level (or grade). ...

Santa Clara County Route G4 (Montague Expressway), a typical American expressway (MUTCD definition)
Santa Clara County Route G4 (Montague Expressway), a typical American expressway (MUTCD definition)

Image File history File links Montagueexpressway. ... Image File history File links Montagueexpressway. ... Santa Clara County Route G4, more commonly referred to as San Tomas Expressway and Montague Expressway is a busy 14. ...

Expressways

In contrast, an expressway is defined as a divided highway with partial control of access. Expressways may have driveways connecting to adjacent properties, although the trend over time has been to minimize driveways when possible.[citation needed] Expressways also may exclusively have at-grade intersections, though these tend to be spaced farther apart than on most arterial roads.[citation needed] In urban areas, expressway intersections are usually controlled by traffic lights, but in many rural areas, cross-traffic is governed only by stop signs, and there are no restrictions on through traffic.[citation needed] Vehicles crossing an expressway at rural intersections must cross four lanes with vehicles coming at them at prevailing speeds. Thus, expressways are more dangerous than freeways and cannot carry traffic as efficiently as a freeway. However, expressways at higher standards where the at-grade intersections are at minor crossings and intersections which are otherwise signalized are usually grade-separated interchanges; therefore, these roads are often considered freeways. An expressway is a divided highway, usually 4 lanes or wider. ...


This distinction was apparently first developed in California with the June 1959 legislative creation of the California Freeway and Expressway System (as distinguished from the existing State Highway System).[citation needed] To remedy massive confusion[citation needed] among transportation officials from different parts of the country, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials published a book of Standard Definitions that same year which incorporated the California definitions.[6] In turn, the definitions were incorporated into AASHTO's official standards book, the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices, which would become the national standards book of the U.S. Department of Transportation under a 1966 federal statute. As an official government regulation, and as a reasonable exercise of the Department's authority, the Manual carries the force of law (see Administrative law). The same distinction has also been codified into the statutory law of six states: California,[7] Mississippi,[8] Missouri,[9] Nebraska,[10] Ohio,[11] and Wisconsin.[12] AASHTO, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, is a standards setting body which publishes specifications, test protocols and guidelines which are used in highway design and construction throughout the United States. ... The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) is a document issued by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) of the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) to specify the standards by which traffic signs, road markings (see lane), and signals are designed, installed, and used. ... The United States Department of Transportation (DOT) is a Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with transport. ... Administrative law is the body of law that arises from the activities of administrative agencies of government. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Official language(s) None Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area St. ... Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq mi (200,520 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Alternative usage of both terms

However, the distinction between these two terms is not universal. In several states that built freeways very early on (including Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island), the terms expressway and freeway have the same meaning, and usually expressway or just highway, an older usage, is preferred.[citation needed] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Official language(s) English Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (149,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) English Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Area  Ranked 38th  - Total 36,418 sq mi (94,321 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 270 miles (435 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ... Official language(s) None, English de facto Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Area  Ranked 47th  - Total 8,729 sq mi (22,608 km²)  - Width 70 miles (110 km)  - Length 150 miles (240 km)  - % water 14. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  Ranked 27th  - Total 54,520 sq mi (141,205 km²)  - Width 285 miles (455 km)  - Length 330 miles (530 km)  - % water 13. ... Official language(s) None Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  Ranked 33rd  - Total 46,055 sq mi (119,283 km²)  - Width 160 miles (255 km)  - Length 280 miles (455 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) None Capital Providence Largest city Providence Area  Ranked 50th  - Total 1,214* sq mi (3,144* km²)  - Width 37 miles (60 km)  - Length 48 miles (77 km)  - % water 32. ...


In the New York metro area, the term expressway officially refers to a limited-access highway which large trucks are permitted to drive on, while many other limited- or controlled-access roads are designated parkways, and are for passenger car use only.[citation needed]


In New Jersey and Pennsylvania, newer roads are often officially styled freeways, where older roads retain the title expressway. These are also states which have toll roads, and therefore the distinction is made between a tollway (or turnpike) and a freeway, the latter not costing toll. According to some residents of these states, an "expressway" is the general category, and then, depending on whether the expressway is toll or free, it may be either a tollway or a freeway.[citation needed]


In Florida, an expressway is defined as a limited-access toll road, while a freeway is any other limited- or controlled-access road which costs no money to travel on.[citation needed] However, most cities in Florida name their limited-access roads "expressways" whether or not they have tolls, such as the Palmetto Expressway in Miami, Arlington Expressway in Jacksonville, Crosstown Expressway in Tampa, and the East-West Expressway in Orlando. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A high-speed toll booth on SR 417 near Orlando, Florida A toll gate on the Sayama bypass (Saitama prefectural road 397) in Japan A toll gate on the Dom Pedro I Highway near the city of Itatiba, Brazil A New Jersey Turnpike Toll Gate for Exit 8A in Monroe...


Frequently, in the Midwest and the South, neither "freeway" nor "expressway" is commonly used, and the preferred term is interstate, even in cases where the expressway might not have been designated an Interstate Highway.[citation needed] Interstate Highways in the lower 48 states. ...


In the rest of the country, freeway is the usual term; however, the distinction between freeways and expressways is not always as clear or well-understood as it is in California, which has many of both kinds of highway.[citation needed] Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ...


Worldwide nomenclature

  • In the Nordic countries, apparent variations on the British motorway are used:
  • In China, Japan and Korea, expressway is used on roadsigns, as the English translation of the words in their respective languages. Formerly, freeway may also have been prevalent. The terms all literally mean "high-speed road":
    • 高速公路 (gāosùgōnglù) in China. 公路 (gōnglù) is merely translated to highway.
    • 고속도로 (gosokdoro) in Korea
    • 高速道路 (kousokudouro) in Japan

Autoput, avtoput or autocesta is the term used for the most advanced highways in all countries of former Yugoslavia - Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro and the Republic of Macedonia. ... Autoroute is a French word meaning, literally, a motor road, and corresponding to the words motorway or freeway in English. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into freeway. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Autostrada is the Italian word for motorways, but is used in several countries including Poland and Romania. ... Autoput, avtopat or autocesta, avtocesta is the term used for the most advanced highways in all countries of former Yugoslavia - Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro and the Republic of Macedonia. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in all South Slavic languages, Југославија in Serbian and Macedonian Cyrillic) is a term used for the three separate political entities that existed during most of the 20th century on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe. ... The Nordic countries (Greenland not shown) The Nordic countries is a term used collectively for five countries in Northern Europe. ... // Korea (Korean: (조선 or 한국, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ...

References

  1. ^ Example of use of the term "expressway" in the UK: A38 Devon Expressway
  2. ^ Examples of use of the term "parkway" in the UK: A38 Plymouth Parkway, Sheffield Parkway
  3. ^ Facts & Figures: Highways Agency, "Our roads continue to be among the safest in the world. Despite carrying a third of all traffic, they only see approximately one eighth of accidents".
  4. ^ Section 1A.13, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices, 2003 ed.[1]
  5. ^ This part of the word's meaning was codified in 1939 at Section 23.5 of the California Streets and Highways Code.[2]
  6. ^ Christy Borth, Mankind on the Move: The Story of Highways (Washington, D.C.: The Automobile Safety Foundation, 1969), 8.
  7. ^ Cal. Streets & Highways Code, Section 257.
  8. ^ Mississippi Code, Section 65-5-3, subdivisions (b) and (c).
  9. ^ Missouri Revised Statutes, Section 304.010.
  10. ^ Nebraska Statutes, Sections 60-618.01 and 60-621.
  11. ^ Ohio Revised Code, Section 4511.01, subdivisions (YY) and (ZZ).
  12. ^ Wisconsin Statutes, Sections 59.84(1)(b) and 346.57(1)(am).


A38 passing under M50 in Worcestershire The A38 is a major trunk road in England. ... A38 passing under M50 in Worcestershire The A38 is a major trunk road in England. ... The Sheffield Parkway is a major dual-carriageway that connects Sheffield City centre with the M1 motorway, junction 33. ...

Types of road
High-speed, only access via interchanges

Autobahn - Autocesta - Autoroute - Autopista - Autostrada - Autosnelweg - Avtocesta - Freeway - Motorway - Turnpike It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into freeway. ... Autoput, avtoput or autocesta is the term used for the most advanced highways in all countries of former Yugoslavia - Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro and the Republic of Macedonia. ... Autoroute is a French word meaning, literally, a motor road, and corresponding to the words motorway or freeway in English. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Autostrada is the Italian word for motorways, but is used in several countries including Poland and Romania. ... Autoput, avtopat or autocesta, avtocesta is the term used for the most advanced highways in all countries of former Yugoslavia - Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro and the Republic of Macedonia. ... It has been suggested that Autobahn be merged into this article or section. ... Motorway symbol in UK, France and Ireland. ... A toll road, turnpike or tollpike is a road on which a toll authority collects a fee for use. ...

High-speed, other types of access

2+1 road - Expressway - Farm to Market Road - Highway - Parkway - Super two 2+1 road with cable barrier near Linköping, Sweden. ... An expressway is a divided highway, usually 4 lanes or wider. ... A Farm to Market Road is a state government road which serves to connect rural and agricultural areas to market towns. ... Highway in Pennsylvania, USA The Pan-American Highway, in the Peruvian town of Máncora, where it serves as the main street. ... For other uses, see Parkway (disambiguation). ... A super two or super two-lane highway is a two-lane surface road built to high standards, typically including partial control of access, occasional passing lanes and hard shoulders. ...

Low speed

Arterial road - Frontage road - Road - Street An arterial road is a high-capacity road which is just below a highway level of service. ... A frontage road for U.S. Highway 71 (a freeway) near Carthage, Missouri. ... A road ascends a mountainside using hairpin bends in the French Alps. ... Rue Saint-Jacques, a street in Montreal, 1910 A street is a public parcel of land adjoining buildings in an urban context, on which people may freely assemble, interact, and move about. ...

Low speed low traffic

Alley - Lane - Cul-de-sac Alleys are generally less well-maintained than roads. ... The word lane has two meanings: A narrow road, usually lacking a shoulder or a median. ... For the musical group, see Cul de Sac (group). ...

Other

Dual carriageway - Toll road This early German Autobahn uses a dual carriageway design. ... A high-speed toll booth on SR 417 near Orlando, Florida A toll gate on the Sayama bypass (Saitama prefectural road 397) in Japan A toll gate on the Dom Pedro I Highway near the city of Itatiba, Brazil A New Jersey Turnpike Toll Gate for Exit 8A in Monroe...

Surface types

Asphalt concrete - Brick - Cobblestone - Concrete - Gravel road - Ice road As shown in this cross-section, many older roadways are smoothed by applying a thin layer of asphalt concrete to the existing portland cement concrete. ... An old brick wall in English bond laid with alternating courses of headers and Brick is an artificial stone made by forming clay into rectangular blocks which are hardened, either by burning in a kiln or sometimes, in warm and sunny countries, by sun-drying. ... A cobblestone-covered street Cobblestones are stones used in the pavement of early streets. ... Pouring a concrete floor for a commercial building, (slab-on-grade) Installing rebar in a floor slab during a concrete pour In construction, concrete is a composite building material made from the combination of aggregate and a cement binder. ... A gravel road is a road which is paved with small pieces of broken rock, called gravel. ... Ice Road in northern British Columbia, Canada Ice roads are temporary highways formed by using frozen rivers and lake surfaces. ...

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