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Encyclopedia > Types of bagpipes

Contents

Europe

Great Britain

  • Great Highland Bagpipe: perhaps the most well-known bagpipe.
  • Northumbrian smallpipes: a smallpipe with a closed end chanter played in a staccatto style.
  • Border pipe : Also called the "Lowland Bagpipe," commonly confused with Smallpipes, but much older. Played in the Lowlands of Scotland.
  • Scottish smallpipes: a modern reinterpretation of an extinct instrument
  • Cornish bagpipes: an extinct type of double chanter bagpipe from Cornwall (southwest England); there are currently attempts being made to revive it on the basis of literary descriptions and iconographic representations.[1]
  • Welsh pipes (pibe cyrn, pibgod): Of two types, one a descendant of the pibgorn, the other loosely based on the Breton Veuze. Both mouthblown with one bass drone.
  • Lancashire Great-pipe: another extinct type of English bagpipe that enthusiasts are attempting to "reconstruct" based on descriptions and representations but no actual physical evidence.
  • Pastoral Pipes: Although the exact origin of this pipe is uncertain, it was developed into the modern Uilleann bagpipe.

Pipe Major The Great Highland Bagpipe (Gaelic : A Phìob Mhòr) is probably the best-known variety of bagpipe. ... The Northumbrian smallpipes (also known as the Northumbrian pipes) are bellows-blown bagpipes from Northumbria in the north-east of England. ... The border pipe is a close cousin of the Highland bagpipe, and commonly confused with the Scottish smallpipe, although it is a quite different and much older instrument. ... The Scottish smallpipe is a bellows-blown bagpipe developed from the Northumbrian smallpipes by Colin Ross and others, to be playable according to the Great Highland Bagpipe fingering system. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Cornwall (Cornish: Kernow) is a county in South West England on the peninsula that lies to the west of the River Tamar. ... Welsh Bagpipes and Pibgorn (Welsh pibgorn, pibgod, pibgwd, pibau cyrn, pibau cwd, or bacbib). ... Lancashire is a county in North West England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... The pastoral pipe is the ancestor of the modern uilleann bagpipe. ...

Ireland

  • Uilleann pipes : Bellows-blown bagpipe with un-keyed chanter and keyed drones, from Ireland. The most common type of bagpipes in Irish traditional music.
  • Great Irish Warpipes: Carried by most Irish regiments of the British Army (except the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers) until the late 1960s, when the Great Highland Bagpipe became standard. The Warpipe differed from the latter only in having a single tenor drone.
  • Brian Boru bagpipes: Carried by the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers and had three drones, one of which was a baritone, pitched between bass and tenor. Unlike the chanter of the Great Highland Bagpipe, its chanter is keyed, allowing for a greater tonal range.
  • Pastoral pipes: Although the exact origin of this pipe is uncertain, it was developed into the modern Uilleann bagpipe.

Uilleann pipes (IPA: ) are a unique form of bagpipes originating in Ireland. ... An Irish band playing in the Hetzel Union Building, Penn State University. ... The Great Irish Warpipes, (Irish: Píob Mhór - Great Bagpipes), played at least for over 1500 years, are closely related to the Great Highland Bagpipe, with which they are essentially synonymous. ... The Brian Boru bagpipe was invented in 1910 by Henry Starck, an instrument maker (who also made standard Great Highland Bagpipes), in London, in consultation with some Irish pipers. ... The pastoral pipe is the ancestor of the modern uilleann bagpipe. ...

Eastern Europe

A Serbian bagpiper
A Serbian bagpiper
  • Volinka (волинка, also spelled volynka), of Russia
  • Gaida (also the large kaba gaida from the Rhodope Mountains in Bulgaria): Southern Balkan (i.e. Bulgarian and Macedonian) and Greek and Albanian bagpipe with one drone and one chanter
  • Gajdy or gajde: the name for various bagpipes of Eastern Europe, found in Poland, Serbia, Slovakia, and Croatia.
  • Dudy (also known by the German name Bock) : Czech bellows-blown bagpipe with a long, crooked drone and chanter that curves up at the end. There are at least three Polish traditions, generically known as dudy, and the region of Zakopanie on the border with Slovakia is the home of the best known tradition.
  • Magyar Duda or Hungarian duda (also known as tömlösíp, börduda and Croatian duda) has a double chanter (two parallel bores in a single stick of wood, Croatian versions have three or four) with single reeds and a bass drone. It is typical of a large group of pipes played in the Carpathian Basin.
  • Istarski mih (Piva d'Istria), a double chantered, droneless bagpipe whose side by side chanters are cut from a single rectangular piece of wood. They are typically single reed instruments, using the Istrian scale.
  • Cimpoi, the Romanian bagpipe, has a single drone and straight bore chanter and is less stringent than its Balkan relatives. The number of finger holes varies from five to eight and there are two types of cimpoi with a double chanter. The bag is often covered with embroidered cloth. The bagpipe can be found in most of Romania apart from the central, northern and eastern parts of Transylvania, but nowadays it is only played by a few elderly people.
  • Torupill, of Estonia.MP3

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (740x1700, 200 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Bagpipes Serbs ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (740x1700, 200 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Bagpipes Serbs ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... The gaida (also spelled gajda) is a bagpipe from South Eastern Europe (The Balkans). ... View from the Belintash Rock towards the village of Vrata View from the Southern Rhodopes Dospat Dam in the western parts The river Mesta crossing the mountains The Rhodopes (Bulgarian: Родопи, Rodopi; Greek: Ροδόπη, Rodopi) are a mountain range in Southeastern Europe, with over 83% of its area in southern Bulgaria and... Anthem: Bože pravde (English: God of Justice) Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Serbian written with the Cyrillic alphabet1 Government Republic  - Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica  - President Boris Tadić Establishment    - Formation 814   - First Serbian Uprising 1804   - Internationally recognized July 13, 1878   - Kingdom of SCS created December 1, 1918   - SCG dissolved... General Information Chanter of a magyar duda. ... Istarski mih is a Croatian bagpipe native to the regions of Istra and Kvarner. ... The Istrian scale is a distinct five-tone musical scale in the regions of Istria and Kvarner in Croatia. ... Cimpoi, the Romanian bagpipe, has a single drone and straight bore chanter and is less stringent than its Balkan relatives. ... The torupill (also known as kitsepill, lootspill, kotepill) is a type of bagpipes from Estonia. ...

France

  • Musette de cour : French ancestor of the Northumbrian pipes, used in folk music as well as classical compositions in the 18th century French court. The shuttle design for the drones was recently revived and added to a mouth blown Scottish smallpipe.
  • Biniou or biniou koz (old style bagpipe): a mouth blown bagpipe from Brittany, a Celtic region of northwestern France. It is the most famous bagpipe of France. The great Highland bagpipe is also used in marching bands called bagadoù and known as biniou braz (great bagpipe).
  • Veuze, found in Vendée, similar to Galician gaitas.
  • Cabrette, played in Auvergne.
  • Chabrette or chabretta, found in Limousin.
  • Bodega, found in Languedoc, made of an entire goat skin.
  • Boha, found in Gascogne.
  • Musette bressane, found in Bresse.
  • Bagpipes of central France: (French cornemuse du centre or musette du centre) are of many different types, some mouth blown. It can be found in the Bourbonnais, Berry, Nivernais, and Morvan regions of France and in different tonalities.
  • "Chabrette poitevine," found in Poitou but now extremely rare.

The musette de cour or baroque musette is a musical instrument of the bagpipe family. ... The Biniou is a mouth blown bagpipe from the Brittany region of France. ... Brittany has a spectacular coastline Flag of Brittany (Gwenn-ha-du) Historical province of Brittany région of Bretagne, see Bretagne. ... Celts redirects here. ... Vendée is a département in west central France, on the Atlantics Bay of Biscay. ... Auvergne coat of arms Auvergne (Occitan: Auvèrnha) was the name of an historically independent county in the center of France, as well as later a province of France. ... Coat of arms of Limousin Limousin (Occitan: Lemosin) is a former province of France around the city of Limoges in central France. ... Coat of arms of the province of Languedoc, now being used as an official flag by the Midi-Pyrénees region as well as by the city of Toulouse Languedoc (Lengadòc in Occitan) is a former province of France, now continued in the modern-day régions of Languedoc... Gascony (Gascogne in French) is a region in southwest France. ... Bresse is an area of France, in the eastern part of the country, and a former province. ... Bourbonnais was an historic province in the centre of France that corresponded to the modern département of Allier, along with part of the département of Cher. ... Berry was a province of France until the provinces were replaced by départements on March 4, 1790. ... Nevers is a commune of central France, the préfecture (capital) of the Nièvre département, in the former province of Nivernais. ... The Morvan is a mountainous massif lying just to the west of the Côte dOr escarpment in Burgundy, France. ... Coat of arms of Richard, Earl of Cornwall, Plantagenet claimant to the county of Poitou, now favored as the coat of arms of Poitou by people in Poitou Poitou is a province of France. ...

The Low Countries

Flanders and the Netherlands

Bruegels The Painter and The Connoisseur drawn c. ...

Wallonia

  • Muchosa or muchosac, found in Hainaut.

Hainaut (French; English traditionally Hainault, Dutch: Henegouwen, German: Hennegau, Walloon: Hinnot) is the westernmost province of Wallonia, in Belgium. ...

Germany

  • Dudelsack: German bagpipe with two drones and one chanter. Also called Schaeferpfeife (shepherd pipe) or Sackpfeife. The drones are sometimes fit into one stock and do not lie on the player's shoulder but are tied to the front of the bag.
  • Mittelaltersackpfeife: Reconstruction of medieval bagpipes after descriptions by Michael Praetorius and depictions by Albrecht Durer, among others. While the exterior is reconstructed from these sources, the interior and sound are often similar to the Scottish Great Highland Bagpipe. Commonly tuned in A minor and used by musical groups specialising in medieval tunes. Often to be seen at medieval festivals and markets.
  • Huemmelchen: small bagpipe with the look of a small medieval pipe or a Dudelsack. The sound is similar to that of the Uilleann pipes, or sometimes the smallpipes. Seldom louder than 60 or 70 dB.

Greece

  • Tsampouna (also tsambouna, tsabouna, etc.) : Greek island bagpipe with a double chanter, no drone and a bag made from an entire goatskin.

Iberic Peninsula (Portugal and Spain)

  • Portuguese and Spanish gaitas: Gaita, gaita-de-fole, gaita de boto, sac de gemecs, gaita de fol and gaita de fuelle is a generic term for "bagpipe" in Spanish, Portuguese, Galego, Asturian, Catalan and Aragonese, for distinct bagpipes used in Galicia (Spain), Asturias (Spain), Cantabria (Spain), Catalonia (Spain), Aragon (Spain) and also Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro (Portugal) Estremadura (Portugal), Minho (Portugal) and Beira Litoral (Portugal). Just like "Northumbrian smallpipes" or "Great Highland bagpipes," each country and region attributes its toponym to the respective gaita name: gaita galega (Galicia, Spain), gaita transmontana (Trás-os-Montes, Portugal), gaita asturiana (Asturias, Spain), gaita sanabresa (Sanabria, Spain), sac de gemecs (Catalunya) gaita de boto (Aragon, Spain) etc. Most of them have a conical chanter with a partial second octave, obtained by overblowing. Folk groups playing these instruments have become popular in recent years, and pipe bands for some models.
  • Sac de gemecs : used in Catalonia. In the Balearic Islands, Mallorca, Minorca, (but not Ibiza), this same bagpipe is called a "Xeremie" and is played in a duet with a Flabiol (one handed) whistle and drum.

Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Types of bagpipes. ... Galician (Galician: galego, pron. ... Asturian, Leonese, Astur-Leonese or Bable (Asturianu in Asturian, Llïonés in Leonese) is a Romance language spoken in some parts of the provinces of Asturias, León, Zamora and Salamanca in Spain, and in the area of Miranda de Douro in Portugal (where it is officially recognized as... Catalan in Europe Catalan IPA: (català ) is a Romance language, the official language of Andorra and co-official in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Valencia (under the name Valencian) and Catalonia. ... Languages distribution in Aragon (Aragonese in red). ... Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Anthem: Asturias, patria querida Capital Oviedo Official language(s) Spanish; Asturian have special status Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 10th  10,604 km²  2. ... Anthem: Himno de Cantabria Capital Santander Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 15th  5,321 km²  1. ... Anthem: Els Segadors Capital Barcelona Official language(s) Spanish, Catalan, and Aranese Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 6th  32,114 km²  6. ... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish; Aragonese and Catalan also used Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... The historical province of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro (pron. ... Estremadura Estremadura is a historical province of Portugal. ... Miño/Minho designates both the river as well as an adjacent Portuguese region Miño/Minho River The river is the longest in Galicia with an extension of 340 km. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Overblowing is producing a different note in a wind instrument by forcing air harder. ... Anthem: Els Segadors Capital Barcelona Official language(s) Spanish, Catalan, and Aranese Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 6th  32,114 km²  6. ... The (Galician) gaita or gaita de fol is a traditional bagpipe used in Galicia (Spain), and northern Portugal. ... Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Miño/Minho designates both the river as well as an adjacent Portuguese region Miño/Minho River The river is the longest in Galicia with an extension of 340 km. ...

Italy

  • Zampogna : A generic name for an Italian bagpipe, with different scale arrangements for two chanters (for different regions of Italy), and from one to three drones (single drone versions can sound a fifth, in relation to the chanter keynote).Other drones are tuned higher or lower than the chanters, and the drones, like the chanters, can be single or double reeded. The double reeded version of the Zampogna is generally played with the piffero (called biffera in the Ciociaria]; a shawm, or folk oboe), which plays the melody and the zampogna provides chord changes, "vamping" or rhythmic harmony figures or a bass line and a soprano harmony as accompaniment. This double reed tradition would include the Ciociaria (Latium, southern Abruzzo and Molise), that of southern Basilicata (Pollino) and nearby areas of Calabria, and some areas of Sicily (Siracusa, Palermo). Single reed versions are played solo in the Calabrian tradition of the surdullina (Cosenza), and a version with a plugged chanter called the "surdullina Albanese," and the Sicilian ciaramedda or ciaramèddha (Messina and Reggio Calabria). The chanters and drones vary, according to the tradition, from a few inches long (surdullina) to two meters in length, such as used in the cathedral of Monreale (Palermo) and nearly every size in between. The word tzimpounas/tsimponas still used for bagpipe in Pontic Greek and Turkish (Trebizond region of northeast Anatolia; its Romanian counterpart is cimpoi, which also means "symphony" or "many sounds played together."
  • Piva, used in northern Italy (Bergamo, Emilia). A single chantered, single drone instrument, with double reeds, often played in accompaniment to a shawm, or piffero. The old Bergamo type is called Baghèt.
  • Launeddas of Sardinia. While not strictly a bagpipe in that it is played in the mouth by circular breathing, it is nonetheless a cousin and likely ancestor of the Italian zampogna, in that it has two chanters and a drone, all single reed. They vary, according to the tradition, from about a foot long to almost a meter in length.

A bagpipe performer in Amsterdam. ... The piffero is a double reed musical instrument with a conical bore, of the oboe family. ... Ciociaria (pronounced choh-chah-REE-ah) is the name of a traditional region of Central Italy comprising approximately the northern half of the Province of Frosinone. ... Map of central Mediterranean Sea, showing location of Syracuse on the island of Sicily. ... Palermo (Palermo in Italian, Palermu, Palemmu, Paliermu or Paliemmu in Sicilian) is the principal city and administrative seat of the autonomous region of Sicily, Italy as well as the capital of the Province of Palermo. ... Calabria (Latin: Bruttium or Brutium), is a region in southern Italy which occupies the toe of the Italian peninsula south of Naples. ... Cosenza is a town and comune in the Calabria region of southern Italy, on the Crati River. ... Pontic Greek is a Greek language which was originally spoken on the shores of the Black Sea (Pontus). Pontics linguistic lineage stems from Attic Greek, and contains influences from Byzantine Greek, Turkish influence and some Persian and Caucasian borrowings. ... Trabzon, formerly known as Trebizond, is a city on the Black Sea coast of north-eastern Turkey. ... Anatolia lies east of the Bosphorus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Anatolia is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... Bergamo is a town in Lombardy, Italy, about 40km northeast of Milan. ... Emilia-Romagna is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... The launeddas, triple clarinet or triplepipe is a typical Sardinian woodwind instrument, consisting of three pipes. ... Sardinia (pronounced ; Italian: Sardegna; Sardinian: Sardigna or Sardinna) in the is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily). ... Circular breathing is a special technique utilized by players of some wind instruments used to produce a continuous tone without break, accomplished by the use of the cheeks as a reservoir of air while breathing through the nose rather than the mouth. ...

Malta

  • Żaqq (with definite article: iż-żaqq): The most common form of Maltese bagipes, sometimes erroneously referred to as the zapp due to a spelling error in a 1939 English-language publication. There was also a smaller type of bagpipe known as the qrajna (a diminutive of qarn ["horn"]). The Maltese word żaqq literally means "sack" or "belly" and derives from Arabic ziqq ( زِقّ "skin" [as a receptacle]). It is sometimes stated that żaqq derives from Italian zampogna but this is not the case. Very similar to the bagpipes of North Africa, the Maltese żaqq consists of a chanter (saqqafa) with two side-by-side pipes (qwiemi) made of cane and set into a wooden yoke, using two single-reeds (bedbut). A single bull's horn bell (qarn) is typically attached to the end of the chanter. There are no drones. The bag was traditionally made of (preferably) dogskin, but goat- and calfskin were also used; there are ethnographic reports that skins of large tomcats also served.[2] The use of the żaqq in daily life came to an end in the 1970s, but there are ongoing attempts to revive it by various folk music ensembles such as Etnika.

An article is a word that is next to a noun or any word that modifies a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun. ... A diminutive is a formation of a word used to convey a slight degree of the root meaning, smallness of the object named, encapsulation, intimacy, or endearment. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent. ... A reed is a thin strip of material which vibrates to make music. ...

Sweden

  • Säckpipa: Also the Swedish word for "bagpipe" in general, this instrument was on the brink of extinction in the first half of the 20th century. It has a cylindrical bore and a single reed, as well as a single drone at the same pitch as the bottom note of the chanter.
Traditional Swedish bagpipes, säckpipa, made by Leif Eriksson
Traditional Swedish bagpipes, säckpipa, made by Leif Eriksson

Oldfashioned Swedish bagpipes (säckpipa), made by Leif Eriksson Modern Swedish bagpipes (säckpipa) made by Alban Faust. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Oldfashioned Swedish bagpipes (säckpipa), made by Leif Eriksson Modern Swedish bagpipes (säckpipa) made by Alban Faust. ...

Switzerland

  • Schweizer Sackpfeife (Swiss bagpipe): In Switzerland, the "Sackpfiffe" was a common instrument in the folkmusic from the middle-ages to the early 18th century – documented by iconography and in written sources (one or two drones and one chanter with double reeds).

Southwest Asia, North Africa

Anatolia

Pontic bagpipe/dankiyo/tulum consist of :1 . Post - Skin (bag) : Animal Skin, 2 . Fisaktir - blowpipe : Wood or Bone, 3 . Avlos - flute : Wood & Reeds, 4 . Kalame - Reeds: Reeds
Pontic bagpipe/dankiyo/tulum consist of :1 . Post - Skin (bag) : Animal Skin, 2 . Fisaktir - blowpipe : Wood or Bone, 3 . Avlos - flute : Wood & Reeds, 4 . Kalame - Reeds: Reeds
  • Dankiyo: A word of Greek origin for "bagpipe" used in the Trabzon Province of Turkey mentioned in the text of Evliya Çelebi (17. century, Ottoman Era): "The Laz's of Trebizond invented a bagpipe called the dankiyo...." Etymology: Ancient Greek το άγγείον to angeíon "skin, bagpipe." [3]
  • Tulum: skin bag; Turkish bagpipe featuring two parallel chanters, (and no drone) usually played by the Laz and Hamsheni people.
  • Gaida: Usually played by Thracians Turks and Pomaks in Turkey.

Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... // Definition An ancient word for bagpipes in Trebizond are in the text of Evliya Çelebi (17. ... Shows the Location of the Province Trabzon Trabzon is a province of Turkey on the Black Sea coast. ... Evliya Çelebi (also known as DerviÅŸ Mehmed Zilli) was one of the most famous Ottoman travelers, who traveled throughout the territories of the Ottoman Empire and the neighbouring lands over a period of forty years. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... Trabzon, formerly known as Trebizond, is a city on the Black Sea coast of north-eastern Turkey. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Tulum is a musical instrument, a form of bagpipe from Turkey. ... Laz may refer to one of the following: Lazs (a Caucasian (Kartvelian) people) Laz language The wife of the Babylonian God Nergal Laz, Finistère (a commune in the Finistère département, France) Lvivskyi Avtobusnyi Zavod (a bus factory in Ukraine) This page concerning a three-letter acronym or... Hamshenis (also known as Hemshinlis or Khemshils; Õ€Õ¡Õ´Õ·Õ«Õ¶Õ« in Armenian; HemÅŸinli in Turkish; Кхэмшыл in Russian) are a distinct ethnic group of Armenian origin that inhabit the Black Sea coastal areas of Turkey, Russia, and Georgia (Abkhazia). ... The gaida (also spelled gajda) is a bagpipe from South Eastern Europe (The Balkans). ... The Pomaks (Помаци, Pomatsi) or Bulgarian Muslims (Българи Мюсюлмани, Bălgari Myusyulmani), also known locally as Ahryani, are Slavs of the Islamic faith. ...

North Africa

  • Mizwad (Arabic مِزْود ; plural مَزاود mazāwid): Tunisian bagpipes; often referred to as mezoued, a French form of the Arabic word. Mizwad literally means "sack". The mizwad is also known as the zukrah ( زُكْرة ; pl. زُكر zukar), a word literally meaning "(wine)skin".

Arabic ( or just ), is the largest member of the family of Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew, Amharic, and Aramaic. ...

References

  1. ^ Woodhouse, Harry (1994). Cornish Bagpipes: Fact or Fiction?. Trewirgie: Dyllansow Truran.
  2. ^ Partridge, J. K.; Frank Jeal (1977). "The Maltese Zaqq". The Galpin Society Journal 30: 112–144.
  3. ^ Öztürk, Özhan (2005). Karadeniz: Ansiklopedik Sözlük. 2 Cilt. Heyamola Yayıncılık. İstanbul. ISBN 978-975-6121-00-9. p. 300

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