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Encyclopedia > Type species

A type species fixes the name of a genus (or of a taxon in a rank lower than genus). For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... A taxon (plural taxa), or taxonomic unit, is a grouping of organisms (named or unnamed). ...


Strictly speaking, a type species exists only in zoological nomenclature. As set in Art 42.3 of the ICZN, the type of the name of a genus or subgenus (a “genus-group name”) is the "type species". This is defined as "The nominal species that is the name-bearing type of a nominal genus or subgenus". The species name in turn is fixed to a type specimen. The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature is a set of rules in zoology that have one fundamental aim: to provide the maximum universality and continuity in the naming of all animals according to taxonomic judgment. ... The International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is a set of rules in zoology that have one fundamental aim: to provide the maximum universality and continuity in classifying all animals according to taxonomic judgment. ... In zoological nomenclature, a type is a specimen or a taxon. ... In zoology, a taxon is usually assigned to a rank in a hierarchy. ...


In botanical nomenclature, the type of a name of a genus or species is a specimen (or illustration) (ICBN, Art 10.1, 8.1 and 10.4). This type will usually be the type of an included species, in which case it can be indicated by the name of this species (Art 10.1). This species is called the "type species", but this phrase has no formal standing. The botanical type specimen itself is generally called a "type specimen." Botanical nomenclature Plants are given formal names, governed by the ICBN. Within the limits set by the ICBN there is a separate set of rules, the ICNCP, for those plants in cultivation that require separate recognition, so-called cultivars. ... In botanical nomenclature, a type (typus, nomenclatural type) is that element to which the name of a taxon is permanently attached . ... In Botany, a herbarium is a collection of preserved plants or plant parts, mainly in a dried form. ... The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature is the set of rules according to which plants are given their formal botanical names (scientific names). ...


Thus, the two definitions are generally identical in applied use, but defined differently.


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
ICZN Code - Article 69 (689 words)
If an author subsequently designates a type species by using an unjustified emendation or an incorrect spelling of the name of one of the originally included nominal species, he or she is deemed to have designated the type species under its correctly spelled name [Art.
In designating a type species for a nominal genus or subgenus, an author should give preference to a species that is adequately described or illustrated, or of which type material still exists, or of which material is easily obtained.
A nominal species having a sexually mature specimen as its type is generally preferable to one based on a larval or otherwise immature specimen.
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