FACTOID # 27: If you're itching to live in a trailer park, hitch up your home and head to South Carolina, where a whopping 18% of residences are mobile homes.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Type 21 frigate

HMS Active Download high resolution version (1055x801, 95 KB)HMS Active (Type 21 Amazon-class frigate). ...

Type 21 (Amazon) class RN Ensign
General Characteristics
Displacement: 2,860 tons standard / 3,360 tons full load (after hull strengthening)
Length: 384 ft (117 m)
Beam: 41.5 ft (12.6 m)
Draught: 19.6 ft (6.0 m)
Propulsion: Rolls-Royce COGOG (COmbined Gas Or Gas turbine)

2 Tyne cruise turbines; 8 500 shp (6 MW)
2 Olympus boost turbines; 50 000 shp (37 MW) The White Ensign of the Royal Navy. ... Rolls-Royce plc (LSE: RR.) (also known as Rolls-Royce Aero Engines) is the second-largest aircraft engine maker in the world, behind General Electrics GE Aircraft Engines division. ... Rolls-Royce Olympus 593 The Olympus is a high-powered axial-flow turbojet, originally developed at Bristol Aero Engines, later passed to Bristol Siddeley, and finally to Rolls-Royce. ...

Speed: 30 knots+ (56 km/h), 18 knots (33 km/h) cruise on Tynes
Range: 4000 nautical miles (7,000 km) at 17 knots (31 km/h)
Complement: 235
Armament: 1 x 4.5 in (114 mm) Vickers Mark 8 gun


2 x 20 mm Oerlikon gun (later increased to 4)
1 x 4-rail launcher for GWS-24 Sea Cat
4 x launchers for MM38 Exocet (not originally)
2 x 8-barrelled Knebworth Corvus countermeasures launchers
2 x 12.75" (324mm) 3-tube STWS-1 torpedo tubes (not originally) Sea Cat is a surface to air missile system intended for use aboard small warships. ... The Exocet is a French-built anti-ship missile made in various versions capable of being launched from surface ships and boats, submarines, and airplanes. ... A modern torpedo, historically called a self-propelled torpedo, is a self-propelled guided projectile that (after being launched above or below the water surface) operates underwater and is designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ...

Aircraft: 1 x Westland Wasp (later Westland Lynx)
Electronics: 1 x Radar Type 992Q low-level search


1 x Radar Type 978 navigation
2 x Radar Type 912 fire-control
Sonar Type 184M and 162M Westland Wasp The Westland Wasp was a general purpose helicopter, basically a derivative of the British Army Scout helicopter, with the requirement of being small enough to land on Royal Navy frigates. ... The AgustaWestland Lynx is a helicopter designed by AgustaWestland (formerly Westland Aircraft) and jointly produced with Aérospatiale, first flying on 21 March 1971 as the Westland WG.13. ...

The Type 21 frigate or Amazon class frigate was a Royal Navy general-purpose escort designed in the late 1960s, built in the 1970s and that served throughout the 1980s into the 1990s. Frigate is a name which has been used for several distinct types of warships at different times. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the senior service of the British armed services, being the oldest of its three branches. ...

Contents


History

The class was designed to fulfil a requirement for a relatively cheap yet modern general purpose escort vessel to fill a projected gap in the number of escort hulls in the fleet. Many older vessels were rapidly approaching the end of their useful lives yet their replacements, the Type 42 destroyer and Type 22 frigate, would not be ready until the mid-to-late 1970s. The Admiralty design board were busy with the latter, therefore the Type 21 project was given to private shipyards Vosper Thornycroft and Yarrow. The unmistakeably yacht-like and rakish lines were indicative of their commercial design. Their handsome looks combined with their impressive handling and acceleration lent itself to the class nickname of Porsches. The design was partially funded by the Royal Australian Navy who had originally intended to buy five vessels, but in the event did not purchase any. The first of the eight built, HMS Amazon, entered service in May 1974. Type 42 destroyer HMS Manchester Type 42, also known as the Sheffield class, is a class of destroyers of the Royal Navy. ... A group of Type 22s, with HMS Coventry in the foreground The Type 22 frigate is a warship class of the Royal Navy also known as the Broadsword Class. ... Vosper Thornycroft is a limited business traditionally associated with the shipbuilding industry in the UK. They hold a shipbuilding yard in Southampton, Hampshire. ... Yarrow Shipbuilders Limited (YSL) was a major British shipyard, now part of BAE Systems Marine which also includes the nearby Govan shipyard and the former VSEL yard in Barrow. ... Porsche (), (pronounced porsh-uh) is a German manufacturer of sports cars, founded in 1931 by Ferdinand Porsche, the engineer who created the first Volkswagen. ... The Royal Australian Navy (RAN} is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. ... HMS Amazon (F169) was the first Type 21 frigate of the Royal Navy. ... 1974 is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ...


Design

These ships were the Royal Navy's first privately designed modern frigates. They were also the first design to enter service that used solely gas-turbine propulsion (the Type 42 was designed to use this system first), as opposed to the steam turbines or diesel engines of their predecessors. The design made use of large amounts of alluminium alloy in the superstructure to lower topweight but worries later surfaced about resilience to fire, particularly following a major fire on Amazon in 1977 during which aluminium ladders distorted preventing fire-fighting teams from reaching the blaze. Later warships reverted to using steel again. This machine has a single-stage radial compressor and turbine, a recuperator, and foil bearings. ... A steam turbine extracts the energy of pressurized superheated steam as mechanical movement. ... The diesel engine is a type of internal combustion engine; more specifically, it is a compression ignition engine, in which the fuel is ignited by being suddenly exposed to the high temperature and pressure of a compressed gas containing oxygen (usually atmospheric air), rather than a separate source of ignition... General Name, Symbol, Number aluminium, Al, 13 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13, 3, p Appearance silvery Atomic mass 26. ... A large bonfire. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... The old steel cable of a colliery winding tower Steel is a metal alloy whose major component is iron, with carbon being the primary alloying material. ...


As originally built, the Type 21 design made use of a lot of 'off the shelf' technology, such as the old Sea Cat missile combined with the Italian Alenia Orion-10X fire-control system as the GWS-24 system, the Wasp anti-submarine helicopter and marinised Rolls-Royce aircraft engines. Yet it also featured modern electronics such as the CAAIS (Computer Assisted Action Information System) computer system to integrate the ship's weapons and sensor systems and provide the crew with all the relevant information they required to fight the ship, as and when they needed it.


In terms of automation, systems integration and habitability they were well in advance of many of their older Royal navy contemporaries, such as the Type 81 and Type 12 frigates, the latter of whose basic design could be traced back to 1945. 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Modifications

When they entered service, the Type 21s were immediately criticised for being woefully underarmed. A program was put in hand to increase their firepower by fitting 4 French built MM38 Exocet anti-ship missiles. These were sited on the fo'c'sle, displacing the Corvus countermeasure launchers to amidships. This improvement was carried out to all ships apart from Amazon and Antelope. When it came avaliable, the Westland Wasp, a single-role torpedo carrying helicopter, was replaced by the vastly more capable multi-mission Westland Lynx. Ship-launched anti-submarine torpedos were also fitted as and when ships came in for refit, in the form of two STWS-1 triple-tube launchers capable of firing USN Mark 44 or Mark 46 torpedos. HMS Antelope (F170) was a Type 21 frigate of the Royal Navy that participated in the Falklands War. ...


Active Service

All of the class except Amazon, as the 4th Frigate Squadron, took part in the Falklands War of 1982. They were heavily involved, performing extensive shore-bombardment missions and providing anti-submarine and anti-aircraft duties for the task force. Two vessels were lost, Ardent was hit by bombs dropped by Argentine aircraft on May 21 and was consumed by fire. HMS Antelope was hit by bombs on May 23, one of which was set off by the bomb disposal team attempting to defuse it on May 24, causing the ship to break her back and sink. It is highly unlikely that any ship of this size would be able to survive a direct hit from aerial bombs, and that they stayed afloat as long as they did to allow the evacuation of their crews is testament to the design. The Falklands War or the Malvinas War (Spanish: Guerra de las Malvinas), was an armed conflict between Argentina and the United Kingdom over the Falkland Islands (also known in Spanish as the Islas Malvinas) and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, between March and June of 1982. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... HMS Ardent (F184) was a Royal Navy type 21 frigate. ... May 21 is the 141st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (142nd in leap years). ... HMS Antelope (F170) was a Type 21 frigate of the Royal Navy that participated in the Falklands War. ... May 23 is the 143rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (144th in leap years). ... US Soldiers removing landmines Bomb disposal is the process by which hazardous devices are rendered safe. ... May 24 is the 144th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (145th in leap years). ...


Shortcomings

Criticism was levelled at the Type 21 design's performace in the Falklands conflict. The ships developed cracks in their decks due to the severe weather conditions they encountered in the South Atlantic, which required steel reinforcing plates to be subsequently fitted. However it must be remembered that these were vessels built to an exacting budget and design specifications and carryied obsolete anti-aircraft weaponry yet distinguished themselves in heavy and bitter fighting in a theatre for which they were not designed. The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ...


The class were also criticised for being overcrowded; at 384 ft (117 m) they had 235 crew compared to 436 ft (133 m) and just 185 crew for the modern Type 23 frigate. This was important at a time when the Royal Navy was facing a manpower shortage. Furthermore, with little capability to modernise due to the small size and already being close to its top weight limit, the Type 21s days were numbered. Never the less, they were extremelly popular with their crews and useful ships in a Navy severly depleted in numbers of modern escort hulls. HMS Richmond The Type 23 frigate is a warship class of the Royal Navy also known as the Duke class. ...


Disposal

All six remaining Type 21s were sold to Pakistan in 19931994. The class was renamed by the Pakistan Navy to the Tariq class, after the first vessel they acquired, PNS Tariq, formerly HMS Ambuscade. As of 2004, all six ships remain in the Pakistani Navy. They have had their Sea Cat missile launcher removed, as-well as the Exocet missile launcher, which has been replaced by the more capable Harpoon missile. In 2005, it was reported that a Chinese made LY-60N (Hunting Eagle - Navy version) anti-air missile launcher was installed abroad these frigates by the Pakistan Navy. 1993 (MCMXCIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... The Pakistan Navy is the naval wing of the Pakistan military. ... HMS Ambuscade (F172) was a Type 21 frigate of the Royal Navy. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sea Cat is a surface to air missile system intended for use aboard small warships. ... The Exocet is a French-built anti-ship missile made in various versions capable of being launched from surface ships and boats, submarines, and airplanes. ... The AGM-84 Harpoon is a US all-weather, over-the-horizon, anti-ship missile system. ... The Pakistan Navy is the naval wing of the Pakistan military. ...



Type 21 frigate
Amazon | Antelope | Active | Ambuscade | Arrow | Alacrity | Ardent | Avenger

List of frigates of the Royal Navy

  Results from FactBites:
 
HMS Alacrity (F174) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (333 words)
HMS Alacrity (F174) was a Type 21 frigate of the Royal Navy.
As Alacrity exited the Falkland Sound on May 11, the Argentine submarine, ARA San Luis was reported to have fired two torpeados at Alacrity and her sister ship Arrow.
As with the other surviving Type 21 frigates, Alacrity was suffering from cracking in her hull by the mid-1980s.
Type 21 frigate - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (452 words)
The Type 21 frigate or Amazon-class frigate was an attempt by the Royal Navy to create a cheap escort design.
These ships were the first Royal Navy frigates to use gas-turbine propulsion, as opposed to the diesel engines of their predecessors.
All six remaining Type 21s were sold to Pakistan in 1993–1994.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m