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Encyclopedia > Tylenol
Tylenol and Tylenol PM
Tylenol and Tylenol PM

Tylenol is a popular North American brand of drugs for relieving pain, reducing fever, and relieving the symptoms of allergies, cold, cough, and flu. The active ingredient of its original, flagship product, acetaminophen (called "paracetamol" outside of North America), is marketed for headaches, fever, muscle and body pain, arthritis, and joint pain. Like the words "acetaminophen" and "paracetamol", the brand name is derived from the chemical name for the compound, N-acetyl-para-aminophenol (APAP). It is available over the counter without prescription, has few side effects, and reacts with very few medications. However, it can have fatal interactions with large amounts of alcohol. In addition to products related to allergies and cold, Johnson & Johnson also sells a stronger pain reliever containing codeine. Paracetamol (INN) (IPA: ) or acetaminophen (USAN) is a widely-used analgesic and antipyretic. ... For other uses, see Brand (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Drug (disambiguation). ... An analgesic (colloquially known as a painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... Allergy is an abnormal reaction to a substance foreign to the body that is acquired, predictable and rapid. ... Acute viral nasopharyngitis, or acute coryza, usually known as the common cold, is a highly contagious, viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system, primarily caused by picornaviruses or coronaviruses. ... Respiratory disease properly named influenza(say: in-floo-en-zah ). Some specific varities of influenza with a vaccination available are: A-New Caledonia, A-California, B-Shanghai. ... Paracetamol (INN) (IPA: ) or acetaminophen (USAN) is a widely-used analgesic and antipyretic. ... A headache (cephalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... Myalgia means muscle pain and is a symptom of many diseases and disorders. ... Look up Pain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. ... In medicine, arthralgia (literally: joint pain, from arthros = joint and -algia denoting pain) is the presence of painful joints in the absence of frank arthritis. ... Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines that may be sold without a prescription, in contrast to prescription drugs. ... Johnson & Johnson (NYSE: JNJ) is a global American pharmaceutical, medical devices and consumer packaged goods manufacturer founded in 1886. ... For the band, see Codeine (band). ...

Contents

History

The active substance of Tylenol, acetaminophen (APAP), was first used in medicine in 1893. Acetaminophen only gained widespread use after 1948, when scientists concluded that another popular drug, acetanilide, was toxic and that the same therapeutic effect could be safely achieved with acetaminophen, which was already known to be a metabolite of acetanilide. Acetaminophen (USAN) or paracetamol (INN), is a popular analgesic and antipyretic drug that is used for the relief of fever, headaches, and other minor aches and pains. ... | Water solubility | 0. ... A metabolite is the product of metabolism. ...


James Roth, a U.S. gastroenterologist, advocated paracetamol as a safer alternative to aspirin, which was shown to have some negative effects. Roth was also principal consultant to McNeil Laboratories. In 1953 McNeil Laboratories introduced Algoson, a preparation containing paracetamol together with sodium butabarbital, a sedative. In 1955 McNeil Laboratories introduced Tylenol Elixir for children, which contained paracetamol as its sole active ingredient. It was originally marketed mainly towards children, but soon came to dominate the North American pain-killer market. There are a number of different varieties of Tylenol available today including extra-strength (with 500 milligrams of acetaminophen), children's doses, longer-lasting, and sleep aiding (in combination with a sedative antihistamine). In 2005 Tylenol Ultra was introduced in Canada, with 500 mg of acetaminophen and 65 mg of caffeine; caffeine has vasoconstricting effects, for which there is some disputed evidence for additional efficacy.[1][2] The patent on paracetamol has expired, and the continued successes of Tylenol brand preparations are largely due to marketing, the backing of Johnson & Johnson, and new patented delivery mechanisms such as quick-release and extended-release forms of the medication. Gastroenterology (MeSH heading[2] ) is the branch of medicine where the digestive system and its disorders are studied. ... This article is about the drug. ... An adverse drug reaction (abbreviated ADR) or adverse drug event (abbreviated ADE) is an expression that describes the unwanted, negative consequences associated with the use of given medications. ... The company was founded on March 17, 1879 by 23 year old Robert McNeil, who paid US $167 for a drugstore complete with fixtures, inventory and soda fountain, as a retail pharmacy, in the Kensington section of Philadelphia, PA, USA. Robert McNeil was a graduate of the Philadelphia College of... Butabarbital Butisol® is a prescription barbiturate sleep aid. ... An H1 antihistamine is a histamine antagonist which serves to reduce or eliminate effects mediated by histamine, an endogenous chemical mediator released during allergic reactions, through action at the H1 receptor. ... For other uses, see Caffeine (disambiguation). ... Vasoconstriction is a narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contracting of the muscular wall of the vessels. ...


On September 29, 1982, a "Tylenol scare" began when the first of seven individuals died in metropolitan Chicago, after ingesting Extra Strength Tylenol that had been deliberately contaminated with cyanide. The crime was never solved and Tylenol sales temporarily collapsed, but the brand was rebuilt and recovered in a few years. At the request of later Chairman, Joseph Chiesa, new product consultant Calle & Company rescued the brand with the invention of the first inherently tamper-proof [enrobed] capsule, Tylenol Gelcaps, recapturing the 92% of capsule segment sales lost after the cyanide incident. The scare led to the introduction of tamper-evident packaging and "gelcaps" across the over-the-counter drug (OTC) and prescription drug industry. is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... The Tylenol crisis occurred in the autumn of 1982, when seven people in the Chicago area in the United States died after ingesting Extra Strength Tylenol medicine capsules which had been laced with potassium cyanide poison. ... ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... Tamper-evident devices are ones designed to make it easy to see whether they have been altered. ... Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines that may be sold without a prescription, in contrast to prescription drugs. ... Zoloft, an antidepressant and antianxiety medication A prescription drug is a licensed medicine that is regulated by legislation to require a prescription before it can be obtained. ...


Tylenol remains a top seller, controlling about 35% of the pain killer market in North America.[3], yet acetaminophen overdose is responsible for more ER visits than any other medicine on the market.[4]


Tylenol products

Tylenol 3 - a compound of Tylenol and Codeine
Tylenol 3 - a compound of Tylenol and Codeine

Tylenol sells products to relieve pain, allergies, and cold- and flu- related symptoms. Allergy and cold products also contain dextromethorphan, antihistamines, and expectorants. A class of stronger pain relievers contains codeine (Tylenol 2 and Tylenol 3). Acetaminophen is also found in other narcotic based analgesics such as Percocet which contains oxycodone. For the band, see Codeine (band). ... Pain therapy is treatment given to patients experiencing chronic or acute pain. ... Allergy is an abnormal reaction to a substance foreign to the body that is acquired, predictable and rapid. ... Acute viral nasopharyngitis, or acute coryza, usually known as the common cold, is a highly contagious, viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory system, primarily caused by picornaviruses or coronaviruses. ... Respiratory disease properly named influenza(say: in-floo-en-zah ). Some specific varities of influenza with a vaccination available are: A-New Caledonia, A-California, B-Shanghai. ... Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is an antitussive (cough suppressant) drug found in many over-the-counter cold and cough medicines. ... An H1 antihistamine is a histamine antagonist which serves to reduce or eliminate effects mediated by histamine, an endogenous chemical mediator released during allergic reactions, through action at the H1 receptor. ... A cough medicine or antitussive is a medication given to people to help them stop coughing. ... For the band, see Codeine (band). ... Codeine (INN) or methylmorphine is an opiate used for its analgesic, antitussive and antidiarrheal properties. ... An analgesic (colloquially known as a painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). ... Oxycodone is a very powerful and potentially addictive opioid analgesic medication synthesized from thebaine. ... Not to be confused with oxytocin. ...


Unlike NSAIDs, acetaminophen is not particularly effective against pain from inflammatory disorders, since it doesn't reduce the underlying inflammation. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, usually abbreviated to NSAIDs, are drugs with analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects - they reduce pain, fever and inflammation. ...


The normal maximum dose for acetaminophen per day is 65 mg/kg or 4 grams per day, whichever is less. However; there are cases where acute hypotoxicity has been linked to amounts lower than 2.5 grams per day.[5] Certain patients, such as those on medications processed by the liver or diseases of the liver (e.g., Hepatitis A, B, or C), may for safety need to take far lower dosages. Acetaminophen should not be used for over two weeks without seeking medical advice.


It is essential to avoid excessive amounts of acetaminophen as this may cause damage to the liver or kidneys; in particular, users should be aware of the risk of taking different preparations which each contain an acceptable dose of acetaminophen, but which together produce an overdose.


Overdose

See also: Paracetamol#Toxicity

Overdose of acetaminophen is serious and can be fatal from liver toxicity, killing about 12% of those who seek treatment due to the delayed effects. Often the patient may not even experience symptoms for up to 24-48 hours. Typical symptoms after this period range from nausea, malaise to extreme upper abdominal pain in the region of the liver. In heavy drinkers, regular use of acetaminophen increases liver damage from alcohol. Paracetamol (INN) (IPA: ) or acetaminophen (USAN) is a widely-used analgesic and antipyretic. ... Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ...


Acetaminophen toxicity is the most common cause of acute liver failure in the United States,[4] accounting for 39% of cases. It occurs both after attempted suicide by c overdose and after unintentional overdoses.[6] In some susceptible people, even small doses, combined with small amounts of alcohol, have caused irreversible liver failure.[citation needed]


Acetaminophen can cause kidney failure in vulnerable persons. These include alcoholics, elderly men, and persons with pre-existing liver or kidney damage.[7]


References

  1. ^ Diener H, Pfaffenrath V, Pageler L, Peil H, Aicher B (2005). "The fixed combination of acetylsalicylic acid, paracetamol and caffeine is more effective than single substances and dual combination for the treatment of headache: a multicentre, randomized, double-blind, single-dose, placebo-controlled parallel group study.". Cephalalgia 25 (10): 776-87. PMID 16162254.  - which concludes "the fixed combination of ... caffeine was statistically significantly superior to the combination without caffeine"
  2. ^ Loder E (2005). "Fixed drug combinations for the acute treatment of migraine : place in therapy.". CNS Drugs 19 (9): 769-84. doi:10.2165/00023210-200519090-00004. PMID 16142992.  - which notes that "benefits assumed for ... caffeine ... are not clearly confirmed in these trials"
  3. ^ Drug-Induced Hepatotoxicity, William M. Lee, New England Journal of Medicine, July 31, 2003, 349:474-485.
  4. ^ a b Bushel PR, Heinloth AN, Li J, et al (November 2007). "Blood gene expression signatures predict exposure levels". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104 (46): 18211–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.0706987104. PMID 17984051. 
  5. ^ Drug-Induced Hepatotoxicity, William M. Lee, New England Journal of Medicine, July 31, 2003, 349:474-485.
  6. ^ Drug-Induced Hepatotoxicity, William M. Lee, New England Journal of Medicine, July 31, 2003, 349:474-485.
  7. ^ Lee M (1998). "Acute Renal Failure in an Alcoholic Taking Acetaminophen". Journal of the American Board of Family Practice 11 (5): 410-13. unknown. 

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

See also

The Tylenol murders occurred in the autumn of 1982, when seven people in the Chicago, Illinois area in the United States died after ingesting Extra Strength Tylenol medicine capsules which had been laced with cyanide poison. ... Categories: | | | ...

External links

  • Tylenol Website
  • Pain relief: from coal tar to paracetamol
USD redirects here. ... USD redirects here. ... A fiscal year (or financial year or accounting reference date) is a 12-month period used for calculating annual (yearly) financial statements in businesses and other organizations. ... The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), nicknamed the Big Board, is a New York City-based stock exchange. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Tylenol Scandal and Crisis Management (656 words)
In October of 1982, Tylenol, the leading pain-killer medicine in the United States at the time, faced a tremendous crisis when seven people in Chicago were reported dead after taking extra-strength Tylenol capsules.
Tylenol is one of thousands of companies who have faced a crisis that can be destructive to its company if not handled properly.
While Tylenol succeeded in managing its crisis, the Exxon case was not as successful.
Walmart.com - Tylenol Rapid Release Gels (228 words)
Tylenol Extra Strength Rapid Release Gels* provide you with powerful extra-strength relief in a fast-releasing form.
Tylenol won’t irritate your stomach lining the way aspirin, naproxen sodium or even ibuprofen sometimes can.
Tylenol reduces fever and temporarily relieves minor aches and pains due to:
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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