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Encyclopedia > Tyburn, London
Map of Tyburn gallows and immediate surroundings, from John Rocque's map of London, Westminster and Southwark (1746)
Map of Tyburn gallows and immediate surroundings, from John Rocque's map of London, Westminster and Southwark (1746)
The "Tyburn Tree"
The "Tyburn Tree"
Hogarth's Idle 'Prentice (1747)
Hogarth's Idle 'Prentice (1747)

Tyburn was a former village in the county of Middlesex close to the current location of Marble Arch. It took its name from the Tyburn or Ty Bourne (two brooks), a tributary of the River Thames which is now completely covered over between its source and its outfall into the Thames at Vauxhall. Image File history File links Map of Tyburn gallows and immediate surroundings, from John Rocques map of London, Westminster and Southwark (1746) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Map of Tyburn gallows and immediate surroundings, from John Rocques map of London, Westminster and Southwark (1746) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links The Tyburn Tree File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links The Tyburn Tree File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Idle Prentice executed at Tyburn by William Hogarth (1747) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Idle Prentice executed at Tyburn by William Hogarth (1747) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Middlesex is one of the 39 historic counties of England and the second smallest (after Rutland). ... Marble Arch Marble Arch is a white Carrara marble monument near Speakers Corner in Hyde Park, at the western end of Oxford Street in London, England. ... The Tyburn is a stream in London, which runs underground from South Hampstead through St. ... The Thames (pronounced //) is a river flowing through southern England, in its lower reaches flowing through London into the sea. ... Vauxhall is an inner city area of south London in the London Borough of Lambeth. ...


The village was one of two manors of the parish of St Marylebone, which was itself named after the stream, St Marylebone being a contraction of St Mary's church by the bourne. Tyburn was recorded in the Domesday Book and stood approximately at the west end of what is now Oxford Street at the junction of two Roman roads. The predecessors of Oxford Street and Park Lane were roads leading to the village, then called Tyburn Road and Tyburn Lane respectively. Generic plan of a mediaeval manor; open-field strip farming, some enclosures, triennial crop rotation, demesne and manse, common woodland, pasturage and meadow Manorialism or Seigneurialism is the organization of rural economy and society in medieval western and parts of central Europe, characterised by the vesting of legal and economic... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ... Marylebone (sometimes written St. ... A line drawing entitled Domesday Book from Andrew Williamss Historic Byways and Highways of Old England. ... Oxford Street, from the top deck of a bus Oxford Street is a major thoroughfare in London, England in the City of Westminster, and one of the worlds most famous streets for shopping. ... A Roman road in Pompeii Road Construction on Trajans Column The Roman roads were essential for the growth of their empire, by enabling them to move armies. ... Park Lane could refer to: Park Lane, a road in London, England Park Lane, a mall in Halifax, Nova Scotia Mercury Park Lane, a car produced by the Ford Motor Company This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


Tyburn had significance from ancient times and was marked by a monument known as Oswulf's Stone, which gave its name to the Ossulston Hundred of Middlesex. The stone was covered over in 1822 when Marble Arch was moved to the area, but it was shortly afterwards unearthed and propped up against the Arch. It has not been seen since 1869. A hundred is an administrative division, frequently used in Europe and New England, which historically was used to divide a larger region into smaller geographical units. ... Middlesex is one of the 39 historic counties of England and the second smallest (after Rutland). ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Marble Arch Marble Arch is a white Carrara marble monument near Speakers Corner in Hyde Park, at the western end of Oxford Street in London, England. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


Tyburn gallows

The village was notorious for centuries as the site of the Tyburn gallows, London's principal location for public executions by hanging. (According to an 1850 publication [1], the site was at No. 49. Connaught Square.) Executions took place at Tyburn from the 12th to the 18th century (with the prisoners processed from Newgate Prison in the City, via St Giles in the Fields and Oxford Street), after which they were carried out at Newgate itself and at Horsemonger Lane Gaol in Southwark. The first execution recorded at Tyburn took place in 1196 at a site next to the stream, but in 1571 the "Tyburn Tree" was erected near the modern Marble Arch. The "Tree" or "Triple Tree" was a novel form of gallows, comprising a horizontal wooden triangle supported by three legs (an arrangement known as a "three legged mare" or "three legged stool"). Several felons could thus be hanged at once, and so the gallows was occasionally used for mass executions, such as that on June 23, 1649 when 24 prisoners Р23 men and one woman Рwere hanged simultaneously, having been conveyed there in eight carts. The Tree stood in the middle of the roadway, providing a major landmark in west London and presenting a very obvious symbol of the law to travellers. After executions, the bodies would be buried nearby or in later times removed for dissection by anatomists. These gallows in Tombstone Courthouse State Historic Park are maintained by Arizona State Parks. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Suicide by hanging. ... 1850 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Connaught Square, Westminster - predominatly four storey town houses surround a private gated garden planted with mature trees. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Old Newgate Prison, which was replaced in the 18th century. ... The City of London is a geographically-small City within Greater London, England. ... St. ... Oxford Street, from the top deck of a bus Oxford Street is a major thoroughfare in London, England in the City of Westminster, and one of the worlds most famous streets for shopping. ... Horsemonger Lane Gaol (also known as the Surrey County Gaol or the New Gaol) was a prison located close to modern-day Newington Causeway in Southwark, south London. ... The Borough or Southwark is an area of the London Borough of Southwark situated 1. ... Events Spring, London, popular uprising of the poor against the rich led by William Fitz Osbern. ... Events January 11 - Austrian nobility is granted Freedom of religion. ... Marble Arch Marble Arch is a white Carrara marble monument near Speakers Corner in Hyde Park, at the western end of Oxford Street in London, England. ... These gallows in Tombstone Courthouse State Historic Park are maintained by Arizona State Parks. ... June 23 is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 191 days remaining. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... Dissected rat showing major organs. ... Anatomical drawing of the human muscles from the Encyclop̩die. ...


The first victim of the "Tyburn Tree" was Dr John Story, a Roman Catholic who refused to recognize Elizabeth I. Among the more notable individuals suspended from the "Tree" in the following centuries were John Bradshaw, Henry Ireton and Oliver Cromwell, who were already dead; they were disinterred and hanged at Tyburn in January 1661 on the orders of Charles II in an act of posthumous revenge for their part in the beheading of his father. John Story (c. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England, Queen of France (in name only), and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ... John Bradshaw (1602-59) was one of the judges to preside over the trial and subsequent death sentence of Charles I of England. ... Henry Ireton Henry Ireton (1611 - November 26, 1651), was an English general in the army of Parliament during the English Civil War. ... Oliver Cromwell (April 25, 1599–September 3, 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for making England a republic and leading the Commonwealth of England. ... 1661 (MDCLXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland from 30 January 1649 (de jure) or 29 May 1660 (de facto) until his death. ...


The executions were public spectacles and proved extremely popular, attracting crowds of thousands. The enterprising villagers of Tyburn erected large spectator stands so that as many as possible could see the hangings (for a fee). On one occasion, the stands collapsed, reportedly killing and injuring hundreds of people. This did not prove a deterrent, however, and the executions continued to be treated as public holidays, with London apprentices being given the day off for them. One such event was depicted by William Hogarth in his satirical print, The Idle 'Prentice executed at Tyburn (1747). William Hogarth (November 10, 1697 – October 26, 1764) was a major English painter, printmaker, pictorial satirist, and editorial cartoonist who has been credited as a pioneer in western sequential art. ... // Events January 31 - The first venereal diseases clinic opens at London Dock Hospital April 9 - The Scottish Jacobite Lord Lovat was beheaded by axe on Tower Hill, London, for high treason; he was the last man to be executed in this way in Britain May 14 - First battle of Cape...


Tyburn was commonly invoked in euphemisms for capital punishment – for instance, "to take a ride to Tyburn" was to go to one's hanging, "Lord of the Manor of Tyburn" was the public hangman, "dancing the Tyburn jig" was the act of being hanged, and so on. Convicts would be transported to the site in an open ox-cart from Newgate Prison. They were expected to put on a good show, wearing their finest clothes and going to their deaths with insouciance. They were also permitted to stop off at any ale-house en-route for one last drink, which gave rise to the expression "One for the road". The guards minding the convicts could not drink because they were "on the wagon", another famous expression. The crowd would cheer a "good dying", but would jeer any displays of weakness on the part of the condemned. A euphemism is an expression intended by the speaker to be less offensive, disturbing, or troubling to the listener than the word or phrase it replaces, or in the case of doublespeak to make it less troublesome for the speaker. ...


The Tyburn gallows were last used on 3 November 1783, when John Austin, a highwayman, was hanged. The site of the gallows is now marked by three brass triangles mounted on the pavement at the corner of Edgware Road and Bayswater Road. In fact the plaque is on an island in the middle of Edgware Road at its junction with Bayswater Road. It is also commemorated by the Tyburn Convent, a Catholic convent dedicated to the memory of martyrs executed there and in other locations for the Catholic faith. November 3 is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 58 days remaining. ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... There have been several notable people named John Austin: A philosopher of language; see J. L. Austin (1911 - 1960) An 18th century legal and political theorist who wrote An Essay on Sovereignty, considered the standard for discussions about sovereignty; see John Austin (legal philosophy) A warrant officer in the United... Folk image of a mounted highwayman Highwayman was a term used particularly in Britain during the 17th and 18th centuries to describe robbers who targeted people travelling by stagecoach and other modes of transport along public highways. ...


Tyburn today remains the point at which Watling Street, the A5 ends, it continues in straight sections to Holyhead. The modern Watling Street crossing the Medway at Rochester near the Roman and Celt crossings Watling Street is the name given to a British ancient trackway which was first used by the Celts mainly between the modern cities of Canterbury and St Albans. ... Holyhead (Welsh: Caergybi, the fort of St. ...


Some notable executions at Tyburn (in chronological order)

Name Date Cause
Roger Mortimer,
1st Earl of March
29 November 1330 Accused of assuming royal power; hanged without trial.
Sir Humphrey Stafford of Grafton 8 July 1486 Accused of siding with Richard III; hanged without trial on orders of Henry VII.
Michael An Gof & Thomas Flamank 24 June 1497 Leaders of the Cornish Rebellion of 1497.
Perkin Warbeck 23 November 1499 Treason; pretender to the throne of Henry VII of England by passing himself off as Richard IV, the younger of the two Princes in the Tower.
Elizabeth Barton
"The Holy Maid of Kent"
20 April 1534 Treason; a nun who unwisely prophesied that King Henry VIII would die within six months if he married Anne Boleyn.
John Houghton 4 May 1535 Prior of the Charterhouse who refused to swear the oath condoning King Henry VIII's divorce of Catherine of Aragon.
Thomas Fiennes, 9th Baron Dacre 29 June 1541 Lord Dacre was convicted of murder after being involved in the death of a gamekeeper whilst taking part in a poaching expedition on the lands of Sir Nicholas Pelham of Laughton.
Thomas Culpeper 10 December 1541 A courtier of King Henry VIII who had an affair with his fifth wife, Queen Catherine Howard. Unusually, Culpepper was beheaded, a death normally carried out in relatively more privacy at the Tower of London. Culpepper and Francis Dereham were both sentenced to be 'hung, drawn and quartered' but Henry ordered that Culpepper's sentence be commuted to beheading on account of his previously good relationship with Henry. The unforunate Dereham suffered the full sentence.
Edmund Campion 1 December 1581 Roman Catholic martyrs.
Robert Southwell 21 February 1595
John Southworth 28 June 1654 Roman Catholic priest and martyr.
Robert Hubert 28 September 1666 Falsely confessed to starting the Great Fire of London.
Claude Duval 21 January 1670 Highwayman.
William Chaloner 23 March 1699 Notorious coiner and counterfeiter, convicted of High Treason partly on evidence gathered by Isaac Newton
Jack Sheppard
"Gentleman Jack"
16 November 1724 Notorious thief.
Jonathan Wild 24 May 1725 Organized crime lord.
James MacLaine 3 October 1750 Highwayman.
Laurence Shirley, 4th Earl Ferrers 5 May 1760 The last peer to be hanged for murder.
Rev. James Hackman 19 April 1779 Hanged for the murder of Martha Ray, mistress of John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich.
John Austin 3 November 1783 A highwayman, the last person to be executed at Tyburn.

Roger de Mortimer, 1st Earl of March (25 April 1287 – 29 November 1330), grandson of the 1st Baron Wigmore, was the best-known of his name. ... November 29 is the 333rd (in leap years the 334th) day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events The Bulgars under Michael III are beaten by the Serbs at Velbuzhd, and large parts of Bulgaria fall to Serbia. ... July 8 is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 176 days remaining. ... Events Tízoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan dies. ... Richard III (2 October 1452–22 August 1485) was King of England from 1483 until his death. ... Henry VII (January 28, 1457 – April 21, 1509), King of England, Lord of Ireland (August 22, 1485 – April 21, 1509), was the founder and first patriarch of the Tudor dynasty. ... Michael An Gof (also known as Michael Joseph; An Gof is Cornish for blacksmith) and Thomas Flamank (a Bodmin landowners son and London lawyer) led the Cornish Rebellion of 1497, in which rebels marched on London to protest at King Henry VIIs levying of a tax with which... Thomas Flamank was a lawyer from Cornwall who together with Michael An Gof led the Cornish Rebellion against taxes in 1497. ... June 24 is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 190 days remaining. ... 1497 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cornish Rebellion of 1497 was a popular uprising in 1497 by the tin miners of Cornwall in the south west of Britain. ... Perkin Warbeck (c. ... November 23 is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 38 days remaining. ... 1499 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Traitor redirects here. ... A Pretender is a claimant to an abolished throne or to a throne already occupied by somebody else. ... The Princes in the Tower, Edward V of England (1470–1483?) and Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York (1473–1483?), were the two young sons of Edward IV of England and Elizabeth Woodville who were declared illegitimate by the Act of Parliament known as Titulus Regius. ... Elizabeth Barton (known as The Nun of Kent, The Holy Maid of London or The Holy Maid of Kent; 1506? – April 20, 1534) was executed for prophesying that if King Henry VIII of England married Anne Boleyn against the wishes of the Pope, he would die within six months. ... April 20 is the 110th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (111th in leap years). ... 1534 (MDXXXIV) was a common year in the 16th century. ... Traitor redirects here. ... Silver groat of Henry VIII, minted ca. ... A portrait of Anne Boleyn painted some years after her death. ... Saint John Houghton was an English Catholic martyr. ... May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). ... Events January 18 - Lima, Peru founded by Francisco Pizarro April - Jacques Cartier discovers the Iroquois city of Stadacona, Canada (now Quebec) and in May, the even greater Huron city of Hochelaga June 24 - The Anabaptist state of Münster (see Münster Rebellion) is conquered and disbanded. ... Prior is a Latin adjective, meaning coming before, as earlier (as in a priori, regardless what comes next). ... The Charterhouse in 1770. ... Silver groat of Henry VIII, minted ca. ... Queen Catherine of England Catherine of Aragon (Castilian: Catalina de Aragón y Castilla) (December 16, 1485–January 7, 1536) was queen consort of England as Henry VIII of Englands first wife. ... Thomas Fiennes, 9th Baron Dacre (c. ... June 29 is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 185 days remaining. ... Events The first official translation of the entire Bible in Swedish February 12 - Pedro de Valdivia founds Santiago de Chile. ... Laughton is a village and civil parish in the Wealden District of East Sussex, England. ... Thomas Culpeper (executed December 10, 1541) was a young courtier in Henry VIIIs time. ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ... Events The first official translation of the entire Bible in Swedish February 12 - Pedro de Valdivia founds Santiago de Chile. ... Silver groat of Henry VIII, minted ca. ... Miniature watercolour portrait of Catherine Howard, attributed to Hans Holbein the Younger. ... The Tower of London, seen from the River Thames, with a view of the water gate called Traitors Gate. ... Francis Dereham was most famous for his affair with Queen Catherine Howard, Fifth wife of Henry VIII of England. ... Portrait of Edmund Campion St. ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 16 - English Parliament outlaws Roman Catholicism April 4 - Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I. July 26 - The Northern Netherlands proclaim their independence from Spain in the Oath of Abjuration. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... St Robert Southwell (c. ... February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events January 30 - William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet is performed for the first time. ... John Southworth (also called Saint John Southworth, 1592, Lancashire, England - June 28, 1654, Tyburn, London) was an English Catholic martyr. ... June 28 is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 186 days remaining. ... Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Roman Catholic priests in clerical clothing. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Robert Hubert (b. ... September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1666 is often called Annus Mirabilis. ... Detail of painting from 1666 of the Great Fire of London by an unknown artist, depicting the fire as it would have appeared on the evening of Tuesday, 4 September from a boat in the vicinity of Tower Wharf. ... Claude Duval (1643-January 21, 1670) was a French-born gentleman highwayman in post-Restoration Britain. ... January 21 is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1670 was a common year beginning on a Saturday in countries using the Julian calendar and a Wednesday in countries using the Gregorian calendar. ... Folk image of a mounted highwayman Highwayman was a term used particularly in Britain during the 17th and 18th centuries to describe robbers who targeted people travelling by stagecoach and other modes of transport along public highways. ... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (83rd in leap years). ... Events January 26 - Treaty of Karlowitz signed March 30 - the tenth Sikh Master, Guru Gobind Singh created the Khalsa. ... Sir Isaac Newton, (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, alchemist, and natural philosopher, regarded by many as the greatest figure in the history of science. ... Jack Sheppard in Newgate Prison Jack Sheppard (December 1702 – 16 November 1724) was a notorious English robber, burglar and thief of early 18th century London. ... November 16 is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 45 days remaining. ... Events January 14 - King Philip V of Spain abdicates the throne February 20 - The premiere of Giulio Cesare, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel, takes place in London June 23 - Treaty of Constantinople signed. ... Jonathan Wild in the condemned cell at Newgate Prison Jonathan Wild (c. ... May 24 is the 144th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (145th in leap years). ... Events February 8 - Catherine I became empress of Russia February 20 - The first reported case of white men scalping Native Americans takes place in New Hampshire colony. ... It has been suggested that Criminal organization be merged into this article or section. ... Captain James MacLaine (occasionally Maclean, MacLean, or Maclane) (1724 – 3 October 1750) was a notorious highwayman with his accomplice William Plunkett. ... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events March 2 - Small earthquake in London, England April 4 - Small earthquake in Warrington, England August 23 - Small earthquake in Spalding, England September 30 - Small earthquake in Northampton, England November 16 – Westminster Bridge officially opened Jonas Hanway is the first Englishman to use an umbrella James Gray reveals her sex... Folk image of a mounted highwayman Highwayman was a term used particularly in Britain during the 17th and 18th centuries to describe robbers who targeted people travelling by stagecoach and other modes of transport along public highways. ... Laurence Shirley, 4th Earl Ferrers (August 18, 1720 - May 5, 1760) was the last aristocrat hanged in England. ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (126th in leap years). ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... 1779 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich, 1783, by Sir Thomas Gainsborough John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich (3 November 1718 – 3 April 1792) succeeded his grandfather, Edward, the 3rd Earl, in the earldom in 1729. ... November 3 is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 58 days remaining. ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Folk image of a mounted highwayman Highwayman was a term used particularly in Britain during the 17th and 18th centuries to describe robbers who targeted people travelling by stagecoach and other modes of transport along public highways. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Bl. Thomas Sherwood (428 words)
Martyr, born in London, 1551; died at Tyburn, London, 7 February, 1578.
After leaving school in 1566, Thomas assisted his father, a London woollen draper, for about ten years; then, feeling that his vocation was to the priesthood, he made arrangements to go to Douay College and was in London settling his affairs, and obtaining the means for his support and education.
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Saint Patrick's Church: Saints of February 21 (4598 words)
Born at Horsham Saint Faith's, Norfolk, England, in 1561 or 1562; died at Tyburn, London, England, February 21, 1595; beatified in 1929; canonized on October 25, 1970, by Pope Paul VI as one of the 40 representative martyrs of England and Wales.
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Southwell was concealed in Arundel House in London, he corresponded with Philip Howard because of their mutual affection for Anne Dacre and because of their shared faith and shared interest in poetry.
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