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Encyclopedia > Twofish
Twofish
The Twofish algorithm
General
Designer(s): Bruce Schneier
First published: 1998
Derived from: Blowfish, SAFER, Square
Certification: AES finalist
Cipher detail
Key size(s): 128, 192 or 256 bits
Block size(s): 128 bits
Structure: Feistel network
Rounds: 16
Best public cryptanalysis
Truncated differential cryptanalysis requiring roughly 251 chosen plaintexts.[1]

In cryptography, Twofish is a symmetric key block cipher with a block size of 128 bits and key sizes up to 256 bits. It was one of the five finalists of the Advanced Encryption Standard contest, but was not selected for standardisation. Twofish is related to the earlier block cipher Blowfish. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (891x624, 14 KB) Twofish diagram, created by en:User:Dancraggs See also: en:Image:Twofishalgo. ... Bruce Schneier Bruce Schneier (born January 15, 1963) is an American cryptographer, computer security specialist, and writer. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... In cryptography, Blowfish is a keyed, symmetric block cipher, designed in 1993 by Bruce Schneier and included in a large number of cipher suites and encryption products. ... This article is about the encryption algorithm. ... In cryptography, Square (sometimes written SQUARE) is a block cipher invented by Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen. ... The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), the block cipher ratified as a standard by National Institute of Standards and Technology of the United States (NIST), was chosen using a process markedly more open and transparent than its predecessor, the aging Data Encryption Standard (DES). ... In cryptography, the key size (alternatively key length) is a measure of the number of possible keys which can be used in a cipher. ... In modern cryptography, symmetric key ciphers are generally divided into stream ciphers and block ciphers. ... In cryptography, a Feistel cipher is a block cipher with a particular structure, named after IBM cryptographer Horst Feistel; it is also commonly known as a Feistel network. ... Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, hidden, and analýein, to loosen or to untie) is the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information, without access to the secret information which is normally required to do so. ... In cryptography, truncated differential cryptanalysis is a generalization of differential cryptanalysis, an attack against block ciphers. ... The German Lorenz cipher machine, used in World War II for encryption of very high-level general staff messages Cryptography (or cryptology; derived from Greek κρυπτός kryptós hidden, and the verb γράφω gráfo write or λεγειν legein to speak) is the study of message secrecy. ... Symmetric-key algorithms are a class of algorithms for cryptography that use trivially related cryptographic keys for both decryption and encryption. ... Encryption Decryption In cryptography, a block cipher is a symmetric key cipher which operates on fixed-length groups of bits, termed blocks, with an unvarying transformation. ... In modern cryptography, symmetric key ciphers are generally divided into stream ciphers and block ciphers. ... This article is about the unit of information. ... In cryptography, the key size (alternatively key length) is a measure of the number of possible keys which can be used in a cipher. ... The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), the block cipher ratified as a standard by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), was chosen using a process markedly more open and transparent than its predecessor, the ageing Data Encryption Standard (DES). ... In cryptography, Blowfish is a keyed, symmetric block cipher, designed in 1993 by Bruce Schneier and included in a large number of cipher suites and encryption products. ...


Twofish's distinctive features are the use of pre-computed key-dependent S-boxes, and a relatively complex key schedule. One half of an n-bit key is used as the actual encryption key and the other half of the n-bit key is used to modify the encryption algorithm (key-dependent S-boxes). Twofish borrows some elements from other designs; for example, the pseudo-Hadamard transform (PHT) from the SAFER family of ciphers. Twofish uses the same Feistel structure as DES. In cryptography, a substitution box (or S-box) is a basic component of symmetric key algorithms. ... The key-schedule of DES (<<< denotes a left rotation) In cryptography, the so-called product ciphers are a certain kind of ciphers, where the (de-)ciphering of data is done in rounds. The general setup of each round is the same, except for some hard-coded parameters and a part... The Pseudo-Hadamard transform is a reversible transformation of a bit string that provides cryptographic diffusion. ... This article is about the encryption algorithm. ... In cryptography, a Feistel cipher is a block cipher with a particular structure, named after IBM cryptographer Horst Feistel; it is also commonly known as a Feistel network. ... The Data Encryption Standard (DES) is a cipher (a method for encrypting information) selected as an official Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) for the United States in 1976, and which has subsequently enjoyed widespread use internationally. ...


On most software platforms Twofish is slightly slower than Rijndael (the chosen algorithm for Advanced Encryption Standard) for 128-bit keys, but somewhat faster for 256-bit keys.[2] Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... This article is about the block cipher. ... In cryptography, the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), also known as Rijndael, is a block cipher adopted as an encryption standard by the U.S. government. ... A key is a piece of information that controls the operation of a cryptography algorithm. ...


Twofish was designed by Bruce Schneier, John Kelsey, Doug Whiting, David Wagner, Chris Hall, and Niels Ferguson; the "extended Twofish team" who met to perform further cryptanalysis of Twofish and other AES contest entrants included Stefan Lucks, Tadayoshi Kohno, and Mike Stay. Bruce Schneier Bruce Schneier (born January 15, 1963) is an American cryptographer, computer security specialist, and writer. ... John Kelsey is a cryptographer currently working at NIST. His research interests include cryptanalysis and design of symmetric cryptography primitives (block ciphers, stream ciphers, cryptographic hash functions, MACs), analysis and design of cryptographic protocols, cryptographic random number generation, electronic voting, side-channel attacks on cryptography implementations, and anonymizing communications systems. ... David Wagner David A. Wagner (1974) is an Assistant Professor of Computer Science at the University of California, Berkeley and a well-known researcher in cryptography. ... Niels Ferguson is a Dutch cryptographic engineer and consultant. ... Stefan Lucks is a cryptographer and cryptanalyst most well known for his attack on Triple DES, and for extending Lars Knudsens Square attack to Twofish a cipher outside the Square family, thus founding integral cryptanalysis. ...


The Twofish cipher has not been patented and the reference implementation is placed in the public domain, free to use for anyone. The algorithm is available by choice in many different encryption packages, though has seen less widespread usage than Blowfish, which has been available for a longer period of time. A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a state to a patentee for a fixed period of time in exchange for a disclosure of an invention. ... In computing, a reference implementation (or, infrequently, sample implementation) is a software example of a standard for use in helping others implement their own versions of the standard. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge&#8212;writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others&#8212;in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... In cryptography, Blowfish is a keyed, symmetric block cipher, designed in 1993 by Bruce Schneier and included in a large number of cipher suites and encryption products. ...

Contents

Cryptanalysis

As of 2007, the best published cryptanalysis on the Twofish block cipher is a truncated differential cryptanalysis of the full 16-round version. The paper claims that the probability of truncated differentials is 2-57.3 per block and that it will take roughly 251 chosen plaintexts (32 PiB worth of data) to find a good pair of truncated differentials.[1] Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... In cryptography, truncated differential cryptanalysis is a generalization of differential cryptanalysis, an attack against block ciphers. ... A pebibyte (a contraction of peta binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, abbreviated PiB. 1 pebibyte = 250 bytes = 1,125,899,906,842,624 bytes = 1,024 tebibytes The pebibyte is closely related to the petabyte, which can either be used as a popular – albeit inaccurate...


Bruce Schneier responds in a 2005 blog entry that this paper does not present a full cryptanalytic attack, but only some hypothesized differential characteristics. That is, from a practical perspective, Twofish isn't even remotely broken and there have been no extensions to these results since they were published in 2000.[3]


References

  1. ^ a b Shiho Moriai, Yiqun Lisa Yin (2000). "Cryptanalysis of Twofish (II)" (PDF). Retrieved on 2006-08-13.
  2. ^ Bruce Schneier, Doug Whiting (2000-04-07). "A Performance Comparison of the Five AES Finalists" (PDF/PostScript). Retrieved on 2006-08-13.
  3. ^ Schneier, Bruce (2005-11-23). Twofish Cryptanalysis Rumors. Schneier on Security blog. Retrieved on 2006-11-28.
  • Bruce Schneier, John Kelsey, Doug Whiting, David Wagner, Chris Hall, Niels Ferguson (1998-06-15). "The Twofish Encryption Algorithm" (PDF/PostScript). Retrieved on 2007-03-04.
  • Bruce Schneier, John Kelsey, Doug Whiting, David Wagner, Chris Hall, Niels Ferguson (1999-03-22). The Twofish Encryption Algorithm: A 128-Bit Block Cipher. New York City: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-35381-7. 

PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... PostScript (PS) is a page description language and programming language used primarily in the electronic and desktop publishing areas. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bruce Schneier Bruce Schneier (born January 15, 1963) is an American cryptographer, computer security specialist, and writer. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 28 is the 332nd day (333rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... PostScript (PS) is a page description language and programming language used primarily in the electronic and desktop publishing areas. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Wiley Building in Hoboken, New Jersey, located on the waterfront between River Street and Frank Sinatra Drive. ...

See also

In cryptography, the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), also known as Rijndael, is a block cipher adopted as an encryption standard by the U.S. government. ... The Data Encryption Standard (DES) is a cipher (a method for encrypting information) selected as an official Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) for the United States in 1976, and which has subsequently enjoyed widespread use internationally. ...

External links

  • Twofish web page with full specifications, free source code, and other Twofish resources.
  • David Wagner's sci.crypt post recommending AES over Twofish — Wagner was one of the designers of Twofish.
  • SCAN's entry for Twofish
Block ciphers
v  d  e
Algorithms: 3-Way | AES | Akelarre | Anubis | ARIA | BaseKing | Blowfish | C2 | Camellia | CAST-128 | CAST-256 | CIKS-1 | CIPHERUNICORN-A | CIPHERUNICORN-E | CMEA | Cobra | COCONUT98 | Crab | CRYPTON | CS-Cipher | DEAL | DES | DES-X | DFC | E2 | FEAL | FROG | G-DES | GOST | Grand Cru | Hasty Pudding Cipher | Hierocrypt | ICE | IDEA | IDEA NXT | Iraqi | Intel Cascade Cipher | KASUMI | KHAZAD | Khufu and Khafre | KN-Cipher | Libelle | LOKI89/91 | LOKI97 | Lucifer | M6 | MacGuffin | Madryga | MAGENTA | MARS | Mercy | MESH | MISTY1 | MMB | MWA | MULTI2 | NewDES | NOEKEON | NUSH | Q | RC2 | RC5 | RC6 | REDOC | Red Pike | S-1 | SAFER | SC2000 | SEED | Serpent | SHACAL | SHARK | Skipjack | SMS4 | Square | TEA | Triple DES | Twofish | UES | Xenon | xmx | XTEA | XXTEA | Zodiac
Design: Feistel network | Key schedule | Product cipher | S-box | SPN

Attacks: Brute force | Linear / Differential / Integral cryptanalysis | Mod n | Related-key | Slide | XSL Encryption Decryption In cryptography, a block cipher is a symmetric key cipher which operates on fixed-length groups of bits, termed blocks, with an unvarying transformation. ... In cryptography, 3-Way is a block cipher designed in 1994 by Joan Daemen, who also (with Vincent Rijmen) designed Rijndael, the winner of NISTs Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) contest. ... In cryptography, the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), also known as Rijndael, is a block cipher adopted as an encryption standard by the U.S. government. ... Akelarre is a block cipher proposed in 1996, and combined features from IDEA and RC5. ... Anubis is a block cipher designed by Vincent Rijmen and Paulo S. L. M. Barreto as an entrant in the NESSIE project. ... In cryptography, ARIA is a block cipher designed in 2003 by a large group of Korean researchers. ... In cryptography, BaseKing is a block cipher designed in 1994 by Joan Daemen. ... In cryptography, Blowfish is a keyed, symmetric block cipher, designed in 1993 by Bruce Schneier and included in a large number of cipher suites and encryption products. ... The Cryptomeria cipher, commonly refered to as C2 is a proprietary block cipher defined and licensed by the 4C Entity. ... In cryptography, Camellia is a block cipher that has been evaluated favorably by several organisations, including the European Unions NESSIE project (a selected algorithm), and the Japanese CRYPTREC project (a recommended algorithm). ... Three rounds of the CAST-128 block cipher In cryptography, CAST-128 (alternatively CAST5) is a block cipher used in a number of products, notably as the default cipher in some versions of GPG and PGP. It has also been approved for Canadian government use by the Communications Security Establishment. ... In cryptography, CAST-256 (or CAST6) is a block cipher published in June 1998 and submitted as a candidate for the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). ... In cryptography, CIKS-1 is a block cipher designed in 2002 by A.A. Moldovyan and N.A. Moldovyan. ... In cryptography, CIPHERUNICORN-A is a block cipher created by NEC in 2000. ... In cryptography, CIPHERUNICORN-E is a block cipher created by NEC in 1998. ... In cryptography, the Cellular Message Encryption Algorithm (CMEA) is a block cipher which was used for securing mobile phones in the United States. ... In cryptography, Cobra is the general name of a family of data-dependent permutation based block ciphers: Cobra-128, Cobra-F64a, Cobra-F64b, Cobra-H64 and Cobra-H128. ... In cryptography, COCONUT98 (Cipher Organized with Cute Operations and N-Universal Transformation) is a block cipher designed by Serge Vaudenay in 1998. ... In cryptography, Crab is a block cipher created by Burt Kaliski and Matt Robshaw in 1993. ... In particle physics, the crypton is a hypothetical superheavy particle, thought to exist in a hidden sector of string theory. ... In cryptography, the CS-Cipher is a block cipher invented by Jacques Stern and Serge Vaudenay in 1998. ... Deal can refer to: an agreement reached after negotiation, for example a contract to sell as a dealer or dealership a bargain a situation, as in whats the deal with the Johnson account ?. a problem, as in whats your deal ?. Deal$, a U.S. dollar store a Deal... The Data Encryption Standard (DES) is a cipher (a method for encrypting information) selected as an official Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) for the United States in 1976, and which has subsequently enjoyed widespread use internationally. ... In cryptography, DES-X (or DESX) is a variant on the DES (Data Encryption Standard) block cipher intended to increase the complexity of a brute force attack using a technique called key whitening. ... In cryptography, DFC (Decorrelated Fast Cipher) is a block cipher which was created in 1998 by a group of researchers at École Normale Supérieure and submitted to the AES competition. ... In cryptography, E2 is a block cipher which was created in 1998 by NTT and submitted to the AES competition. ... General Designer(s) Akihiro Shimizu and Shoji Miyaguchi (NTT) First published FEAL-4 in 1987; FEAL-N/NX in 1990 Derived from - Cipher(s) based on this design - Algorithm detail Block size(s) 64 bits Key size(s) 64 bits (128 bits for FEAL-NX) Structure Feistel network Number of... Distribution of frogs (in black) Suborders Archaeobatrachia Mesobatrachia Neobatrachia - List of Anuran families The frogness babe is an amphibian in the order Anura (meaning tail-less from Greek an-, without + oura, tail), formerly referred to as Salientia (Latin saltare, to jump). ... In cryptography, the Generalized DES Scheme (G-DES or GDES) is a variant of the DES block cipher designed to speed-up the encryption. ... Diagram of GOST In cryptography, GOST (Russian ГОСТ) (GOsudarstvennyi STandard, Russian for Government Standard) is a symmetric key block cipher published in 1990 as the Soviet standard (GOST 28147-89). ... In cryptography, Grand Cru is a block cipher invented in 2000 by Johan Borst. ... The Hasty Pudding Cipher (abbreviated HPC) is a variable-block-size block cipher which was an unsuccessful candidate in the competition for selecting the U.S. Advanced Encryption Standard. ... In cryptography, Hierocrypt-L1 and Hierocrypt-3 are block ciphers created by Toshiba in 2000. ... General Designer(s) Matthew Kwan First published 1997 Derived from (DES) Cipher(s) based on this design - Algorithm detail Block size(s) 64 bits Key size(s) 64 bits for ICE, 64n for ICE-n Structure Feistel network Number of rounds 16 for ICE, 8 for Thin-ICE, 16n for... In cryptography, the International Data Encryption Algorithm (IDEA) is a block cipher designed by Xuejia Lai (來學嘉) and James L. Massey of ETH Zurich and was first described in 1991. ... In cryptography, the IDEA NXT algorithm (previously known as FOX) is a block cipher designed by Pascal Junod and Serge Vaudenay of EPFL (Lausanne, Switzerland). ... In cryptography, the Intel Cascaded Cipher, is a relatively new, high bandwidth block cipher, used as an optional component of the Output Content Protection DRM scheme of the Microsoft Windows Vista operating system. ... In cryptography, KASUMI, also termed A5/3, is a block cipher used in the confidentiality (f8) and integrity algorithms (f9) for 3GPP mobile communications. ... In cryptography, KHAZAD is a block cipher designed by Paulo S. L. M. Barreto together with Vincent Rijmen, one of the designers of the Advanced Encryption Standard (Rijndael). ... In cryptography, Khufu and Khafre are two block ciphers designed by Ralph Merkle in 1989 while working at Xeroxs Palo Alto Research Center. ... In cryptography, KN-Cipher is a block cipher created by Kaisa Nyberg and Lars Knudsen in 1995. ... Libelle is a German cipher system, developed by the Federal Office for Information Security. ... It has been suggested that Loki and the dwarfs be merged into this article or section. ... In cryptography, LOKI97 is a block cipher which was a candidate in the Advanced Encryption Standard competition. ... In cryptography, Lucifer was the name given to several of the earliest civilian block ciphers, developed by Horst Feistel and his colleagues at IBM. Lucifer was a direct precursor to the Data Encryption Standard. ... In cryptography, M6 is a block cipher proposed by Hitachi in 1997 for use in the IEEE 1394 FireWire standard. ... In cryptography, MacGuffin is a block cipher created in 1994 by Bruce Schneier and Matt Blaze at a Fast Software Encryption workshop. ... In cryptography, Madryga is a block cipher created in 1984 by W. E. Madryga. ... Magenta is a color made up of equal parts of red and blue light. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... In cryptography, Mercy is a block cipher designed by Paul Crowley for disk encryption. ... In cryptography, MESH is a block cipher designed in 2002 by Jorge Nakahara, Jr. ... In cryptography, MISTY1 (or MISTY-1) is a block cipher designed in 1995 by Mitsuru Matsui and others for Mitsubishi Electric. ... In cryptography, MMB (Modular Multiplication-based Block cipher) is a block cipher designed by Joan Daemen as an improved replacement for the IDEA cipher. ... This article is about the MWA encryption algorithm. ... MULTI2 is a block cipher, developed by Hitachi in 1988. ... In cryptography, NewDES is a symmetric key block cipher. ... Noekeon is a block cipher with a block and key length of 128 bits. ... In cryptography, NUSH is a block cipher invented by Anatoly Lebedev and Alexey Volchkov for LAN Crypto, a Russian company. ... In cryptography, Q is a block cipher invented by Leslie McBride. ... In cryptography, RC2 is a block cipher designed by Ron Rivest in 1987. ... RC5 is a block cipher notable for its simplicity. ... In cryptography, RC6 is a symmetric key block cipher derived from RC5. ... In cryptography, REDOC II and REDOC III are block ciphers designed by Michael Wood for Cryptech Inc and are optimised for use in software. ... Red Pike is a classified United Kingdom government cipher, proposed for use by the National Health Service by GCHQ, but designed for a broad range of applications in the British government [1]. Little is publicly known about Red Pike, except that it is a block cipher with a 64-bit... Uplandia Regiment, or Upplands regemente, also S 1, is a Swedish Army signaling regiment that traces its origins back to the 19th Century. ... This article is about the encryption algorithm. ... In cryptography, SC2000 is a block cipher invented by a research group at Fujitsu Labs. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... Serpent is a symmetric key block cipher which was a finalist in the Advanced Encryption Standard contest, where it came second to Rijndael. ... SHACAL-1 and SHACAL-2 are block ciphers based on cryptographic hash function from the SHA family. ... Orders Carcharhiniformes Heterodontiformes Hexanchiformes Lamniformes Orectolobiformes Pristiophoriformes Squaliformes Squatiniformes Symmoriida(extinct) Sharks (superorder Selachimorpha) are fish with a full cartilaginous skeleton[1] and a streamlined body. ... In cryptography, Skipjack is a block cipher — an algorithm for encryption — developed by the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA). ... SMS4 is a block cipher used in Chinese National Standard for Wireless LAN WAPI (Wired Authentication and Privacy Infrastructure). ... In cryptography, Square (sometimes written SQUARE) is a block cipher invented by Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen. ... General Designer(s) Roger Needham and David Wheeler First published 1994 Derived from - Cipher(s) based on this design XTEA Algorithm detail Block size(s) 64 bits Key size(s) 128 bits Structure Feistel network Number of rounds variable; recommended 64 Feistel rounds; 32 cycles Best cryptanalysis TEA suffers from... In cryptography, Triple DES (also 3DES) is a block cipher formed from the Data Encryption Standard (DES) cipher. ... This article is about the block cipher. ... In cryptography, Xenon is a block cipher designed in 2000 by Chang-Hyi Lee for the Korean firm SoftForum. ... In cryptography, xmx is a block cipher designed in 1997 by David MRaïhi, David Naccache, Jacques Stern, and Serge Vaudenay. ... General Designer(s) Roger Needham and David Wheeler First published 1997 Derived from Tiny Encryption Algorithm (TEA) Cipher(s) based on this design - Algorithm detail Block size(s) 64 bits Key size(s) 128 bits Structure Feistel network Number of rounds variable; recommended 64 Feistel rounds; 32 cycles Best cryptanalysis... In cryptography, Corrected Block TEA (often referred to as XXTEA) is a block cipher designed to correct weaknesses in the original Block TEA (Tiny Encryption Algorithm), which was first published together with a paper on ‘Tea extensions’. The cipher’s designers were Roger Needham and David Wheeler of the Cambridge... In cryptography, Zodiac is a block cipher designed in 2000 by Chang-Hyi Lee for the Korean firm SoftForum. ... In cryptography, a Feistel cipher is a block cipher with a symmetric structure, named after IBM cryptographer Horst Feistel; it is also commonly known as a Feistel network. ... The key-schedule of DES (<<< denotes a left rotation) In cryptography, the so-called product ciphers are a certain kind of ciphers, where the (de-)ciphering of data is done in rounds. The general setup of each round is the same, except for some hard-coded parameters and a part... In cryptography, a product cipher is a popular type of block cipher that works by executing in sequence a number of simple transformations such as substitution, permutation, and modular arithmetic. ... In cryptography, a substitution box (or S-box) is a basic component of symmetric key algorithms. ... In cryptography, an SP-network, or substitution-permutation network (SPN), is a series of linked mathematical operations used in block cipher algorithms such as AES. These networks consist of S-boxes and P-boxes that transform blocks of input bits into output bits. ... The EFFs US$250,000 DES cracking machine contained over 1,800 custom chips and could brute force a DES key in a matter of days — the photograph shows a DES Cracker circuit board fitted with several Deep Crack chips. ... In cryptography, linear cryptanalysis is a general form of cryptanalysis based on finding affine approximations to the action of a cipher. ... Differential cryptanalysis is a general form of cryptanalysis applicable primarily to block ciphers, but also to stream ciphers and cryptographic hash functions. ... In cryptography, integral cryptanalysis is a cryptanalytic attack that is particularly applicable to block ciphers based around Substitution-permutation networks. ... Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, hidden, and analýein, to loosen or to untie) is the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information, without access to the secret information which is normally required to do so. ... In cryptography, mod n cryptanalysis is an attack applicable to block and stream ciphers. ... In cryptography, a related-key attack is any form of cryptanalysis where the attacker can observe the operation of a cipher under several different keys whose values are initially unknown, but where some mathematical relationship connecting the keys is known to the attacker. ... The idea of the slide attack was originally published by Edna Grossman and Bryant Tuckerman in an IBM Technical Report in 1977. ... New Scientist magazine featured the XSL attack in June 2003 with an article billed as Cipher crisis: the end of internet privacy. In cryptography, the XSL attack is a method of cryptanalysis for block ciphers. ...

Standardization: AES process | CRYPTREC | NESSIE

Misc: Avalanche effect | Block size | IV | Key size | Modes of operation | Piling-up lemma | Weak key The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), the block cipher ratified as a standard by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), was chosen using a process markedly more open and transparent than its predecessor, the ageing Data Encryption Standard (DES). ... CRYPTREC is the Cryptography Research and Evaluation Committee set up by the Japanese Government to evaluate and recommend cryptographic techniques for government and industrial use. ... NESSIE (New European Schemes for Signatures, Integrity and Encryption) was a European research project funded from 2000&#8211;2003 to identify secure cryptographic primitives. ... This article is about cryptography; for other meanings, see snowball effect. ... In modern cryptography, symmetric key ciphers are generally divided into stream ciphers and block ciphers. ... In cryptography, an initialization vector (IV) is a block of bits that is required to allow a stream cipher or a block cipher executed in any of several streaming modes of operation to produce a unique stream independent from other streams produced by the same encryption key, without having to... In cryptography, the key size (alternatively key length) is a measure of the number of possible keys which can be used in a cipher. ... In cryptography, a block cipher operates on blocks of fixed length, often 64 or 128 bits. ... In cryptanalysis, the piling-up lemma is a principle used in linear cryptanalysis to construct linear approximations to the action of block ciphers. ... In cryptography, a weak key is a key which when used with a specific cipher, makes the cipher behave in some undesirable way. ...

Cryptography
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History of cryptography | Cryptanalysis | Cryptography portal | Topics in cryptography
Symmetric-key algorithm | Block cipher | Stream cipher | Public-key cryptography | Cryptographic hash function | Message authentication code | Random numbers

  Results from FactBites:
 
Twofish - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (259 words)
Twofish is related to the earlier block cipher Blowfish.
Twofish's distinctive features are the use of pre-computed key-dependent S-boxes, and a relatively complex key schedule.
Twofish was designed by Bruce Schneier, John Kelsey, Doug Whiting, David Wagner, Chris Hall, and Niels Ferguson; the "extended Twofish team" who met to perform further cryptanalysis of Twofish and other AES contest entrants included Stefan Lucks, Tadayoshi Kohno, and Mike Stay.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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