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Encyclopedia > Two Sicilies
The Two Sicilies
The Two Sicilies

The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Italian: il Regno delle Due Sicilie) was the new name that the Bourbon King Ferdinand IV of Naples bestowed upon his domain (including Southern Italy and the island of Sicily) after the end of the Napoleonic Era and the full restoration of his power in 1816. The capital city of the kingdom was Naples. Kingdom of the Two Sicilies File links The following pages link to this file: Two Sicilies ... Kingdom of the Two Sicilies File links The following pages link to this file: Two Sicilies ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house. ... King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies (January 12, 1751 - January 4, 1825). ... Southern Italy, often referred to in Italian as the Mezzogiorno (a term first used in 19th century in comparison with French Midi ) encompasses six of the countrys 20 regions: Basilicata Campania Calabria Puglia Sicilia Sardinia Sicilia although it is geographically and administratively included in Insular Italy, it has a... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian, Σικελία in Greek) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,700 km² and 5 million inhabitants. ... The Napoleonic Era is a period in the History of France and Europe. ... 1816 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Bay of Naples Naples (Italian: , Neapolitan: Nàpule, from Greek Νεάπολη < Νέα Πόλις Néa Pólis New City) is the largest city in southern Italy and capital of the Campania region and the Province of Naples. ...

Contents

Origin of the Two Sicilies

Before the French invasions of the Napoleonic Era, the Bourbon dynasty ruled over the same lands, but they were formally divided into the "Kingdom of Naples" and the "Kingdom of Sicily". After the change in the name of the kingdom, Ferdinand became known as King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies. Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house. ... The Kingdom of Naples was born out of the division of the Kingdom of Sicily after the Sicilian Vespers rebellion of 1282. ... The following is a list of monarchs of Naples and Sicily: See also: List of Counts of Apulia and Calabria Hauteville Counts of Sicily, 1071-1130 Roger I 1071-1101 Simon 1101-1105 Roger II 1105-1130 Hauteville Kings of Sicily, 1130-1198 Roger II 1130-1154 William I 1154... King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies (January 12, 1751 - January 4, 1825). ...


Flags of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

History of the name

The name Two Sicilies derived from the splitting of the Kingdom of Sicily in 1282. Though ruled as a unit for a century and a half, the island and mainland parted ways when the Sicilian Vespers rose up and threw off Neapolitan rule, accepting in its stead Aragon. The Angevin Kings of Naples retained the mainland and continued the name Kingdom of Sicily in order to assert their claim; for some time the southern peninsula was known as the Kingdom of Sicily this side of Cape Faro, for the lighthouse on the mainland side of the Strait of Messina, although the Kingdom of Sicily per se did not use the name. The two kingdoms were not under the same ruler until 1735 under Charles (to become later Charles III of Spain), and were not legally reunited until after the 1815 Congress of Vienna. Between 1816 and 1848 the island of Sicily experienced no less than three popular revolts against Bourbon rule, including the revolution of independence of 1848, when the island was fully independent of Bourbon control for 16 months. Apart from having occurred at an interesting point in European history (see Revolutions of 1848), there is a clear link between this revolution and the more well known historical event that was to occur 11 years hence (the Risorgimento). The following is a list of monarchs of Naples and Sicily: See also: List of Counts of Apulia and Calabria Hauteville Counts of Sicily, 1071-1130 Roger I 1071-1101 Simon 1101-1105 Roger II 1105-1130 Hauteville Kings of Sicily, 1130-1198 Roger II 1130-1154 William I 1154... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Sicilian Vespers (1846), by Francesco Hayez The Sicilian Vespers is the name given to a rebellion in Sicily in 1282 against the rule of the Angevin king Charles I, who had taken control of the island with Papal support in 1266. ... The Bay of Naples Naples (Italian: , Neapolitan: Nàpule, from Greek Νεάπολη < Νέα Πόλις Néa Pólis New City) is the largest city in southern Italy and capital of the Campania region and the Province of Naples. ... King of Aragons arms in 15th century The Crown of Aragon or Aragonese Empire was the regime of a large portion of what is now Spain, plus numerous Mediterranean possessions, for much of the later Middle Ages. ... Angevin (IPA: ) is the name applied to the residents of Anjou, a former province of the Kingdom of France, as well as to the residents of Angers. ... The Kingdom of Naples was born out of the division of the Kingdom of Sicily after the Sicilian Vespers rebellion of 1282. ... The Peggys Point lighthouse in Nova Scotia, Canada An aid for navigation and pilotage at sea, a lighthouse is a tower building or framework sending out light from a system of lamps and lenses or, in older times, from a fire. ... Satellite photo of the Strait of Messina, taken June 2002. ... The following is a list of monarchs of Naples and Sicily: See also: List of Counts of Apulia and Calabria Hauteville Counts of Sicily, 1071-1130 Roger I 1071-1101 Simon 1101-1105 Roger II 1105-1130 Hauteville Kings of Sicily, 1130-1198 Roger II 1130-1154 William I 1154... Events April 16 - The London premiere of Alcina by George Frideric Handel, his first the first Italian opera for the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden. ... Charles III of Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Battle of New Orleans 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1819. ... 1816 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian, Σικελία in Greek) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,700 km² and 5 million inhabitants. ... The Sicilian revolution of independence of 1848 occurred in a year replete with revolutions and popular revolts. ... 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Italian unification process. ...


Kings of the Two Sicilies, 1816-1861

In 1860-1861 the kingdom was conquered by the Kingdom of Sardinia, and the title dropped. King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies (January 12, 1751 - January 4, 1825). ... Francis I (Francesco Gennaro Giuseppe, August 14, 1777 – November 8, 1830) was King of the Two Sicilies from 1825 to 1830. ... Ferdinand II (Ferdinando Carlo, January 12, 1810 – May 22, 1859) was the King of the Two Sicilies (Southern Italy) from 1830 until his death. ... Francis II (Francesco dAssisi Maria Leopoldo, January 16, 1836 – December 27, 1894), was King of the Two Sicilies from 1859 to 1861. ... Kingdom of Sardinia, in 1839: Mainland Piedmont, with Savoia upper left (pink) and Nizza (Nice) lower left (brown) both now French, and Sardinia in the inset The Kingdom of Sardinia is a former kingdom in Italy. ...


Other people of the House of Two Sicilies include:

  • Maria Christina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies (1806-1878)

Maria Christina, Queen Regent of Spain Maria Christina, Princess of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Queen of Spain (Maria Cristina Ferdinanda of the Two Sicilies branch of the Royal House of Bourbon) (April 27, 1806–August 22, 1878) was Queen Consort of Spain (1829 to 1833) and Queen Regent of Spain (1833...

Grand Master of Constantinian Order of St George

An important prerogative of the Head of this house is that of Grand Master of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George, and it has survived the 1861 loss of kingdom. This dignity is an ecclesiastical office, "crusader" one, Roman Catholic, invested in the House of Farnese and its heirs by the Papal Brief Sincerae Fidei of 1699, the Imperial Bull Agnoscimus et notum facimus of the same year and the Papal Bull Militantis Ecclesiae of 1718. The succession of the Infante D. Carlos de Borbón y Farnese (afterwards known as Charles I, Duke of Parma, then Charles VII, King of Sicily and Naples, and ultimately as king Charles III of Spain) to this benefice of the Farnese, as the eldest son and heir of Elisabeth Farnese, was approved by Papal Bull of 1739, and that of his third son Ferdinand IV and III of Naples and Sicily in 1763. This dignity, whose descent by male primogeniture is governed by Canon law (Catholic Church), became in practice a part of Two Sicilies monarchy. Dynastic Orders of Knighthood are a category of order belonging to the heraldic patrimony of a dynasty, often held by ancient right. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... The Farnese family was an influential family in Renaissance Italy. ... In the Spanish and former Portuguese monarchies, Infante (masc. ... Charles III of Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Originally a benefice was a gift of land for life as a reward (Latin beneficium, means to do well) for services rendered. ... Canon Law is the ecclesiastical law of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


It was neither mentioned in nor could it have been affected by the 1900 Act of Cannes, since it was not only a separate and autonomous dignity governed by its own laws, but it is contrary to canon law to undertake to make an anticipatory renunciation of an ecclesiastical office.


Heads of the Royal House of the Two Sicilies, 1861-present

  • 1861-1894: Francis II
  • 1894-1931: Prince Alfonso, Count of Caserta
  • 1931-1960: Prince Ferdinand, Duke of Castro, Duke of Calabria
  • 1960-present: Disputed Claim: currently between Prince Ferdinand, Duke of Castro, and Infante Carlos, Duke of Calabria.

Upon Ferdinando Pio's death in 1960, there was a dispute about who inherited the headship of the house. Ferdinando's next brother Carlo had, in anticipation of his marriage to the eldest sister and heiress presumptive of King Alfonso XIII of Spain, signed the so-called Act of Cannes on 14 December 1900: Francis II (Francesco dAssisi Maria Leopoldo, January 16, 1836 – December 27, 1894), was King of the Two Sicilies from 1859 to 1861. ... Infanta Maria de las Mercedes of Spain (1880–1904), Princess of the Asturias, for all 24 years of her life the Heiress Presumptive of the Spanish royal crown, and for a period in 1885–1886, the extant Head of the State of Spain, was born as Doña María... An Heir Presumptive (capitalised) is the person provisionally scheduled to inherit a throne, peerage, or other hereditary honor, but whose position can be displaced by the birth of an Heir Apparent or of a new Heir Presumptive with a better claim to the throne. ... Alfonso XIII of Spain (May 17, 1886 – February 28, 1941), King of Spain, posthumous son of Alfonso XII of Spain, was proclaimed King at his birth. ... December 14 is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ...

...Here present is His Royal Highness Prince Don Carlo our dearest loved Son and he has declared that he shall be entering into marriage with Her Royal Highness the Infanta Doña Maria Mercedes, Princess of the Asturias, and assuming by that marriage the nationality and quality of Spanish Prince, intends to renounce, and by this present act solemnly renounces for Himself and for his Heirs and Successors to any right and rights to the eventual succession to the Crown of the Two Sicilies and to all the Properties of the Royal House found in Italy and elsewhere and this according to our laws, constitutions and customs of the Family and in execution of the Pragmatic Decree of King Charles III, Our August ancestor, of the 6th October 1759, to whose prescriptions he declares freely and explicitly to subscribe to and obey.[1]

The laws of the deposed Sicilian dynasty and Spain's Pragmatic Decree, however, required a renunciation only in very limited circumstances: the actual union of the Crown of the Two Sicilies in the person of the King of Spain or his heir apparent, which had not happened in 1900 nor did it occur subsequently. Furthermore, this act was signed subsequent to the agreement by marriage contract between the Count of Caserta (the father of prince Carlo, then head of the Royal House in exile), and the Queen Regent of Spain, which specifically excluded the need for a dynastic renunciation to the non-existent throne. Prince Carlo was created an Infante of Spain, a title held by several other princes of the Two Sicilies in the past, but with his wife's death and the birth of a Prince of Asturias (and three other sons) to the King and Queen of Spain, the possibility of him becoming king consort and his son becoming both King of Spain and pretender to the Two Sicilies, receded. All the descendants of King Francis I of the Two Sicilies by his wife, Infanta Isabel, already enjoyed a right to the Spanish throne by virtue of the royal constitutions of 1837, 1845 and 1876. Contrasting with heir presumptive, an heir apparent is one who cannot be prevented from inheriting by the birth of any other person. ... In the Spanish and former Portuguese monarchies, Infante (masc. ... HRH The Prince of Asturias The title Prince of Asturias is given to the heir apparent to the Spanish throne, and the earlier kingdom of León. ... A consort is somebodys spouse, usually a royalty. ... A Pretender is a claimant to an abolished or already occupied throne. ...

Calabria line

Prince Carlo's son, Infante Don Alfonso, became the senior male of the house on the death of his uncle, Ferdinando Pio, Duke of Calabria, in 1960 and was proclaimed Head of the Royal House of the Two Sicilies, with the recognition of the Heads of the royal houses of Spain, Parma and Portugal, and the senior line (Bourbon) pretender to the throne of France. Prince Carlo and his descendants continued to be included as Princes of the Two Sicilies in the Almanach de Gotha from 1901-1944, and in the Libro d'Oro of the Italian Nobility from the first edition in 1907 until 1964, at which time the editor came out in support of the cadet line claimant. Infante Don Alfonso took the title of Duke of Calabria, considering that the title of Duke of Castro (a Farnese inheritance) had been lost with the sale of the last portions of the duchy to the Italian government in 1941 (a sale from which Prince Carlo received his portion of the proceeds, along with his brothers and sisters, although if the alleged renunciation of 1900 had been valid he would not have been entitled to do so). Prince Carlo married as his second wife, in 1907, Princess Louise of Orléans, and by her had a son (Carlos, killed in the Spanish Civil War) and three daughters (of whom Princess Maria Mercedes married Juan, Count of Barcelona and was the mother of King Juan Carlos I of Spain, and Princess Esperanza married Prince Pedro Gastão of Orléans-Braganza). The descent in the senior line is as follows: The Almanach de Gotha was a directory of Europes nobility first published in 1763 at the ducal court of Friedrich III of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (which included the city of Gotha). ... The Libro dOro (Italian: Golden Book) as list of the noblemen existed in many italian states and cities. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Spanish Republic CNT-FAI UGT POUM Soviet Union International Brigades Spanish State Falangists Carlists Fascist Italy Nazi Germany Commanders Manuel Azaña Francisco Largo Caballero Juan Negrín Francisco Franco Casualties Civilians killed/wounded = hundreds of thousands The Spanish Civil War, which lasted from July 17, 1936 to April... The Infante Don Juan of Spain, Count of Barcelona, (Juan Carlos Teresa Silvestre Alfonso de Borbón y Battenberg) (June 20, 1913 – April 1, 1993), was the fourth son and designated heir of King Alfonso XIII of Spain and Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg, the monarch replaced by the Second Spanish... Juan Carlos I, King of Spain (baptized as Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón-Orleans; IPA: ) was born 5 January 1938 in Rome and is the reigning King of Spain (Rey de España). ... Prince Pedro Gastão of Orléans-Braganza (born Pedro de Alcántara Gastão João Maria Felipe Lourenço Humberto Miguel Gabriel Raphael Gonzaga de Orléans e Bragança on 19th February 1913 in Eu, France) is the titular 6th Prince of Grão Pará, and head...

The latter's immediate heir is Pedro, Duke of Noto, married to D. Sofia de Landaluce y Melgarejo (a descendant through her mother of the Dukes of San Fernando de Quiroga). Infante Alfonso, Duke of Calabria (30 November 1901- 3 February 1964), was one of two claimants to the title of the head of House of Bourbon Two Sicilies from 1960 till his death. ... Infante Don Carlos of Spain, Prince of the Two Sicilies, Duke of Calabria (Carlos Maria Alfonso Marcel de Borbon-Dos Sicilias y de Borbon-Parma) (born January 16, 1938 in Lausanne) is the son of Don Alfonso of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Duke of Calabria (1901-1964) and Princess Alice of... Elias of Bourbon, Titular Duke of Parma (1880-1959) was the head of the Bourbon House of Parma. ... Infante Don Carlos of Spain, Prince of the Two Sicilies, Duke of Calabria (Carlos Maria Alfonso Marcel de Borbon-Dos Sicilias y de Borbon-Parma) (born January 16, 1938 in Lausanne) is the son of Don Alfonso of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Duke of Calabria (1901-1964) and Princess Alice of...


According to the Roman Catholic canon law, they succeeded as Grand Masters of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George.


Most of the rest of the Bourbon-Two Sicilies family rejected Alfonso's claims, however, and recognized Ranieri, the next surviving brother of Ferdinando Pio, as head of the house. Ranieri took the style of "Duke of Castro" as his title of pretence. The representatives of the junior branch are as follows:

  • 1960-1966: Prince Ranieri, Duke of Castro (Died 1973), married to Countess Carolina Zamoyska (whose mother was a Bourbon-Sicily princess).
  • 1966-present: Prince Ferdinand Maria, Duke of Castro, who has one son and two daughters, including Princess Beatrice, the former wife of Prince Charles Napoléon.

They also claim the office of the Grand Master of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George. Napoléon VII, Prince Imperial (Charles Marie Jérôme Victor Napoléon) (born 19 October 1950) is a French politician, and claims to be the current head of the Imperial House of France as heir male to the rights and legacy established by his great-great-great uncle, Emperor...


Current lines of succession

Part of a series on:
Orders of Succession
Former Monarchies

Albania
Austria-Hungary
Bavaria
Brazil
Bulgaria
Ethiopia
France (Bonapartist)
France (Legitimist)
France (Orléanist)
Germany/Prussia
Greece
Hanover
Iraq
Italy
Montenegro
Portugal (Miguelist)
Portugal in 1910
Romania
Russia
Saxony
Tuscany
Two Sicilies
Württemberg
Yugoslavia
An order of succession is a formula or algorithm that determines who inherits an office upon the death, resignation, or removal of its current occupant. ... Throughout history, many of the worlds monarchies have been abolished, either through legislative reforms, coups detat, or wars. ... The dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary was abolished in 1918. ... The monarchy of Bavaria abolished in 1918, the current pretender is Franz, Duke of Bavaria. ... In French political history, Bonapartists were monarchists who desired a French Empire under the House of Bonaparte, the Corsican family of Napoleon Bonaparte (Napoleon I of France) and his nephew Louis (Napoleon III of France). ... Legitimists are those Royalists in France who believe that the King of France and Navarre must be chosen according to the simple application of the Salic Law. ... Orleanists comprised a French political faction or party which arose out of the Revolution, and ceased to have a separate existence shortly after the establishment of the Third Republic in 1872. ... The Monarchy of Germany and Prussia were abolished in 1918. ... The Monarchy of Hanover was abolished in 1866 and the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg in 1918. ... The Montenegrin monarchy was overthrown in 1918 the current pretender and head of the House of Petrović-Njegoš, is Nikola, Crown Prince of Montenegro. ... Miguel of Portugal (English: Michael), the Traditionalist (Port. ... The Kingdom of Saxony was abolished in 1918 when King Frederick Augustus III of Saxony abdicated. ... The present head of the Grand Ducal House of Tuscany is Archduke Sigismund, Grand Duke of Tuscany. ... The Two Sicilies The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Italian: il Regno delle Due Sicilie) was the new name that the Bourbon King Ferdinand IV of Naples bestowed upon his domain (including Southern Italy and the island of Sicily) after the end of the Napoleonic Era and the full restoration... The monarchy of Württemberg was abolished in 1918. ... The Monarchy of Yugoslavia was abolished in 1945. ...

see also:
Monarchies
Presidencies

To Prince Ferdinand, Duke of Castro:

  1. Prince Carlo of Two Sicilies, Duke of Calabria (born 1963), married to Camilla Crociani
  2. Prince Antoine of the Two Sicilies (born 1929), married to Duchess Elizabeth of Wurttemberg
  3. Prince François of the Two Sicilies (born 1960), married to Countess Alexandra of Schönborn-Wiesentheid
  4. Prince Antoine of the Two Sicilies (born 2003)
  5. Prince Gennaro of the Two Sicilies (born 1966)
  6. Prince Casimir of the Two Sicilies (born 1938)
  7. Prince Louis of the Two Sicilies (born 1970) married to Christine Apovian
  8. Prince Alexander of the Two Sicilies (born 1974)

To Infante Carlos, Duke of Calabria Schönborn-Wiesentheid was a County of northwestern Bavaria, Germany, comprising of various isolated districts spanning from the Regnitz River to the Main River east of Würzburg. ...

  1. Prince Pedro, Duke of Noto married to D. Sofia de Landaluce y Melgarejo
  2. Prince Ferdinando, Duke of Castro, married to Chantal de Chevron-Villette (died 2005)
  3. Prince Carlo of Two Sicilies, Duke of Calabria (born 1963), married to Camilla Crociani
  4. Prince Antoine of the Two Sicilies (born 1929), married to Duchess Elizabeth of Wurttemberg
  5. Prince François of the Two Sicilies (born 1960), married to Countess Alexandra of Schönborn-Wiesentheid
  6. Prince Antoine of the Two Sicilies (born 2003)
  7. Prince Gennaro of the Two Sicilies (born 1966)
  8. Prince Casimir of the Two Sicilies (born 1938)
  9. Prince Louis of the Two Sicilies (born 1970) married to Christine Apovian
  10. Prince Alexander of the Two Sicilies (born 1974)

Schönborn-Wiesentheid was a County of northwestern Bavaria, Germany, comprising of various isolated districts spanning from the Regnitz River to the Main River east of Würzburg. ...

See also

  • Historical states of Italy.

To meet Wikipedias quality standards and make it more accessible to a general audience, this article may require cleanup. ...

External links

Some cultural websites about the history of Naples and Sicily:

  • Associazione culturale neoborbonica - Southern Italian "neo-Bourbonist" site, making a case for a positive view of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Mostly in Italian, some pages in English. (Italian) / (English)
  • Brigantino - Il portale del Sud - A massive Italian-language site dedicated to History, Culture and Arts of southern Italy. (Italian)
  • Casa Editoriale Il Giglio - An Italian publisher that focuses its production upon history, culture and the arts in the Two Sicilies. (Italian)
  • Bookshop Neapolis - The website of a bookshop, located in the heart of the historical center of Naples, specialized in History and Culture of Naples and Southern Italy (mainly in Italian). (Italian) / (English)
  • Edoardo Spagnuolo website - A websites with many historical documents about the rebellions against invasion in 1860, with particular interest in the region of Irpinia. (Italian)
  • La Voce di Megaride - A website dedicated to Napoli and Southern Italy, by Marina Salvadore. (Italian)
  • Associazione culturale "Amici di Angelo Manna" - A website dedicated to the work of volcanic Angelo Manna, historian, poet, deputy. (Italian)
  • Fora! The e-journal of Nicola Zitara - Large amount of articles about Southern Italy's Culture and History by prof. Nicola Zitara. (Italian)
  • Regalis Italian dynastic history, with sections on the House of the Two Sicilies. (English)


The headship of the house is in dispute between two branches of the family::

Further reading

  • Sainty, Guy Stair, KStJT, The Orders of Chivalry and Merit of the Bourbon Two Sicilies Dynasty, Madrid, 1989,ISBN 84-599-2739-3

References

  1. ^ Sainty, Guy Stair. ChivalricOrders.org. The Two Sicilies Succession. Guy Stair Sainty. Retrieved on 2000-October-10.

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The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Italian: il Regno delle Due Sicilie) was the new name that the Bourbon King Ferdinand IV of Naples bestowed upon his domain (including Southern Italy and the island of Sicily) after the end of the Napoleonic Era and the full restoration of his power in 1816.
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