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Encyclopedia > Twin Galaxies

Twin Galaxies is an American organization that tracks video game world records and conducts a program of electronic-gaming promotions. It operates the Twin Galaxies website and publishes the Twin Galaxies' Official Video Game & Pinball Book of World Records, with a recent Arcade Volume released on June 2, 2007. Computer and video games redirects here. ... A world record is the best performance in a certain discipline, usually a sports event. ...



During the summer of 1981, Walter Day, founder of Twin Galaxies, visited more than 100 video game arcades over four months, recording the high scores that he found on each game. On November 10, he opened his own arcade in Ottumwa, Iowa, naming it Twin Galaxies. On February 9, 1982, his database of records was released publicly as the Twin Galaxies National Scoreboard. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Centipede by Atari is a typical example of a 1980s era arcade game. ... High score of the Commodore 64 game Great Giana Sisters. ... Ottumwa (pronounced Uh-tuhm-wa) is a city in Wapello County, Iowa. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...

Twin Galaxies became known as the official scoreboard, arranging contests between top players. Twin Galaxies' first event attracted international media attention for gathering the first teams of video-game stars. Top players in North Carolina and California were formed into state teams that faced off in a "California Challenges North Carolina All-Star Playoff", playing on 17 different games in Lakewood, California, and Wrightsville Beach, North Carolina. California defeated North Carolina 10–7 over the weekend of August 27-30, 1982.[1] Official language(s) English Demonym North Carolinian Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th in the US  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (340 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Motto: Location of Lakewood in Los Angeles County, California Coordinates: , Country State County Los Angeles Incorporated (city) 1954-04-16 [2] Government  - Mayor Larry Van Nostran [1] Area  - City  9. ... Wrightsville Beach is a town in New Hanover County, North Carolina, United States. ...

Similar competitions were also conducted during the summers of 1983 and 1984 when Day organized the players in many U.S. states to form teams and compete in high score contests for the Guinness Book of World Records. The states included California, North Carolina, Washington, Illinois, Nebraska, Ohio, Michigan, Idaho, Florida, New York, Oklahoma, Alaska, Iowa and Kansas. The Guinness Book of Records (or in recent editions Guinness World Records, and in previous US editions Guinness Book of World Records) is a book published annually, containing an internationally recognized collection of superlatives: both in terms of human achievement and the extrema of the natural world. ...

On November 30, 1982, Ottumwa mayor Jerry Parker declared the town "Video Game Capital of the World", a claim that was backed up by Iowa Governor Terry Branstad, Atari and the Amusement Game Manufacturers Association in a ceremony at Twin Galaxies on March 19, 1983.[2] [3] [4] Terry Edward Branstad (born November 17, 1946) is a former four-term Republican governor of the U.S. state of Iowa who served from 1983 to 1999. ... This article is about the corporate brand. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ...

Twin Galaxies' status as the official scorekeeper was further enhanced by support from the major video-game publications of the early 1980s. Beginning in the summer of 1982, Video Games magazine and Joystik magazine published full-page high-score charts taken from Twin Galaxies' data. These high-score tables were published during the entire lives of these magazines. Additional high-score charts also appeared in Videogiochi (Milan, Italy), Computer Games, Video Game Player magazine and Electronic Fun magazine. Twin Galaxies' high-score charts also appeared in USA Today (April 22, 1983), Games magazine and was distributed sporadically in 1982 and 1983 by the Knight-Ridder news service as an occasional news feature, originating from the Charlotte Observer.[5] [6] [7] For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... USA Today is a national American daily newspaper published by the Gannett Company. ... GAMES Magazine is a United States based magazine devoted to games published by GAMES Publications, a division of Kappa Publishing Group. ... The Knight Ridder building in downtown San Jose, California. ... The Charlotte Observer, serving Charlotte, North Carolina, is the oldest daily newspaper in the United States (other newspapers, such as The New York Times began circulation before The Observer but were not daily). ...

Twin Galaxies brought top players together on November 7, 1982, to be photographed by Life magazine. This photo session is the subject of a recent documentary film, Chasing Ghosts: Beyond the Arcade, which was screened at the 2007 Sundance Film Festival. On January 8-9, 1983, Twin Galaxies organized the first significant video-game championship, to crown a world champion. This event was filmed in Ottumwa by ABC-TV's That's Incredible! and was aired on the night of February 21, 1983.[8] Philippe Halsmans famous portrait of Marilyn Monroe Life generally refers to two American magazines: A humor and general interest magazine published from 1883 to 1936; A publication created by Time founder Henry Luce in 1936, with a strong emphasis on photojournalism. ... The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American television network. ... Thats Incredible! was a television show that ran on the ABC television network from 1980 to 1984 in the USA. In the tradition of Ripleys Believe It or Not and Real People, this television show had people perform stunts or descriptions and reenactments of allegedly paranormal events. ...

In March 1983, Twin Galaxies was contracted by The Electronic Circus to assemble a professional troupe of video game superstars who would travel with the Circus as an "act." With Walter Day hired as the "Circus Ringmaster", Twin Galaxies supplied a squad of 15 world-record holders on Twin Galaxies' high-score tables. Though the Circus was scheduled to visit 40 cities in North America, its Boston inaugural performance, opening in the Bayside Exposition Ctr. on July 15, 1983, lasted only five days, closing on July 19. The players selected by Twin Galaxies for the Circus are believed to be[citation needed] history's first professionally contracted video game players.[9]

On July 25, 1983, Twin Galaxies established the professional U.S. National Video Game Team, the first such, with Walter Day as team captain. The USNVGT toured the United States during the summer of 1983 in a 44-foot GMC bus filled with arcade games, appearing at arcades around the nation and conducting the 1983 Video Game Masters Tournament, the results of which were published in the 1984 U.S. edition of the Guinness Book of World Records. Under the direction of Day, functioning as an assistant editor for the Guinness Book in charge of video-game scores, the USNVGT gathered annual contest results that were published in the 1984—1986 U.S. editions. In September 1983, the USNVGT visited the Italian and Japanese Embassies in Washington D.C. to issue challenges for an international video game championship. In 1987, the USNVGT toured Europe where it defeated a team of UK video game superstars. Every month between 1991 and 1994, the U.S. publication Electronic Gaming Monthly (EGM), published a full-page high-score table titled "The U.S. National Video Game Team's International Scoreboard".[10] [11] [12] The U.S. National Video Game Teamâ„¢ was founded on July 25, 1983 in Ottumwa, Iowa by Walter Day and the Twin Galaxies Intergalactic Scoreboard. ... The initialism GMC can mean either: GMC, a division of General Motors formerly named GMC Truck Game Maker Community, a game making utility forum. ... The Guinness Book of Records (or in recent editions Guinness World Records, and in previous US editions Guinness Book of World Records) is a book published annually, containing an internationally recognized collection of superlatives: both in terms of human achievement and the extrema of the natural world. ...

On February 8, 1998, Twin Galaxies' Official Video Game & Pinball Book of World Records (ISBN 1-887472-25-8) was published. It is a 984-page book containing scores compiled since 1981. The second edition, planned as a three-volume set, will be released one volume at a time throughout 2007 and 2008 and will contain records for PC games as well as modern console games such as the GameCube, PlayStation 2, Xbox and Xbox 360.[citation needed] A stylised illustration of a personal computer A personal computer (PC) is a computer whose original sales price, size, and capabilities make it useful for individuals, intended to be operated directly by an end user, with no intervening computer operator. ... This article is about games played on consoles. ... The Nintendo GameCube (Japanese: ゲームキューブ; originally code-named Dolphin during development; abbreviated as GCN) is Nintendos fourth home video game console, belonging to the 128-bit era; the same generation as Segas Dreamcast, Sonys PlayStation 2, and Microsofts Xbox. ... PS2 redirects here. ... For the Xboxs successor, see Xbox 360. ...

The Impact of the High Score on the Media

According to the Twin Galaxies Intergalactic Scoreboard, "high-score" attempts enjoyed as much press coverage as any other video-game-related topic reported in the media during the 1982-1985 period. Though the media was often focused on the amazing growth of the video game industry, it was equally as fascinated with the human side of gaming, as typified by the "player vs machine" showdowns that led to new world record high scores set on nearly a daily basis. In fact, Twin Galaxies reports that during that early era it was not unusual for there to be multiple new world records reported in the media on a single day. To illustrate the media's love for the high-score phenomenon, here is a brief sampling of news stories reproduced from the following Historical News Resources:

  • Record try aborted in video game - Arizona Republic, March 9, 1982
  • 1-token spree sets record at video game - Charlotte News, Charlotte, NC, September 9, 1982
  • Man could crunch U.S. Pac-Man record - Charlotte Observer, Charlotte, NC, July 17, 1982
  • Video game enthusiast gets highest score ever - Kansas City Times, August 18, 1982
  • Video champ blasts his way into record book - San Francisco Examiner, September 6, 1982
  • Resident saves earth, claims world record - Chapel Hill News, Chapel Hill, NC, November 10, 1982
  • Texas gamer works toward high score - Abilene Reporter-News, Abilene, TX, November 12, 1982
  • Central student one to beat playing Defender - Wyoming Tribune-Eagle, Cheyenne, WY, December 18, 1982
  • Video game champ gets recognition - St. Petersburg Times, St. Petersburg, FL, December 31, 1982
  • Contests offer players tokens, recognition - Dallas Morning News, January 15, 1983
  • Video Game champion vows he'll never play again - Syracuse Herald-Journal, January 17, 1983
  • Videogame records - USA Today, April 22, 1983
  • Pac-Man Record? - Washington Post, Washington D.C., May 26, 1983
  • Teenager going for video game record - Dublin Courier-Herald, Dublin, GA, June 22, 1983
  • Records, like promises, are not always meant to be broken - USA Today, July 7, 1983
  • Competitors' lives filled with joysticks - Wilmington Morning Star, Wilmington, NC, June 30, 1984

Ottumwa: "Video Game Capital of the World"

On November 30, 1982, Mayor Jerry Parker declared Ottumwa the "Video Game Capital of the World."This bold initiative resulted in many historic firsts in video game history.Among them:

  • Letter of Congratulations from Iowa Senator Charles Grassley, March 18, 1983
  • Parade Day Starts with Pac-Man Game, Ottumwa Courier, March 21, 1983
  • Mayor Declares Cystic Fibrosis Video Game Challenge Week in Ottumwa, August 8, 1983
  • Ottumwa Proclamation to the People of the Country of Italy, November 15, 1983
  • Ottumwa Invites Magician Doug Henning to Tim McVey Day, January 23, 1984
  • Ottumwa Issues Mayoral Decree Congratulating Rock-Ola MFG., January 27, 1984
  • Ottumwa Mayor Declares "Tim McVey Day," January 28, 1984
  • Mayoral Proclamation Opens USA-Canada Video Game Conference in Ottumwa, February 10, 1984

As further evidence of this unique status, Ottumwa hosted history's first video game world championship, which was filmed by *ABC-TV's "That's Incredible" on the weekend of January 8-9, 1983 and aired the night of February 21, 1983.

Playing a central role in video game history, Ottumwa was the birth site of the Twin Galaxies Intergalactic Scoreboard and the U.S. National Video Game Team, two organizations that still exist today. Among the historic firsts that happened in the Video Game Capital of the World were: The U.S. National Video Game Teamâ„¢ was founded on July 25, 1983 in Ottumwa, Iowa by Walter Day and the Twin Galaxies Intergalactic Scoreboard. ...

  • History's First Video-Game-Themed Parade (Jan. 8, 1983) Des Moines Register, January 9, 1983
  • History's First Video Game World Championship (Jan. 8-9, 1983) Dallas Times-Herald, Dallas, TX, January 26, 1983
  • History's First Brain Wave Studies on Video Game Champions (July 12, 1983) News Release, July 12, 1983
  • History's First Billion-Point Video Game Performance (Jan. 16, 1984) Computer Games magazine, July 1, 1984
  • History's First Official Day to Honor a Video Game Player (Jan. 28, 1984) Tim McVey Day Poster, January 28, 1984

U.S. National Video Game Team

  • July 25, 1983 - Founded by Walter Day and Twin Galaxies
  • August 11, 1983 - USNVGT embarked on tour of the United States
  • September 15, 1983 - USNVGT conducted first score-checking survey
  • September 24, 1983 - USNVGT presented challenges to Italian and Japanese Embassies in Washington, D.C.
  • January 14, 1984 - USNVGT presented the 2nd Coronation Day Championship to crown the video game champions of the world

Video Game Film Festival

Twin Galaxies organized the first Video Game Film Festival on June 2, 2001, at the Funspot Family Fun Center in Weirs Beach, NH as a vehicle to document the cultural impact that video games have exerted on today's society. A second festival is planned for the end of 2008.[13] [14] Funspot Family Fun Center (also Fun Spot or Funspot) is a video arcade and self-declared classic gaming museum located in the Weirs Beach village of Laconia, New Hampshire, USA. Billy Mitchell played his perfect game of Pac-Man on July 3, 1999 at this location. ... The Weirs Beach sign, located at the beginning of Lakeshore Ave. ...

Console (Video) Game World Championships

Twin Galaxies conducted the first Console Video Game World Championship during Twin Galaxies' 1st Annual Twin Galaxies' Video Game Festival at the Mall of America, Bloomington, Minnesota, on the weekend of July 20–22, 2001. This event is also known as the Console Game World Championship and had originally been planned for March 24–25, 2001 at the Sheraton Dallas Brookhollow Hotel in Dallas, Texas, but was moved forward to the Mall of America event. Mall of America (also MOA, MoA, or the Megamall) is a shopping mall located in the Twin Cities suburb of Bloomington, Minnesota. ... location in Hennepin County, Minnesota Coordinates: Country United States State Minnesota County Hennepin Founded 1843 Incorporated 1858 Mayor Gene Winstead Area    - City 99. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... For other uses, see Dallas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ...

The second Console Video Game World Championship was held the weekend of July 12–14, 2002, at the 2nd Annual Twin Galaxies' Video Game Festival at the Mall of America.[15] [16] [17] [18] [19]

Classic Video Game World Championship

Twin Galaxies conducted the first "Classic Video Game World Championship" on June 2–4, 2001 at the Funspot Family Fun Center in Weirs Beach, New Hampshire. This event was descended from the Coronation Day Championships that were conducted by Twin Galaxies in 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986 and 2000. The 2nd "Classic Video Game World Championship" was conducted on the weekend of June 30–July 2, 2002.[20] [21] The Weirs Beach sign, located at the beginning of Lakeshore Ave. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ...

In July of 2001 and 2002, Twin Galaxies conducted the annual Twin Galaxies' Video Game Festivals at the Mall of America, attracting approximately 50,000–75,000 attendees each year. [22]

On August 15, 2005, Walter Day and the staff of Twin Galaxies led a contingent of USA and UK video game players to Paris, France, where they delivered an eight-foot (2.4 meter) tall Proclamation which proposed a "London vs. Paris" Video Game Championship. This article is about the capital of France. ...

On September 24, 2005, The U.S. National Video Game Team revived and formed a New England Chapter with Walter Day as the national team captain and David Nelson of Derry, New Hampshire, as the chapter captain. The U.S. National Video Game Teamâ„¢ was founded on July 25, 1983 in Ottumwa, Iowa by Walter Day and the Twin Galaxies Intergalactic Scoreboard. ... Nickname: Location in Rockingham County, New Hampshire Coordinates: , Country State County Rockingham County Incorporated 1827 Government  - Town Council Brent Carney Kevin Coyle Craig W. Bulkley Janet Fairbanks Rick Metts Beverly Ferrante Brian Chirichiello Area  - Town  36. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ...

Iron Man Contest

In the first week of July, 1985, Twin Galaxies conducted the 1st Twin Galaxies Iron Man Contest. The goal of the Iron Man competition was simple: you had to carry your game for as long as you could. If anyone passed 100 hours, they would be awarded a $10,000 prize from the Sports Achievement Association.

The first contestant to fall, a Japanese tourist visiting Victoria, BC, resigned from the contest after seven hours. The gaming continued unbroken until the 24-hour barrier, in which Tom Asaki lost his Nibbler game due to a glitch in the game. In Nibbler, each statistic was allotted 256 bits of data. Each extra life accumulated would add two bits to the load on the Extra Lives data. If it were to go over 256 bits (128 lives), all the lives in reserve would be reset to zero. Asaki did not even know of this bug until warned by Billy Mitchell that he was accumulating lives too fast. Tom's game ended with a score of 300 million points. Nibbles is a simple video game and variant of the similar video game Snake, which is often played on todays mobile phones. ... For other uses, see Glitch (disambiguation). ...

Mitchell himself was the next to go, after 39 hours. The trackball broke down due to the body oils from his hands. By the time the machine could be repaired, Mitchell was already in a deep sleep, effectively eliminating him from the competition. His game ended with an impressive 10,774,191 points. Logitech TrackMan A trackball is a pointing device consisting of a ball housed in a socket containing sensors to detect rotation of the ball about two axes—like an upside-down mouse with an exposed protruding ball. ...

Mark Bersabe lost his final man on Asteroids after 45 hours, with a score of 18,552,590 points (far from Scott Safran's record of 41,336,440 points). Jeff Peters, who played Q*Bert while sitting in a recliner (with the control panel in his lap) lasted until the fifty-hour mark until collapsing from exhaustion, with 19,498,150 points. Asteroids is a popular vector-based video arcade game released in 1979 by Atari. ... Scott Safran beating the Asteroids world record. ... For the Futurama character, see Cubert Farnsworth. ...

The winner of the contest was 18-year-old James Vollandt, who carried his Joust game for 67½ hours. After being the only one remaining in competition (after Peters' elimination), he resorted to dangerous techniques to keep himself awake, including blasting his face with freon, starting at the sixty-hour mark. The game malfunctioned at around 58 hours, wiping out all of his 210 extra lives. However, he earned back forty of them. He left the game voluntarily, with a record-breaking score of 107,216,700 points, a record that still stands to this day. However, Vollandt did not receive the prize money because he did not pass the 100-hour mark. Joust is a classic arcade game by Williams Electronics that was produced in 1982. ... Freon is a trade name for a group of chlorofluorocarbons used primarily as a refrigerant. ...

On the Big Screen

In 2007, a film about Twin Galaxies and video game champions in the 1980s, Chasing Ghosts: Beyond the Arcade, was screened at the Sundance Film Festival. It appeared in numerous additional film festivals, including The Berlin Film Festival, The Norwegian Film Festival, the 27th Atlantic Film Festival, the Los Angeles Film Festival, the Austin Film Festival and the New York United Film Festival (December 15, 2007). The Sundance Film Festival is a film festival in the state of Utah in the United States. ...

The King of Kong, a feature documentary about retro arcade gamers, featuring Twin Galaxies, was released in theaters on August 24, 2007. The documentary was in large measure critical of Twin Galaxies' handling of challenges to long-established top scores, suggesting that its organizational structure is rife with conflicts of interest. The King of Kong: A Fistful of Quarters is a documentary following several people as they try to break the world high score in Donkey Kong. ...

Twin Galaxies' Gallery of Posters

Since August 1, 1982, Twin Galaxies has been producing unique, colorful posters to document gaming events. [23] Though the first dozen posters issued in the early 1980s enjoyed printing runs of 1,000 copies each, the posters created in recent years have been issued as limited editions with only 20-24 copies produced of each one. And, to create value for each one, the latest posters would have individual registration numbers published on the front of each poster (i.e. 1 of 20, 2 of 20, 3 of 20 and so forth). These posters have been issued as free gifts for players who have achieved noteworthy accomplishments or as prizes for contest participants.

The Twin Galaxies posters have attracted media attention in the past few years. For instance, posters #73, #90 and #91 were reproduced in the pages of the Guinness World Records - Gamer's Edition 2008, a high-score compendium issued on March 8, 2008 by Guinness World Records. Plus, Joypad Magazine (Paris, France) published posters #4, #7, and #40 in its January, 2003 edition. Recently, Game Room Magazine (www.gameroommagazine.com) featured a Twin Galaxies poster in each of these monthly editions: March, 2008 (#106), April, 2008 (#108) and May, 2008 (#112).

As collectibles, the poster series has gained a small following with posters occasionally selling for $20 each while at least one copy of poster #1 has sold for $100.

Since 2004, the posters have been produced exclusively by Digital Visions of Faifield, Iowa, founded by Greg Hoose and his children Caroline Hoose and Jonathan Hoose.

See also

A time attack is another term for time trial. ... A speedrun (IPA: ) is a play-through of a computer or video game, created with the intent of completing it as quickly as possible, optionally under certain conditions, mainly for the purposes of entertainment and competition. ... High score of the Commodore 64 game Great Giana Sisters. ...


  1. ^ California Tops Carolina in Video Challenge - RePlay Magazine, October, 1982
  2. ^ What is the Video Game Capital of the World? - Cashbox Magazine, April 2, 1983
  3. ^ The King of the Video Game Addicts - Toronto Sunday Star, March 27, 1983
  4. ^ Video Game Capital Lies Amid Iowa Cornfields - St. Louis Post-Dispatch, October 9, 1983
  5. ^ Seek Individual Excellence - Associated Press Wire Story in Miami Herald, August 21, 1982
  6. ^ Records, like promises, are not always meant to be broken - USA Today, July 7, 1983
  7. ^ Video Game Records - USA Today, April 22, 1983
  8. ^ Twin Galaxies' Coronation Day Crowns Video's Best of '83 - RePlay Magazine, February 1, 1984
  9. ^ Video Hall of Fame - Blip Magazine, February 1, 1983
  10. ^ U.S. Video Team Holds Tourney - CashBox Magazine, October 22, 1983
  11. ^ U.S. vs. Japan Video Tournament? - CashBox Magazine, August 27, 1983
  12. ^ They're Masters of Video Games - Spokesman-Review, Spokane, WA, August 24, 1983
  13. ^ "History's First Video Game Film Festival To Celebrate Gaming's Impact on Media and Culture", May 18, 2001
  14. ^ "Twin Galaxies Planning 2nd Video Game Film Festival", May 15, 2006
  15. ^ NintendoWorldReport.com, January 21, 2001
  16. ^ Gaming-Age.com, February 16, 2001
  17. ^ XGR.com, February 16, 2001
  18. ^ Video Game Festival at Mall of America, July 1, 2001
  19. ^ Geek.com, November 11, 2002
  20. ^ Classic Video Game World Championship Set for New Hampshire May 8, 2001
  21. ^ Classic Video Game World Championship Attracts the World's Best, May 26, 2002
  22. ^ Festival Marries Classics with CounterStrike, RePlay Magazine, Woodland Hills, CA, September 1, 2001
  23. ^ Twin Galaxies' Galerry of Posters, 1982 - 2008


  • Twin Galaxies
  • National High Scores Now Can be Verified, PlayMeter Magazine, May 1, 1982
  • Video Game Records - USA Today, April 22, 1983
  • U.S. vs. Japan Video Tournament? - CashBox Magazine, August 27, 1983
  • Twin Galaxies' Coronation Day Crowns Video's Best of '83 - RePlay Magazine, February 1, 1984
  • COIN-OP TV interview with Walter Day and other champs
Electronic sports, abbreviated e-sports or eSports, is used as a general term to describe the play of video games as a professional sport. ... Map of countries participating in the WCG The World Cyber Games (WCG) is an international e-sports event (or Cyber Games Festival) operated by Korean company International Cyber Marketing and backed by Samsung and, starting in 2006, Microsoft. ... The Electronic Sports World Cup is an international professional gaming championship. ... The Championship Gaming Series is an international electronic sports league based in the United States of America, though they have expanded to every continent except Antarctica for Season Two. ... Major League Gaming (MLG) is one of North America’s first professional videogame leagues. ... The Cyberathlete Professional League (CPL) is a professional sports tournament organization specializing in computer and console video games. ... XLEAGUE.TV is a UK based satellite television channel and internet community dedicated to video games. ... World eSport Games is an organisation dedicated to the managing and hosting of tournaments where the worlds best professional gamers gather to compete for prize money. ... The emblem of Ongamenet Starleague Starleague refers to professional StarCraft championships matches currently run by Ongamenet in South Korea. ... The World Series of Video Games, or WSVG for short, was an international professional electronic sports competition. ...

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