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Twelvers

of
Shi‘a Islam Zulfiqar, the sword of Ali. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (805x313, 11 KB) Caption The ThulFiqar sword of Ali. ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ...

Principles

TawhidQiyamahImamah
NubuwwahAdalah In Shia Islam, Theology of Shia (Usūl al-Dīn) is the five main beliefs that Shia Muslims must possess. ... Tawīd (also Tawheed,Tauheed and other spellings; Arabic: ‎ ; Turkish: Tevhid) is the Islamic concept of monotheism In Islam, Tawhīd means to assert the unity of God. ... Yawm al-Qīyāmah (Arabic: ‎ literally: Day of the Resurrection) is the Last Judgement in Islam. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Nubuwwah means Prophethood and denotes that God has appointed perfect Prophets and Messengers to teach mankind Gods religion. ... Adalah means Justice and denotes The Justice of God The Shias consider Justice of God as part of Usool-e-Deen (Roots of Religion). ...

Practices

SalatSawm
HajjZakat
KhumsJihad
CommandingForbidding
TawallaTabarra In Shia Islam, the ten Branches of Religion (FurÅ« al-DÄ«n) are the ten practices that Shia Muslims must perform. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ramadan (religious observances). ... The Hajj (Arabic: ‎, transliteration: ; Turkish: ; Ottoman Turkish: حاج, Hāc; Malay: , Bosnian: ) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca in Islam. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... Khums (derived from the Arabic خمس or five) is a Shia article of faith that refers to a one-fifth tax, which all adult Muslims who are financially secure and have surplus in their income normally have to pay on annual savings, net commercial profits, and all... Jihad, sometimes spelled Jahad, Jehad, Jihaad, Jiaad, Djihad, or Cihad, (Arabic: ‎ ) as an Islamic term, literally means struggle in the way of God or striving hard in Gods cause and is sometimes referred to as the sixth pillar of Islam, although it occupies no official status as such in... Commanding the Just (Arabic: Amr bil MarÅ«f امر بامعرف) is a part of Shia Islams Branches of Religion and means to encourage people to do the necessary good in life, when they forget to do so; for example forgeting Salah. ... Forbidding what is Evil (Arabic: ‎, Nahy an al-Munkar), is a part of Islam and means, for example, to oppose injustice. ... Tawalla - Loving the Ahl al-Bayt, is a part of the Shia Branches of Religion and is derived from a Quranic verse. ... AS SALAM AU ALIKUM, not to mistaken, this salam was not for shias its only for muslims. ...

Ahl al-Bayt

Muhammad
AliFatimah
HasanHusayn
Zainul Abedin -> al-Mahdi Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ‎) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... This article is about Muhammads daughter. ... Al-Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib ()‎ (c. ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... Ali ibn Husayn (also spelled Ali ibn Hussain or Hussein) (Arabic: علي بن حسين زين العابدين) (658 - 713) is the fourth Shia Imam. ... For other uses, see Mahdi (disambiguation). ...

Texts & Laws

Qur'an
This is a sub-article to Shia Islam and Quran The Shia view of the Quran has some differences from the Sunni view. ...

Major branches

UsuliAkhbariShaykhism Usulis are Twelver Shia Muslims who favor fatwas over hadith when trying to determine what the Sunnah says about any specific topic. ... Akhbaris are Twelver Shia Muslims who favor hadith over fatwas when trying to determine what the Sunnah says about any specific topic. ... Shaykhis, religious movement in Iran. ...

Societal aspects

History of Shi'a Islam ...

See also

Views on Shi'a Islam
There are several views on the Shia. ...

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Twelvers (اثنا عشرية Ithnāˤashariyyah) are those Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms, as distinct from Ismaili & Zaidi Shi'ite Muslims, who believe in a different number of Imams or in a different path of succession. Approximately 80% of Shi'a are Twelvers and they are the largest Shi'a school of thought, predominant in Azerbaijan, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Kuwait and Bahrain. [1] [2] Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... The Shia Imam is considered by the Shia sect of Islam to be the rightful successor to Muhammad, and is similar to the Caliph in Sunni Islam only with regards to the aspect of political leadership. ... The IsmāʿīlÄ« (Urdu: اسماعیلی IsmāʿīlÄ«, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-IsmāʿīliyyÅ«n; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the ShÄ«a community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... Zaiddiyah (also: Zaidi, Zaydi, or in the West Fivers) refers to a sect within Shia Islam. ...


Within Shi'a Islam, there are various sects that differ over the number of Imams, or path of succession. They also differ in some of the definitions of a Shi'a Imam. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Contents

Alternate names

The Twelvers are also known by other names, each connoting some aspect of the faith.

  1. Shīa is normally used to refer to the Twelvers since they are the "orthodox" variant of Shiˤa. In any extended usage, "Shia" can refer to other groups as well.
  2. Jaˤfarī is always taken to refer to Twelvers to the exclusion of the Ismā'īlī and Zaydī ("Fivers"). The term Ja'farī is used for the Ja'farī Madhhab and Fiqh ("Jurisprudence"). It is attributed to Jaˤfar as-Sādiq, who the Shīa consider to be their Sixth Imām. The founders of the Sunni Hanafi and Maliki schools of thought narrated Hadith from Jaˤfar as-Sādiq.
  3. Imāmī is a reference to the Twelver belief in holy and infallible Imāms after the time of Muħammad. Though the Ismā'īliyya (including the Seveners) also accept the concept of Imāms, this term is also used for the Twelvers.

The IsmāʿīlÄ« (Urdu: اسماعیلی IsmāʿīlÄ«, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-IsmāʿīliyyÅ«n; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the ShÄ«a community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... Zaiddiyah (also: Zaidi, Zaydi, or in the West Fivers) refers to a sect within Shia Islam. ... Madhhab (Arabic مذهب pl. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Imam Jafar As-Sadiq (April 20, 702 – December 4, 765), in full Jafar ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Husayn, was the sixth Shia imam, and a theologian and jurist. ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Hanafi (Arabic حنفي): (its followers are sometimes known in English as Hanafites or Hanifites)-- (cf Malikite, Shafiite, Hanbalite for the other schools of thought)--.is the oldest of the four schools of thought (Madhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... This page deals with Islamic thought. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Seveners are a branch of Ismaili Shiism. ...

Theology

Religious law, the Sharia

The Jaˤfarī derive their Sharia, or religious law, from the Qur'an and the Sunnah. The difference between Sunnī and Shīˤa Sharia results from a Shīˤa belief that Muhammad assigned ˤAlī to be the first ruler and the leader after him (the Khalifa). Moreover, according to Shīˤa, an Imam or a Caliph can not be democratically elected and has to be nominated by God. Sunnis believe that their Caliphs were popular and had greater vote so they were made caliphs. This difference resulted in the Shīˤa: Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic law. ... The Qurān [1] (Arabic: ‎, literally the recitation; also called ‎ The Noble Qurān; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic law. ... For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... Omdurman, Sudan. ...

  1. Following hadith from Muħammad and his descendants the 12 Imāms.
  2. Not accepting the "examples", verdicts, and ahādīth of Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman (who are considered by Sunnīs to be the first three Caliphs).
  3. Attributing the concept of the masūm "infallibility" to the Twelve Imāms or Fourteen Infallibles (including Muhammad and his daughter Fatima Zahra) and accepting the examples and verdicts of this special group.

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman (name). ... Caliph is the title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ... This article is about Muhammads daughter. ...

Main doctrines

The Shi'a believe in the five pillars of Islam, as do Sunnis, but categorize them differently. Shi'a beliefs include the following: The Five Pillars of Islam is the term given to what are understood among many Muslims to be the five core aspects of Islam. ...


Theology of Shi'a (Usūl al-Dīn) In Shia Islam, Theology of Shia (UsÅ«l al-DÄ«n) is the five main beliefs that Shia Muslims must possess. ...

  • Tawhīd (Oneness): The Oneness of God
  • Adalah (Justice): The Justice of God
  • Nubuwwah (Prophethood): God has appointed perfect and infallible prophets and messengers to teach mankind the religion (that is, a perfect system of how to live in "peace"(("submission to God")).)
  • Imamah (Leadership): God has appointed specific leaders to lead and guide mankind — a prophet appoints a custodian of the religion before his demise.
  • Qiyamah (The Day of Judgment): God will raise mankind for Judgment

Branches of Religion (Furū al-Dīn) TawhÄ«d (also Tawhid or Tauhid or Tawheed; Arabic توحيد) is the Islamic concept of monotheism, derived from Ahad. ... Adalah means Justice and denotes The Justice of God The Shias consider Justice of God as part of Usool-e-Deen (Roots of Religion). ... Nubuwwah means Prophethood and denotes that God has appointed perfect Prophets and Messengers to teach mankind Gods religion. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Yawm al-QÄ«yāmah (Arabic: ‎ literally: Day of the Resurrection) is the Last Judgement in Islam. ... In Shia Islam, the ten Branches of Religion (FurÅ« al-DÄ«n) are the ten practices that Shia Muslims must perform. ...

  • Salat—called "Namaaz" in Persian (Prayer) – performing the five daily prayers
  • Sawm—called "Roozeh" in Persian (Fast) – fasting during the holy month of Ramadhan
  • Hajj (Pilgrimage) – performing the pilgrimage to Mecca.
  • Zakat (Poor-rate) – paying the poor-tax
  • Khums (One-fifth of savings) – paying tax
  • Jihad (Struggle) – struggling to please God. The greater, or internal Jihad is the struggle against the evil within one's soul in every aspect of life. The lesser, or external, Jihad is the struggle against the evil of one's environment in every aspect of life. This is not to be mistaken with the common modern misconception that this means "Holy War". Writing the truth (jihad bil qalam) and speaking truth in front of an oppressor are also forms of Jihad.
  • Amr-Bil-Ma'rūf – commanding what is good
  • Nahi-Anil-Munkar – forbidding what is evil
  • Tawalla – loving the Ahlul Bayt and their followers
  • Tabarra – dissociating oneself from the enemies of the Ahlul Bayt

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ramadan or Ramadhan (Arabic: رمضان ) is the ninth month of the Islamic year. ... The Hajj (Arabic: ‎, transliteration: ; Turkish: ; Ottoman Turkish: حاج, Hāc; Malay: , Bosnian: ) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca in Islam. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... Khums (derived from the Arabic خمس or five) is a Shia article of faith that refers to a one-fifth tax, which all adult Muslims who are financially secure and have surplus in their income normally have to pay on annual savings, net commercial profits, and all... Jihad, sometimes spelled Jahad, Jehad, Jihaad, Jiaad, Djihad, or Cihad, (Arabic: ‎ ) as an Islamic term, literally means struggle in the way of God or striving hard in Gods cause and is sometimes referred to as the sixth pillar of Islam, although it occupies no official status as such in... Amr-Bil-MarÅ«f - Commanding the good, is a part of the Shia Branches of Religion and means to encourage people to do the necesary good in life, when they forget to do so; for example forgeting Salah. ... Nahi-Anil-Munkar - Forbiding evil, is a part of the Shia Branches of Religion and means for example to oppose injustice. ... Tawalla - Loving the Ahl al-Bayt, is a part of the Shia Branches of Religion and is derived from a Quranic verse. ... AS SALAM AU ALIKUM, not to mistaken, this salam was not for shias its only for muslims. ...

The concept of Imāms and the Mahdi

The Shi'a Imams, the first of which is ˤAlī ibn Abī Tālib, are viewed to be infallible. It is an important aspect of Shīˤa theology that they are, however, not prophets (nabī) nor messengers (rasūl) but instead carry out Muhammad's message. They are considered as superior as all prophets and messengers except the last one. Shīˤa Muslims view all religions and groups that accept prophets or messengers after Muħammad to be heathen or heretical. They believe the last (who also is the twelfth and current) Imām, the Mahdī, is in occultation by the order of God and will reappear by God's command. The Shia Imam is considered by the Shia sect of Islam to be the rightful successor to Muhammad, and is similar to the Caliph in Sunni Islam. ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ... For other uses, see Mahdi (disambiguation). ...


Hussayn's martyrdom

The Martydom of the grandson of the prophet and the son of Ali Hussayn ibn ˤAlī on the Tenth of Muharram - known as Āshūrā - plays a significant role in Twelver theology. This day is annually commemorated with grief and sorrow; some participate in ritual beating of their chests, as some believe this is a form of expressing the helplessness that comes from a practical inability to have helped Hussayn and his small troop of 72 revolutionaries. Some even strike their bodies with sharp objects until it bleeds. Though there have been Shī'a leaders (such as Ayatollah Khomeini) who have prohibited this ritual, many still practice the ages-old custom. In most nations with significant Shī'a populations, one can observe large crowds in processions grieving over Hussayn's martyrdom. For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... For the Canaanite and Ugaritic mother-goddess, please see Asherah. ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political...


Some examples of Jaˤfarī jurisprudence differing from Sunni

(This list is not exhaustive nor representative of the Sunni/Shīˤa dispute on religious jurisprudence)


Declaration of faith

Both Shīˤa and Sunni believe that anyone who declares in public; "There is no god but God and Muħammad is his messenger" and believes in it is to be considered a Muslim.


Accepting a scholar's verdict

The Jaˤfarī school of thought accepts and encourages the concept of taqlid (Arabic تقليد) or "imitation", e.g. that unlearned Muslims should choose a jurist of known virtue and knowledge and follow ("imitate") his rulings and verdicts in their daily life. This religious leader can be known as a "source of imitation" (Arabic marji taqlid مرجع تقليد, Persian marja), or less exaltedly as an "imitated one" (Arabic مقلَد muqallad), and is a person who spends years studying the Qur'an, the sunnah, and the sayings of the Imams and their deeds in order to come up with certain opinions based on those sources of knowledge. However, his verdicts are not to be taken as the only source of religious information and he can be always corrected by other muqalladeens (the plural of muqallad) which come after him. This process may take years or decades; as the idea in taqlid is that verdicts are based on the latest research and are implemented according to one's contemporary situation. Sunnis do not practice taqlid in the same sense. A marja, or marja-e-taqleed (Arabic and persian مرجع تقليد), literally source of imitation or source of tradition, is the second highest authority on religion and law in Shia Islam after the prophet and (Shia) Imams. ... The Qurān [1] (Arabic: ‎, literally the recitation; also called ‎ The Noble Qurān; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Prayer

There are minor differences in how the prayer ritual is performed among Sunnis and Shīˤa. During the purification ritual in preparation of prayer (which consists of washing the face, arms, feet, etc. and saying of some prayers), the Shīˤa view wiping the feet with wet hands as sufficient as opposed to some of the Sunnis, who consider complete washing of the feet necessary. Also, Shīˤa do not use their fingers to clean inside the ears during the ablution ritual, As prerequisite for purification is that one has to be clean before he perform the purification ritual.


During prayer, it is the Jaˤfarī view that it is preferable to prostrate on earth, leaves that are not edible, and/or wood, as these three things are considered purest by the Prophet in Hadith specifically mentioning Tayammum. Hence many Shīˤa use a small tablet of soil (a mixture of earth and water, and often taken from the ground of a holy site) or wood during their daily prayers upon which they prostrate. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about Hygiene in Islam. ...


In Jaˤfarī view, the hands are to be left hanging straight down the side during the standing position of the prayer, while the Sunni schools of thought (except for the majority of Malikis) hold that they should be folded. Similar to the Sunni view, the Jaˤfarī consider the five daily prayers to be compulsory, though the Jaˤfarī consider it acceptable to pray the second and third prayer, and the fourth and fifth prayer, one after the other during the parts of the day where they believe the timings for these prayers to overlap. The other three Sunni schools allow this consolidation of daily prayers only while travelling or under some other constraint. This page deals with Islamic thought. ...


One-fifth tax

(Khums) There are differences in this regard between Shīˤa fiqh and the Sunni interpretation. Khums (derived from the Arabic خمس or five) is a Shia article of faith that refers to a one-fifth tax, which all adult Muslims who are financially secure and have surplus in their income normally have to pay on annual savings, net commercial profits, and all...


Marriage

The concept of mut'a or "temporary marriage" is endorsed by the Jafari school of thought. The Sunni and Jafari have similar rulings regarding the different aspects of marriage. This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, etc. ...


It has many conditions that can be considered as pre-requisite, similar to that of permanent marriage.


See also

Jafari school of thought, Jafari jurisprudence or Jafari Fiqh is the name of the jurisprudence of the Shia Twelvers Muslims, derived from the name of Jafar al-Sadiq, the 7:th Shia Imam. ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... World Federation of Khoja Ithna-aheri Muslim Communities is a Shia twelver organization. ...

External links

  • The Shia Islamic Guide / Imam Stories (shiacode.com)
  • AhlulBayt Discussion Forum (ShiaChat.com)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Twelvers - definition of Twelvers in Encyclopedia (873 words)
Twelvers or the "Ithna Asharia" refers to the group of Shias who believe in twelve Imams.
The Twelvers are the largest Shia school of thought, predominant in Iran.
Jafari is always taken to refer to "the Twelvers" to the exclusion of the Ismailis, the Saabiyin ("the Seveners") and the Zaidis ("the Fivers").
Twelvers - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1096 words)
Twelvers (Arabic: اثنا عشرية‎ translit: Ithnā ‘Asharīyyah) are Shi'a Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms.
Ja'farī is always taken to refer to Twelvers to the exclusion of the Ismā'īlī and Zaydī ("Fivers").
This day is annually commemorated with grief and sorrow; some participate in ritual beating of their chests, as some believe this is a form of expressing the helplessness that comes from a practical inability to have helped Hussayn and his small troop of 62 revolutionaries.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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