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Encyclopedia > Twelve Olympians
The Twelve Olympians by Monsiau, circa late 18th century.
The Twelve Olympians by Monsiau, circa late 18th century.

The Twelve Olympians, also known as the Dodekatheon (Greek: Δωδεκάθεον < δωδεκα, dodeka, "twelve" + θεον, theon, "of the gods"), in Greek mythology, were the principal gods of the Greek pantheon, residing atop Mount Olympus. The classical scheme of the Twelve Olympians (the Canonical Twelve of art and poetry) comprises the following gods: Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Ares, Hermes, Hephaestus, Aphrodite, Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Hestia. The respective Roman scheme comprises the following gods: Jupiter, Juno, Neptune, Ceres, Mars, Mercury, Vulcan, Venus, Minerva, Apollo, Diana and Vesta.[1] Image File history File links Olympians. ... Image File history File links Olympians. ... Monsiaus Consulta of the République cisalpine to receive the First Consul, 26 January 1802 (1808) Nicolas-André Monsiau (1754- 31 May 1837) was a French history painter and refined draughtsman,[1] who turned to book illustration to supplement his income when the French Revolution disrupted patronage. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... A listing of Greek mythological beings. ... A pantheon (from Greek Πάνθειον, temple of all gods, from πᾶν, all + θεός, god) is a set of all the gods of a particular religion or mythology, such as the gods of Hinduism, Norse, Egyptian, Shintoism, Greek, vodun, Yoruba Mythology and Roman mythology. ... This article is about the Greek mountain. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hera (disambiguation). ... Neptune in Copenhagen, Denmark. ... This article is about the grain goddess Demeter. ... This article is about the ancient Greek god. ... For other uses, see Hermes (disambiguation). ... Hephaestus (pronounced or ; Greek HÄ“phaistos) was a Greek god whose Roman equivalent was Vulcan; he was the god of technology, blacksmiths, craftsmen, artisans, sculptors, metals and metallurgy, and fire. ... The Birth of Venus, (detail) by Sandro Botticelli, 1485 For other uses, see Aphrodite (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Artemis (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, virginal Hestia,(Roman name, Vesta) daughter of Cronus and Rhea, (ancient Greek ) is the goddess of the hearth, of the right ordering of domesticity and the family, who received the first offering at every sacrifice in the household. ... For the planet see Jupiter. ... Vatican statue of Juno Sospita This article is about a figure in mythology. ... Genoese admiral Andrea Doria as Neptune, by Agnolo Bronzino. ... In Roman mythology, Ceres was the goddess of growing plants (particularly cereals) and of motherly love. ... Mars, painting by Diego Velazquez Mars was the Roman warrior god, the son of Juno and Jupiter, husband of Bellona, and the lover of Venus. ... A sculpture of the Roman god Mercury by 17th-century Flemish artist Artus Quellinus. ... The Forge of Vulcan by Diego Velasquez, (1630). ... The Birth of Venus, by Sandro Botticelli c. ... This article is about the Roman goddess. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... The Diana of Versailles In Roman mythology, Diana was the goddess of the hunt, in literature the equivalent of the Greek goddess Artemis, though in cult she was Italic in origin. ... Vesta was the virgin goddess of the hearth, home, and family in Roman mythology. ...


There was, however, a great deal of fluidity when it came to who was counted among their number in antiquity;[2] other important gods are sometimes included by certain sources in the group of Twelve replacing some of the above Canonical 12. The first ancient reference of religious ceremonies for the 12 Olympians is found in the Homeric Hymn to Hermes. Around 400 BC Herodorus included in his Dodekatheon the following deities: Zeus, Poseidon, Hera, Athena, Hermes, Apollo, Alpheus, Cronus, Rhea and the Charites.[3] Wilamowitz agrees with Herodorus' version of the 12.[4] The anonymous Homeric Hymns are a collection of ancient Greek hymns. ... An engraving by Bernard Picart depicting a scene from Ovids Metamorphoses in which Alpheus attempts to capture the nymph Arethusa. ... Not to be confused with Chronos, the personification of time. ... Rhea (or Ria meaning she who flows) was the Titaness daughter of Uranus and of Gaia. ... For the game of graces, see Game of graces. ...


There were also numerous regional variations in ancient Greece. For instance, at Kos, Ares and Hephaestus are left behind, replaced by Heracles and Dionysus.[5] Herodotus agrees with this and counts Heracles as one of the Twelve,[6] while Lucian adds Asklepios to Heracles as a member of the Twelve, without explaining which two had to give way for them. Pindar and Apollodorus, however, disagree with this.[7] For them, and Herodorus as well, Heracles is not one of the Twelve Gods, but the one who established their cult.[3] Plato connected the Twelve Olympians with the twelve months, and proposed that the final month be devoted to rites in honor of Pluto and the spirits of the dead, implying that he considered Hades, one of the basic chthonic deities, to be one of the Twelve.[8] Hades is phased out in later groupings due to his chthonic associations.[9] In Phaedrus Plato aligns the Twelve with the Zodiac and would exclude Hestia from their rank.[10] Hestia is sometimes displaced by Dionysus.[9] Hebe, Helios and Persephone are other important gods, goddesses, which are sometimes included in a group of twelve. Persephone, daughter of Demeter, was forced to spend 3 months a year in the underworld. During this time, Demeter withheld her graces and caused the barren landscape of winter, until her daughter returned to Mount Olympus. Alcides redirects here. ... This article is about the ancient deity. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... For other uses, see Lucian (disambiguation). ... Asclepius was the god of medicine and healing in ancient Greek mythology, according to which he was born a mortal but was given immortality as the constellation Ophiuchus after his death. ... For the PINDAR military bunker in London, please see the PINDAR section of Military citadels under London Pindar (or Pindarus, Greek: ) (probably born 522 BC in Cynoscephalae, a village in Boeotia; died 443 BC in Argos), was a Greek lyric poet. ... Apollodorus was a common name in ancient Greece. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pluto (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Chthon (disambiguation). ... The Phaedrus, written by Plato, is a dialogue between Platos main protagonist, Socrates, and Phaedrus, an interlocutor in several dialogues. ... Hebe by Antonio Canova In Greek mythology, Hêbê (Greek: ) was the goddess of youth (Roman equivalent: Juventas). ... For other uses, see Helios (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Greek goddess. ...


The Twelve Olympians gained their supremacy in the world of gods after Zeus led his siblings to victory in war with the Titans; Zeus, Poseidon, Hades, Hera, Demeter, and Hestia were siblings; all the other of the Dodekatheon are usually considered the children of Zeus by various mothers, except for Athena, who in some versions of the myth was born of Zeus alone, and Aphrodite who was formed from the castrated phallus of the primordial sky which Cronos threw into the sea when he freed the Titans. Additionally, some versions of the myth state that Hephaestus was born of Hera alone as Hera's revenge for Zeus' solo birth of Athena. In Greek mythology, the Titanomachy, or War of the Titans (Greek: Τιτανομαχία), was the eleven-year series of battles fought between the two races of deities long before the existence of mankind: the Titans, fighting from Mount Othrys, and the Olympians, who would come to reign on Mount Olympus. ... This article is about the race of Titans in Greek mythology. ...

Contents

List of Olympians

Greek Deities Series
Primordial deities
Titans (predecessor deities)
Greek sea gods
Chthonic deities
Muses (personified concepts)
Other deities
The Twelve Olympians
Zeus Hera
Poseidon Hermes
Hestia Demeter
Aphrodite Athena
Apollo Artemis
Ares Hephaestus
Greek Name Roman Name God(dess) Of... Generation
Zeus Jupiter King of the Gods and ruler of Mount Olympus; god of the sky, thunder, and justice. First
Hera Juno Queen of the Gods and of the heavens; goddess of women, marriage, and motherhood. First
Poseidon Neptune Lord of the Sea; god of the seas, horses, and earthquakes. First
Demeter Ceres Goddess of fertility, agriculture, nature, and the seasons. First
Hestia Vesta Goddess of the hearth and home. First
Aphrodite Venus Goddess of love, beauty, desire, and fertility. Second
Apollo Apollo The Sun God; god of light, healing, music, poetry, prophecy, archery and truth. Second
Ares Mars God of war, frenzy, hatred, and bloodshed. Second
Artemis Diana Goddess of the hunt, of maidens, and the moon. Second
Athena Minerva Goddess of wisdom, crafts, and strategic battle. Second
Hephaestus Vulcan Blacksmith to the Gods; god of fire and the forges. Second
Hermes Mercury Messenger of the Gods; god of commerce, speed, thieves, and trade. Second

The ancient Greeks proposed many different ideas about the primordial gods in their mythology. ... This article is about the race of Titans in Greek mythology. ... The ancient Greeks had a very small number of see gods. ... For other uses, see Chthon (disambiguation). ... For the rock band, see Muse (band). ... Asclepius (Greek , transliterated Asklēpiós; Latin Aesculapius) is the demigod of medicine and healing in ancient Greek mythology. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hera (disambiguation). ... Neptune in Copenhagen, Denmark. ... For other uses, see Hermes (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, virginal Hestia,(Roman name, Vesta) daughter of Cronus and Rhea, (ancient Greek ) is the goddess of the hearth, of the right ordering of domesticity and the family, who received the first offering at every sacrifice in the household. ... This article is about the grain goddess Demeter. ... The Birth of Venus, (detail) by Sandro Botticelli, 1485 For other uses, see Aphrodite (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Artemis (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ancient Greek god. ... Hephaestus (pronounced or ; Greek Hēphaistos) was a Greek god whose Roman equivalent was Vulcan; he was the god of technology, blacksmiths, craftsmen, artisans, sculptors, metals and metallurgy, and fire. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... For the planet see Jupiter. ... For other uses, see Hera (disambiguation). ... Vatican statue of Juno Sospita This article is about a figure in mythology. ... Neptune in Copenhagen, Denmark. ... Genoese admiral Andrea Doria as Neptune, by Agnolo Bronzino. ... This article is about the grain goddess Demeter. ... In Roman mythology, Ceres was the goddess of growing plants (particularly cereals) and of motherly love. ... In Greek mythology, virginal Hestia,(Roman name, Vesta) daughter of Cronus and Rhea, (ancient Greek ) is the goddess of the hearth, of the right ordering of domesticity and the family, who received the first offering at every sacrifice in the household. ... Vesta was the virgin goddess of the hearth, home, and family in Roman mythology. ... The Birth of Venus, (detail) by Sandro Botticelli, 1485 For other uses, see Aphrodite (disambiguation). ... The Birth of Venus, by Sandro Botticelli c. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ancient Greek god. ... Mars, painting by Diego Velazquez Mars was the Roman warrior god, the son of Juno and Jupiter, husband of Bellona, and the lover of Venus. ... For other uses, see Artemis (disambiguation). ... The Diana of Versailles In Roman mythology, Diana was the goddess of the hunt, in literature the equivalent of the Greek goddess Artemis, though in cult she was Italic in origin. ... For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Roman goddess. ... Hephaestus (pronounced or ; Greek Hēphaistos) was a Greek god whose Roman equivalent was Vulcan; he was the god of technology, blacksmiths, craftsmen, artisans, sculptors, metals and metallurgy, and fire. ... The Forge of Vulcan by Diego Velasquez, (1630). ... For other uses, see Hermes (disambiguation). ... A sculpture of the Roman god Mercury by 17th-century Flemish artist Artus Quellinus. ...

Close to the Olympians

  • Bia - Personification of violence.
  • Cratos - Personification of power.
  • Dione - Mother of Aphrodite by Zeus.
  • Dionysus - God of wine, parties, and merriment.
  • Eileithyia - Goddess of childbirth; daughter of Hera and Zeus.
  • Eos - Personification of Dawn.
  • Eris - Goddess of Discord.
  • Eros - God of Love.
  • Ganymede - Cupbearer of Heaven.
  • Hades - Lord of the Dead; god of the Underworld and wealth.
  • Hebe - Goddess of youth, and cupbearer.
  • Helios - Personification of the Sun.
  • Heracles - Greatest hero of the Greek myths.
  • Horae - Wardens of Olympus.
  • Iris - Personification of the Rainbow, also the messenger of Olympus along with Hermes.
  • Leto - Titaness; the mother of Apollo and Artemis.
  • Morpheus - God of Dreams.
  • Muses - Nine ladies of science and arts.
  • Nemesis - Greek goddess of retribution.
  • Nike - Goddess of victory.
  • Pan - God of the wild.
  • Paean - Universal healer.
  • Perseus - Zeus' son, one of the greatest heroes in all of Greek mythology.
  • Persephone - Goddess of the spring and death, daughter of Demeter.
  • Selene - Personification of the Moon.
  • Zelus - Emulation.

Note: In Greek mythology, Bia (force) was the personification of force, daughter of Pallas and Styx. ... In Greek mythology, Cratos (strength) was a son of Styx and Pallas, brother of Nike, Bia and Zelus. ... Dione in Greek mythology is a vague goddess presence who has her most concrete form in Book V of Homers Iliad as the mother of Aphrodite: Aphrodite journeys to Diones side after she has been wounded in battle while protecting her favorite son Aeneas. ... This article is about the ancient deity. ... Ilithyia was the Greek goddess of childbirth and midwives, daughter of Zeus and Hera. ... Eos, by Evelyn De Morgan (1850 - 1919), 1895 (Columbia Museum of Art, Columbia, SC): for a Pre-Raphaelite painter, Eos was still the classical pagan equivalent of an angel Eos (dawn) was, in Greek Mythology, the Titan goddess of the dawn, who rose from her home at the edge of... Eris (ca. ... This article is about the Greek god Eros. ... In Greek mythology, Ganymede (Greek: Γανυμήδης, Ganumêdês)) was a divine hero whose homeland was the Troad. ... For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ... Hebe by Antonio Canova In Greek mythology, Hêbê (Greek: ) was the goddess of youth (Roman equivalent: Juventas). ... For other uses, see Helios (disambiguation). ... Alcides redirects here. ... Greek mythology comprises the collected legends of Greek gods and goddesses and ancient heroes and heroines, originally created and spread within an oral-poetic tradition. ... Horae in Meyers, 1888 In Greek mythology, the Horae were three goddesses controlling orderly life. ... Iris, by Luca Giordano In Greek mythology, Iris is the personification of the rainbow and messenger of the gods. ... For other uses, see Leto (disambiguation). ... Sleep and his half-brother Death (Hypnos and Thanatos) by John William Waterhouse (1874) Morpheus (he who forms, shapes, moulds, from the Greek morphe) is the Greek god of dreams. ... For the rock band, see Muse (band). ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... This article discusses the Greek Goddess. ... Pan (Greek , genitive ) is the Greek god of shepherds and flocks, of mountain wilds, hunting and rustic music: paein means to pasture. ... Paean, in Homer, was the Greek physician of the gods. ... Perseus with the head of Medusa, by Antonio Canova, completed 1801 (Vatican Museums) Perseus, Perseos, or Perseas (Greek: Περσεύς, Περσέως, Περσέας), the legendary founder of Mycenae and of the Perseid dynasty there, was the first of the mythic heroes of Greek mythology whose exploits in defeating various archaic monsters provided the founding myths... This article is about the Greek goddess. ... This article is about the Greek goddess. ... This Zelos is the Greek personification. ...

  • Hades, the god of the Underworld, is always confused as not being part of the 12. He has earned the right to be part of the 12 since his big contribution to the war with the Titans.
  • Artemis is often associated in modern times with the moon, although Selene is almost always named as the moon goddess in Greek literature.
  • Apollo is often associated in modern times with the sun, although Helios was almost always called sun god in ancient Greek poetry.

For other uses, see Underworld (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, the Titanomachy, or War of the Titans (Greek: Τιτανομαχία), was the eleven-year series of battles fought between the two races of deities long before the existence of mankind: the Titans, fighting from Mount Othrys, and the Olympians, who would come to reign on Mount Olympus. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: it is patent nonsense. ... This article is about the Greek goddess. ... For other uses, see Helios (disambiguation). ...

Photo gallery

See also

Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs and rituals practiced in Ancient Greece in form of cult practices, thus the practical counterpart of Greek mythology. ... Template:Morpheus)) Categories: ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... // Greek mythological characters (Most of the gods and goddesses had Roman equivalents. ... The Supreme Council of Ethnikoi Hellenes (Ύπατο Συμβούλιο των Ελλήνων Εθνικών), commonly known as YSEE, is an umbrella organisation in Greece established in 1997 to defend and restore the ethnic, polytheistic, Hellenic tradition, religion and way in contemporary Greek society. ...

References

  1. ^ "Greek mythology". Encyclopedia Americana 13. (1993). 
    * "Dodekatheon". Papyros-Larousse-Britanicca. (2007). 
  2. ^ According to Stoll, Heinrich Wilhelm (translated by R. B. Paul) (1852). Handbook of the religion and mythology of the Greeks. Francis and John Rivington, 8. “The limitation of their number [of the Olympians] to twelve seems to have been a comparatively modern idea” 
  3. ^ a b "Dodekatheon". Papyros-Larousse-Britanicca. (2007). 
  4. ^ Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Ulrich von (1931-1932). Der Glaube der Hellenen (Volume 1) (in Deutch). Berlin: Weidmansche Buchhandlung, 329. 
  5. ^ Berger-Doer, Gratia (1986). "Dodekatheoi". Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae 3. 646-658. 
  6. ^ Herodotus, The Histories, 2.43-44
  7. ^ Pindar, Olympian Odes, 10.49
  8. ^ Plato, The Laws, 828d-e
  9. ^ a b "Greek mythology". Encyclopedia Americana 13. (1993). 
  10. ^ , Plato: Phaedrus, 246e-f

Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff (22 December 1848 - 25 September 1931) was a German classical philologist. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... The Histories of Herodotus of Halicarnassus is considered the first work of history in Western literature. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... The Laws is Platos last and longest dialogue. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Twelve Olympians (189 words)
According to their legends, there were twelve major deities.
The twelve Olympians did not rule the world from the very beginning.
Of the twelve Olympians, Zeus was the most powerful.
Olympians (13371 words)
The Olympians (´Ολυμπιαδεσσιν) were a group of twelve gods that ruled the world after the Titans.
Dionysus was the only one of the twelve Olympians to be born from a mortal woman, Semele, daughter of Cadmus and Harmonia.
Demeter was often seen as one of the Olympians, replacing Hades, since the Underworld god was rarely seen outside of his domain.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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