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Encyclopedia > Twelfth Night, or What You Will
Malvolio and Olivia, in an engraving by R. Staines after a painting by Daniel Maclise.
Malvolio and Olivia, in an engraving by R. Staines after a painting by Daniel Maclise.

Twelfth Night, or What You Will is a comedy by William Shakespeare, named after the Twelfth Night holiday of the Christmas season. Twelfth Night may have several meanings: Twelfth Night (holiday) Twelfth Night, or What You Will, a comedic play by William Shakespeare. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (875x524, 113 KB) This image is in public domain because it is more than 100 years old. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (875x524, 113 KB) This image is in public domain because it is more than 100 years old. ... A detail of the engraving of Maclises 1842 painting The Play-scene in Hamlet, portraying the moment when the guilt of Claudius is revealed. ... The word comedy has a classical meaning (comical theatre) and a popular one (the use of humor with an intent to provoke laughter in general). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Twelfth Night is a holiday in some branches of Christianity marking the coming of the Epiphany, concluding the Twelve Days of Christmas, and is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as the evening of the fifth of January, preceding Twelfth Day, the eve of the Epiphany, formerly the last day...

Contents

Date and text

Twelfth Night was probably finished between 1600 and 1601; the name of its male lead, Orsino, was likely suggested by Orsini, Duke of Bracciano, an Italian nobleman who visited London in the winter of 1600 to 1601.[1]


The play was not printed until its inclusion in the First Folio in 1623. The title page of the First Folio with the famous engraved portrait of Shakespeare by Martin Droeshout The First Folio is the name given by modern scholars to the first published collection of William Shakespeares plays; its actual title is Mr. ...


Performance

The earliest known performance took place at Middle Temple Hall, one of the Inns of Court, on Candlemas night, 2 February 1602. The only record of the performance is an entry in the diary of the law student John Manningham, who wrote: Part of Middle Temple c. ... Combined arms of the four Inns of Court The Inns of Court, in London, are the professional associations to one of which every English barrister (and those judges who were formerly barristers) must belong. ... Candlemas (Russian: Sretenie, Spanish: Candelaria) is a Christian feast commemorating the purification of the Virgin Mary and the presentation of the infant Jesus in the Temple. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This page is about the year. ...

At our feast we had a play called "Twelve Night, or What You Will", much like "The Comedy of Errors" or "Menaechmi" in Plautus, but most like and near to that in Italian called "Inganni". A good practice in it to make the steward believe his lady-widow was in love with him, by counterfeiting a letter as from his lady, in general term telling him what she liked best in him and prescribing his gesture in smiling, his apparel, etc. and then, when he came to practice, making him believe they took him for mad.[2]

Clearly, Manningham enjoyed the Malvolio story most of all, and noted the play's similarity with Shakespeare's earlier play, as well as its relationship with one of its sources, the Inganni plays. Poster for a performance The Comedy of Errors is one of William Shakespeares early plays, written between 1592 and 1594. ... Menaechmi, a Latin-language play, is considered by many as Plautus greatest play. ... Titus Macchius Plautus, generally referred to simply as Plautus, was a playwright of Ancient Rome. ...


It may have been performed earlier as well, before the Court at Whitehall Palace on Twelfth Night (5 January) of 1601.[3] Twelfth Night was also performed at Court on Easter Monday, 6 April 1618, and again at Candlemas in 1623. The Palace of Whitehall was the main residence of the English monarchs in London from 1530 until 1698 when all except Inigo Jones 1622 Banqueting House was destroyed by fire. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For a bill proposed in USA in 1998, see Bill 1618. ...


The play was also one of the earliest Shakespearean works acted at the start of the Restoration; Sir William Davenant's adaptation was staged in 1661, with Thomas Betterton in the role of Sir Toby Belch. Samuel Pepys thought it "a silly play", but saw it three times anyway during the period of his diary (on 11 September 1661, 6 January 1663, and 20 January 1669). Another adaptation, Love Betray'd, or, The Agreeable Disappointment, was acted at Lincoln's Inn Fields in 1703.[4] King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. ... William Davenant Sir William Davenant (February 28, 1606 - April 7, 1668), also spelled DAvenant, was an English poet and playwright. ... Thomas Betterton (c. ... Samuel Pepys, FRS (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an English naval administrator and Member of Parliament, who is now most famous for his diary. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1661 (MDCLXI) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1663 (MDCLXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Samuel Pepys stopped writing his diary. ... Lincolns Inn Fields is the largest public square in London. ...


After holding the stage only in the adaptations in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, the original Shakespearean text of Tweflth Night was revived in 1741, in a production at Drury Lane. In 1820 an operatic version by Frederic Reynolds was staged, with music composed by Henry Bishop. Influential productions were staged in 1912, by Harley Granville-Barker, and in 1916, at the Old Vic. Currently home to Lord Of The Rings, the musical. ... Sir Henry Bishop was the composer of the melody of Home! Sweet Home!. Categories: Composers stubs ... Harley Granville-Barker (November 25, 1877 – August 31, 1946) was a British actor, director, producer, critic and playwright. ... The exterior of the Old Vic from the corner of Baylis Road and Waterloo Road. ...


When the play was first performed, all female parts were played by men or boys, but it has been the practice for some centuries now to cast women or girls in the female parts in all plays. The company of Shakespeare's Globe, London, has produced many notable, highly popular all-male performances, and a highlight of their 2002 season was Twelfth Night, with the Globe's artistic director Mark Rylance playing the part of Olivia. This season was preceded, in February, by a performance of the play by the same company at Middle Temple Hall, to celebrate the 400th anniversary of the play's premiere, at the same venue. This article is about the Globe Theatre of Shakespeare (commonly known as Shakespeares Globe Theatre). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Mark Rylance (born January 18, 1960) is an internationally well-known actor and theatre director. ...


Lilian Baylis reopened the long-dormant Sadler's Wells Theatre in 1931 with a notable production of the play starring Ralph Richardson as Sir Toby and John Gielgud as Malvolio. The Old Vic Theatre was reopened in 1950 (after suffering severe damage in the Londin Blitz in 1941) with a memorable production starring Peggy Ashcroft as Viola. Gielgud directed a production at the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre with Laurence Olivier as Malvolio and Vivian Leigh playing both Viola and Sebastian in 1955. The longest running Broadway production by far was Margaret Webster's 1941 staging starring Maurice Evans as Malvolio and Helen Hayes as Viola. It ran for 129 performances, more than twice as long as any other Broadway production. Testing The Old Vic Theatre. ... Sadlers Wells theatre, 2005 Sadlers Wells Theatre is located on Rosebery Avenue, Clerkenwell, London. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Ralph David Richardson (19 December 1902 – 10 October 1983) was an English actor, one of a group of theatrical knights of the mid-20th century who, though more closely associated with the stage, did their best to make the transition to film. ... Sir Arthur John Gielgud, OM, CH (14 April 1904 – 21 May 2000), known as Sir John Gielgud, was an Emmy, Grammy, Tony and Academy Award-winning British theatre and film actor. ... The Old Vic is a theatre in the Waterloo area of London. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Dame Peggy Ashcroft DBE (22 December 1907 – 14 June 1991) was an acclaimed Academy Award-winning English actress. ... Sir Arthur John Gielgud, OM, CH (14 April 1904 – 21 May 2000), known as Sir John Gielgud, was an Emmy, Grammy, Tony and Academy Award-winning British theatre and film actor. ... The Royal Shakespeare Theatre is a large theatre dedicated to British playwright William Shakespeare in his birthplace of Stratford-upon-Avon. ... Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM, (IPA: ; 22 May 1907 – 11 July 1989) was an Academy Award, Golden Globe, BAFTA and four-time Emmy winning English actor, director, and producer. ... Vivien Leigh (November 5, 1913–July 7, 1967) was an English actress who was born Vivian Mary Hartley in Darjeeling, India. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Broadway theatre is often considered the highest professional form of theatre in the United States. ... Margaret Webster (1905-1972) was an important United States born theater actress, producer and director. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Maurice Evans (born June 3, 1901 in Dorset; died March 12, 1989 in East Sussex) was a British-born actor who became a US citizen in 1941. ... Helen Hayes (October 10, 1900 – March 17, 1993) was a two-time Academy Award-winning American actress whose successful and award-winning career spanned almost 70 years. ... Broadway theatre is often considered the highest professional form of theatre in the United States. ...


List of characters

  • Viola, twin sister to Sebastian. She is later called Cesario
Viola is a young woman of aristocratic birth from Messaline, and the play's primary protagonist. She spends the entire play, after the early shipwreck scene, disguised as a young man, "Cesario".
Olivia (1888) by Edmund Blair Leighton
Olivia (1888) by Edmund Blair Leighton
  • Orsino, Duke (or Count) of Illyria
Orsino is a powerful nobleman who governs here (either all of Illyria or at least the country round) (1.2). As the play opens, he has been pining for the Lady Olivia.
  • Olivia, a countess
Olivia's father and brother have recently died, so she is mistress of her grand house and of whatever else an unattached countess can command. She is in mourning for her brother as the play opens, and uninterested in Orsino's attempt at courtship.
  • Sebastian, twin brother to Viola
When Sebastian arrives in Illyria he is constantly mistaken for his sister Viola, who has been going about disguised as a man, called Cesario.
  • Maria, a gentlewoman in Olivia's household
Maria is competent, kind, cynical, spirited, and loyal. Though she works for the Lady Olivia, she has come to love Toby over the years, and leads him and Feste in their revenge on Malvolio.
  • Sir Toby Belch, a kinsman of Olivia's
Sir Toby is related to Olivia, probably her uncle ("what a plague means my niece..." (1.3)). She puts up with his drinking and rowdy behavior, but does not really care for it.
  • Sir Andrew Aguecheek, a companion of Sir Toby's
A rich, but foolish knight from the country who is staying with Toby in hopes of wooing Olivia, but in reality is wasting his money in incessant revelry at Sir Toby's behest.
  • Malvolio, steward to Olivia
Lady Olivia's sour and straitlaced head servant who is at odds with the rest of her household.
  • Feste
Feste is a jester in Olivia's household. The Fool moves between Olivia's and Orsino's homes, making jokes, singing songs, and cadging coins from those that have them. His name is Latin based, and means trick, practical joke, hoax, or to play a joke on somebody.
  • Fabian
Fabian is attached to Olivia's household. He comes in where we expect Feste (2.5), and so seems an afterthought. But he develops as a character as the play goes on.
  • Antonio, captain, a friend to Sebastian.
Antonio rescued Sebastian from the shipwreck. He is much taken with Sebastian, and accompanies him into Illyria, although he is a wanted man there.
  • Captain, a sea captain who helps Viola
The captain of the wrecked vessel. He helps Viola by getting her — in her disguise as "Cesario" — to Orsino's court.
  • Valentine and Curio, gentlemen attending Orsino
  • Priest, a Holy Father
The Priest is a minor character who performs the wedding ceremony in the last scene of the play.
  • Musicians, Lords, Sailors, Officers, and other attendants

Image File history File links Edmund_Blair_Leighton_-_Olivia. ... Image File history File links Edmund_Blair_Leighton_-_Olivia. ... The Accolade Edmund Blair Leighton (September 21, 1853—September 1, 1922) was a British painter of medieval scenes of chivalry. ... Location of Illyria Illyria (Albanian Iliria Land of the Free; Ancient Greek ; Latin Illyria [1] (see also Illyricum) was in Classical antiquity a region in the western part of todays Balkan Peninsula, founded by the tribes and clans of Illyrians, an ancient people who spoke the Illyrian languages. ... In the Shakespeare comedy Twelfth Night Feste is a jester attached to the household of the Countess Olivia. ...

Synopsis

Orsino and Viola by Frederick Richard Pickersgill
Orsino and Viola by Frederick Richard Pickersgill

Illyria, the setting of Twelfth Night, is important to the play's romantic atmosphere. It is an ancient region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea covering parts of modern Croatia, Montenegro and Albania. Illyria is mentioned in one of the source plays for Twelfth Night, Plautus's Menæchmi, as a place where, as in Twelfth Night, a twin went looking for his brother. Shakespeare himself mentioned it previously, in Henry VI, Part II, noting its reputation for pirates. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Orsino and Viola by Frederick Richard Pickersgill Frederick Richard Pickersgill (25 September 1820, London - 20 December 1900) was an English painter and book illustrator. ... Location of Illyria Illyria (Albanian Iliria Land of the Free; Ancient Greek ; Latin Illyria [1] (see also Illyricum) was in Classical antiquity a region in the western part of todays Balkan Peninsula, founded by the tribes and clans of Illyrians, an ancient people who spoke the Illyrian languages. ... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, Bright Dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Demonym Montenegrin Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006... Menaechmi, a Latin-language play, is considered by many as Plautus greatest play. ... The play we know as King Henry VI Part II was originally known as The First Part of the Contention betwixt the Two Famous Houses of York and Lancaster. ...


Like so many of Shakespeare's comedies, this one centres on mistaken identity. The leading character, Viola, is shipwrecked on the shores of Illyria during the opening scenes. She loses contact with her twin brother, Sebastian, whom she believes dead. Dressed as a man and masquerading as a young page under the name Cesario, she enters the service of Duke Orsino. Orsino is in love with the bereaved Lady Olivia, whose brother has recently died, and decides to use "Cesario" as an intermediary. Olivia, believing Viola to be a man, falls in love with this handsome and eloquent messenger. Viola, in turn, has fallen in love with the Duke, who also believes Viola is a man, and who regards her as his confidant. Shakespearean comedies are one of the three (sometimes four) genres of plays by William Shakespeare. ... A page is a young male servant. ...


When Sebastian arrives on the scene, confusion ensues. Mistaking him for Viola, Olivia asks him to marry her, and they are secretly married by a priest. Finally, when the twins appear in the presence of both Olivia and the Duke, there is more wonder and awe at their similarity, at which point Viola reveals she is really a female and that Sebastian is her lost twin brother. The play ends in a declaration of marriage between the Duke and Viola, Toby and Maria, and Olivia and Sebastian, though their marriages are never actually seen. Marriage is an interpersonal relationship with governmental, social, or religious recognition, usually intimate and sexual, and often created as a contract, or through civil process. ...

Scene from "Twelfth Night," Act III by Francis Wheatley
Scene from "Twelfth Night," Act III by Francis Wheatley

Much of the play is taken up with the comic subplot, in which several characters conspire to make Olivia's pompous head steward, Malvolio, believe that his lady Olivia wishes to marry him. It involves Olivia's uncle, Sir Toby Belch; her would-be suitor, a silly squire named Sir Andrew Ague-Cheek; her servants Maria and Fabian; and her father's favorite fool, Feste. Sir Toby and Sir Andrew disturb the peace of their lady's house by keeping late hours and perpetually singing catches at the very top of their voices. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Francis Wheatley (1747- June 28,1801), was an English portrait and landscape painter, was born at Wild Court, Covent Garden, London. ... A subplot is a series of connected actions within a work of narrative that function separately from the main plot. ... The terms steward or stewardess can refer to a number of different professional roles. ... Twelfth Night, or What You Will is a comedy by William Shakespeare. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Twelfth Night (play). ... Sir Andrew Ague-Cheek is a comic character in William Shakespeares play Twelfth Night, or What You Will. ... A jester or fool is a specific type of clown mostly associated with the Middle Ages. ... A catch refers to music written for three voices, sung as a round. ...


Maria, Sir Toby, Sir Andrew Ague-Cheek and company convince Malvolio that Olivia is secretly in love with him, and write a letter in Olivia's hand, asking Malvolio to wear yellow stockings cross-gartered, be rude to the rest of the servants, and to smile in all circumstances. Olivia, saddened by Viola's attitude to her, asks for her chief steward, and is shocked by a Malvolio who has seemingly lost his mind. She leaves him to the contrivances of his tormentors.


He is locked up in a room, with a slit for light. Feste visits him to mock his "insanity", once disguised as the priest, and again as himself. At the end of the play Malvolio learns of their conspiracy and storms off promising revenge, but the Duke despatches someone (probably Fabian) to pacify him.


Adaptations

See also Shakespeare on screen (Twelfth Night).

It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ...

Film

In 1910, Vitagraph Studios released the silent short adaptation Twelfth Night starring actors Florence Turner, Julia Swayne Gordon and Marin Sais. American Vitagraph was a United States movie studio, founded by J. Stuart Blackton and Albert E. Smith in 1897 and bought by Warner Brothers in 1925. ... Florence Turner Florence Turner, (January 6, 1885–August 28, 1946) was an American stage and film actress. ... Marin Sais in a circa 1915-1918 publicity photograph. ...


The 1996 film adapted and directed by Trevor Nunn and set in the 19th century, stars Imogen Stubbs as Viola, Helena Bonham Carter as Olivia and Toby Stephens as Duke Orsino. The film also features Mel Smith as Sir Toby, Richard E. Grant as Sir Andrew, Ben Kingsley as Feste, Imelda Staunton as Maria and Nigel Hawthorne as Malvolio. Sir Trevor King (born 14 January 1940) is a loser and film director. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Imogen Stubbs, Lady Nunn (born 20 February 1961) is a British actress. ... Helena Bonham Carter (born May 26, 1966) is an Academy Award-nominated British actress, known for her roles in the films A Room with a View, Howards End, and Fight Club. ... Toby Stephens (born April 21, 1969) is an English stage, television and film actor, best known for playing supervillain Gustav Graves in the James Bond film Die Another Day (2002) and Edward Fairfax Rochester in the BBC television adaptation of Jane Eyre (2006). ... Mel Smith Mel Smith is an English actor, film director, writer, producer born in London on December 3, 1952) He attended New College, Oxford. ... Richard E. Grant depicted as the unofficial Ninth Doctor. ... Sir Ben Kingsley, CBE, (born December 31, 1943) is a British actor. ... Imelda Mary Philomena Bernadette Staunton OBE (born on January 9, 1956) is an Academy Award-nominated English actress. ... Sir Nigel Hawthorne, CBE (5 April 1929 – 26 December 2001) was a renowned English actor. ...


The 2006 film She's the Man modernises the story as a contemporary teenage comedy (as 10 Things I Hate about You does to The Taming of the Shrew and O does to Othello). It is set in a prep school named Illyria and incorporates the names of the play's major characters (for example, "Duke Orsino" becomes simply "Duke" and his last name is Orsino.) The pizza place in it is named "Cesario's" and there are many references in the movie to minor characters in Twelfth Night, such as Sir Toby, Feste, Valentine, and Malvolio. Shes the Man is a 2006 film, starring Amanda Bynes and directed by Andy Fickman, based on William Shakespeares play Twelfth Night, or What You Will, though it also shared substantial similarities to, and is considered a remake of, Just One of the Guys. ... 10 Things I Hate About You is a 1999 American romantic comedy film that is considered by most parents as innapropriate and immature. ... Taming of the Shrew by Augustus Egg The Taming of the Shrew is a comedy by William Shakespeare. ... O is a 2001 teen film version of William Shakespeares Othello. ... For other uses, see Othello (disambiguation). ...


One of the central characters of Shakespeare in Love, named Viola, dresses like a man, and its final scene dramatises a fictional inspiration for Twelfth Night. Shakespeare in Love is an award-winning 1998 romantic comedy film. ...


Television

On May 14, 1937, the BBC Television Service in London broadcast a thirty-minute excerpt of the play, the first known instance of a work of Shakespeare being performed on television. Produced for the new medium by George More O'Ferrall, the production is also notable for having featured a young actress who would later go on to win an Academy AwardGreer Garson. As the performance was transmitted live from the BBC's studios at Alexandra Palace and the technology to record television programmes did not at the time exist, no visual record survives other than still photographs.[5] May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC One is the primary television channel of the BBC, and the first in the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Live television refers to television broadcasts of events or performances on a delay of between zero and fifteen seconds, rather than from video recordings or film. ... Alexandra Palace from the south Alexandra Palace was built in an area spanning Wood Green and Muswell Hill, North London, England in 1873 as a public entertainment centre and North London counterpart of The Crystal Palace. ...


The entire play was produced for television in 1939, directed by Michel Saint-Denis and starring another future Oscar-winner, Peggy Ashcroft. The part of Sir Toby Belch was taken by a young George Devine. Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Michel Saint-Denis (1897 – 1971), dit Jacques Duchesne, was a French actor, theater director, and drama theorist whose ideas on actor training have had a profound influence on the development of European theater from the 1930s on. ... Dame Peggy Ashcroft DBE (22 December 1907 – 14 June 1991) was an acclaimed Academy Award-winning English actress. ... George Alexander Cassady Devine CBE (November 20, 1910 - January 20, 1966) was an extremely influential theatrical manager, director, teacher and actor in London from the late 1940s until his death. ...


Another version for UK television was produced in 1969, directed by John Sichel and John Dexter. The production featured Joan Plowright as Viola and Sebastian, Alec Guinness as Malvolio, Ralph Richardson as Sir Toby Belch and Tommy Steele as an unusually prominent Feste. Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... John Sichel (died 2005-04-05) was a British director of film, stage and television, and, later in life, a television and theatre trainer. ... John Dexter (born 2 August 1925 in Derby, England - died 23 March 1990 in London) was an English theatre, opera and film director. ... Joan Ann Olivier, Baroness Olivier DBE, née Plowright (born October 28, 1929), known professionally as Dame Joan Plowright is a British actress and widow of Laurence Olivier. ... Sir Alec Guinness CH, CBE (April 2, 1914 – August 5, 2000) was an Academy Award and Tony Award-winning English actor who became one of the most versatile and best-loved performers of his generation. ... Sir Ralph David Richardson (19 December 1902 – 10 October 1983) was an English actor, one of a group of theatrical knights of the mid-20th century who, though more closely associated with the stage, did their best to make the transition to film. ... Young Love by Tommy Steele Tommy Steele OBE (born December 17, 1936 in London, England) is a English entertainer. ...


Yet another TV adaptation followed in 1980. This version was part of the BBC Television Shakespeare series and featured Felicity Kendal in the role of Viola and Robert Hardy as Sir Toby Belch. Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... The BBC Television Shakespeare was a set of television adaptations of the plays of Shakespeare, produced by the BBC between 1978 and 1985. ... Felicity Kendal in The Good Life. ... Robert Hardy as Cornelius Fudge in the film Harry Potter and Prisoner of Azkaban Timothy Sydney Robert Hardy, CBE (born October 29, 1925) is one of Britains best-known and most popular actors, and also an acknowledged expert on the longbow. ...


A 2003 telemovie adapted and directed by Tim Supple is set in the present day. It features David Troughton as Sir Toby, and is notable for its multi-ethnic cast including Parminder Nagra as Viola. Its portrayal of Viola and Sebastian's arrival in Illyria is reminiscent of news footage of asylum seekers. Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tim Supple is an English theatre and opera director, with a reputation for breathing new life into familiar stories. ... David Troughton (born June 9, 1950 in Hampstead, North London, England) is a respected Shakespearean actor on the British stage. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Stage

Probably due to its themes including young women seeking independence in 'a man's world', 'gender-bending' and same-sex attraction (albeit in a round about way) She's the Man wasn't the first modernisation of Twelfth Night. There have been a number of re-workings for the stage, particularly in musical theatre, among them Your Own Thing, a 1968 musical comedy. Shes the Man is a 2006 film, starring Amanda Bynes and directed by Andy Fickman, based on William Shakespeares play Twelfth Night, or What You Will, though it also shared substantial similarities to, and is considered a remake of, Just One of the Guys. ... Your Own Thing is a rock-styled musical comedy loosely based on Twelfth Night by William Shakespeare. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Halliday, p. 71.
  2. ^ Qtd. in Smith, 2001, p. 2
  3. ^ Hotson
  4. ^ Halliday, p. 505.
  5. ^ Vahimagi, p.8

References

  • Twelfth Night, Elizabeth Story Donno, ed. Cambridge 1985,2003. (New Cambridge Shakespeare)
  • Halliday, F. E., A Shakespeare Companion 1564–1964, Baltimore, Penguin, 1964
  • Hotson, Leslie, The First Night of Twelfth Night, London, Rupert Hart-Davis, 1954.
  • Twelfth Night, M. M. Mahood, ed. Penguin 1968, 1995. (New Penguin Shakespeare)
  • Pennington, Michael, Twelfth Night: a user's guide. New York, 2000.
  • Smith, Bruce R., Twelfth Night: Texts and Contexts. New York: Bedford St Martin's, 2001
  • Vahimagi, Tise. British Television: An Illustrated Guide. Oxford. Oxford University Press / British Film Institute. 1994. ISBN 0-19-818336-4.

This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... The British Film Institute (BFI) is a charitable organisation established by Royal Charter to encourage the development of the arts of film, television and the moving image throughout the United Kingdom, to promote their use as a record of contemporary life and manners, to promote education about film, television and... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ...

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SparkNotes: Twelfth Night: Context (700 words)
Twelfth Night is about illusion, deception, disguises, madness, and the extraordinary things that love will cause us to do—and to see.
Twelfth Night is the only one of Shakespeare’s plays to have an alternative title: the play is actually called Twelfth Night, or What You Will.
Twelfth Night is one of Shakespeare’s so-called transvestite comedies, a category that also includes As You Like It and The Merchant of Venice.
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