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Encyclopedia > Tver
Tver's coat of arms depicts grand ducal crown placed on a throne.
Tver's coat of arms depicts grand ducal crown placed on a throne.

Tver (Russian: Тверь) is a city in Russia, the administrative center of Tver Oblast. Population: 408,903 (2002 Census). Tver was formerly the capital of a powerful medieval state and the model provincial town of Imperial Russia. It is located at the confluence of Volga and Tvertsa Rivers. The city was known as Kalinin (Кали́нин) from 1931 to 1990. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... A crown is a symbolic form of headgear worn by a monarch or by a god, for whom the crown is traditionally one of the symbols of power and legitimacy (See Regalia for a broader treatment). ... The thrones for The Queen of Canada, and the Duke of Edinburgh in the Canadian Senate, Ottawa is usually occupied by the Governor General and her spouse at the annual State Opening of Parliament. ... Tver Oblast (Russian: Тверска́я о́бласть) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Russian Census of 2002 (Russian: ) was the first census of Russian Federation carried out on October 9, 2002. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... The Volga, widely viewed as the national river of Russia, flows through the western part of the country. ... Tvertsa River (Тверца in Russian) is a river in the Tver Oblast in Russia. ...

Contents

Medieval origins

The first written record of Tver is dated 1164. Originally a minor settlement of Novgorodian traders, it passed to the Grand Prince of Vladimir in 1209. In 1246, Alexander Nevsky granted it to his younger brother Yaroslav Yaroslavich (d. 1271), from whom a dynasty of local princes descended. Four of them were killed in the Golden Horde and were proclaimed saints by the Russian Orthodox church. Medieval walls of Novgorod City The Novgorod Feudal Republic (Новгородская феодальная республика or Novgorodskaya feodalnaya respublika in Russian) was a powerful medieval state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the Ural Mountains between the 12th and 15th century. ... Population 315,954 (2002) Time zone Moscow (MSK/MSD), UTC +0300 (MSK)/+0400 (MSD) Latitude/Longitude Vladimir (Russian: ) is an old city in Russia. ... Statue in Pereslavl, just in front of the cathedral Alexander was baptised in. ... Yaroslav III Yaroslavich (Russian: Ярослав Ярославович) was the first Duke of Tver and the 10th Grand Duke of Vladimir from 1264 to 1271. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Orda; Tatar: Altın Urda; Russian: Золотая Орда) was a Mongol[1][2][3][4] - later Turkicized[3] - state established in parts of present-day... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ...


Formerly a land of woods and bogs, the Tver principality was quickly transformed into one of the richest and most populous Russian states. As the area was hardly accessible for Tatar raids, there was a great influx of population from the recently devastated South. By the end of the century, it was ready to vie with Moscow for supremacy in Russia. Both Tver and Moscow were the young cities, so the outcome of their rivalry was far from being certain. Historically, the term Tatar (or Tartar) has been ambiguously used by Europeans to refer to many different peoples of Inner Asia and Northern Asia. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   9684. ...


Grand princedom

17th century icon of St. Michael of Tver, slain by the Mongols, holding the town of Tver in his hands.
17th century icon of St. Michael of Tver, slain by the Mongols, holding the town of Tver in his hands.

Mikhail of Tver, who ascended the throne of Vladimir in 1305, was one of the most beloved of medieval Russian rulers. His policy of open conflict with the Golden Horde led to his assassination there in 1318. His son Dmitry "the Terrible Eyes" succeeded him, and, concluding an alliance with the mighty Lithuania, managed to raise Tver's prestige even higher. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x777, 112 KB)Detail of a 17th-century icon representing St Michael of Tver holding the town of Tver in his hands. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x777, 112 KB)Detail of a 17th-century icon representing St Michael of Tver holding the town of Tver in his hands. ... Mikhail Yaroslavich before the Mongol khan, by Vasili Vereshchagin. ... Mikhail Yaroslavich before the Mongol khan, by Vasili Vereshchagin. ... The title of Grand Prince of Tver was born by members of the Rurikids dynasty who ruled the Grand duchy of Tver. ... Population 315,954 (2002) Time zone Moscow (MSK/MSD), UTC +0300 (MSK)/+0400 (MSD) Latitude/Longitude Vladimir (Russian: ) is an old city in Russia. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Orda; Tatar: Altın Urda; Russian: Золотая Орда) was a Mongol[1][2][3][4] - later Turkicized[3] - state established in parts of present-day... A military alliance is an agreement between two, or more, countries; related to wartime planning, commitments, or contingencies; such agreements can be both defensive and offensive. ...


Exasperated by Dmitry's influence, prince Ivan Kalita of Moscow engineered his murder by the Mongols in 1326. On hearing the news of this crime, the city revolted against the Horde. The latter joined its forces with Muscovites and brutally repressed the rebellion. Many citizens were killed, enslaved, or deported. This was the fatal blow to Tver's pretensions for supremacy in Russia. Ivan I Danilovich Kalita (Иван I Данилович Калита in Russian)(? - March 31, 1340), Prince of Moscow (since 1325), Grand Prince of Vladimir (since 1328), son of Daniil Aleksandrovich (Prince of Moscow). ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2007)    - Density 10,469,000   9684. ... Look up rebellion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In the second half of the 14th century, Tver was further weakened by dynastic struggles between its princes. Two senior branches of the ruling house, those of Kashin and Kholmsky, asserted their claims to the grand ducal throne. The claimants were backed up by Moscow and eventually settled at the Kremlin court. A dynasty is a family or extended family which retains political power across generations, or more generally, any organization which extends dominance in its field even as its particular members change. ... A church in the center of Kashin. ... Chełm (Ukrainian: , Kholm) is a town in eastern Poland with 68,595 inhabitants (2004). ... The Moscow Kremlin (Russian: Московский Кремль) is a historic fortified complex at the very heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River (to the south), St. ...


During the Great Feudal War in Muscovy, Tver once again rised to prominence and concluded defensive alliances with Lithuania, Novgorod, Byzantium, and the Golden Horde. Grand Prince Boris of Tver sent one of his men, Afanasiy Nikitin, to search gold and diamonds as far as India. Nikitin's travelogue, describing his journey from 1466 to 1477, is probably the first ever firsthand account of India by an European. A monument to Nikitin was opened on the Volga embankment in 1955. Vasili II Vasiliyevich Tyomniy (Blind) (Василий II Васильевич Тёмный in Russian) (March 10, 1415 – March 27, 1462) was the Grand Prince of Moscow whose long reign (1425-1462) was plagued by the greatest civil war of medieval Russian history. ... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... Afanasiy Nikitin (Никитин, Афанасий in Russian) (? _ 1472) was a Russian traveller, writer and the first European to visit India. ... A Journey Beyond the Three Seas (Хождение за три моря in Russian, or Khozhdeniye za tri morya) is a Russian literary monument in the form of travel notes, made by a merchant from Tver India in 1466... The Volga, widely viewed as the national river of Russia, flows through the western part of the country. ...


Later history

At last, on September 12, 1485, the forces of Ivan the Great seized the city. The principality was given as an appanage to Ivan's grandson, only to be abolished several decades later. Last scions of the ruling dynasty were executed by Ivan the Terrible during the Oprichnina. At that turbulent time, Tver was ruled by Simeon Bekbulatovich, a former khan of Kasimov. The only remnant of his ephemeral reign is a graceful tent-like church in the village of Kushalino, 28 km north-east of Tver. September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... // Events August 5-7 - First outbreak of sweating sickness in England begins August 22 - Battle of Bosworth Field is fought between the armies of King Richard III of England and rival claimant to the throne of England Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond. ... Albus rex Ivan III Ivan III Vasilevich (Иван III Васильевич) (January 22, 1440, Moscow – October 27, 1505, Moscow), also known as Ivan the Great, was a grand duke of Muscovy who first adopted a more pretentious title of the grand duke of all the Russias. Sometimes referred to as the gatherer of... Tsar Ivan the Terrible, by Viktor Vasnetsov Ivan IV Vasilyevich (Russian: ) (August 25, 1530, Moscow â€“ March 18, 1584, Moscow) was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547 and Czar of Russia from 1547 until his death. ... The Oprichnina (Russian: Опричнина) formed a section of Russia ruled directly by the Tsar under Ivan the Terrible. ... This tent-like church was commissioned by Simeon Bekbulatovich in his manor near Tver in 1584. ... Towns coat of arms Kasimov (Russian: Касимов, Tatar: Qasím, historically: Xankirmän, Gorodets Meschorsky, Novy Nizovoy), town in Ryazan Oblast of Russia, the administrative center of Kasimovsky District. ... The rocket-like church at Ostrov near Moscow is considered typical for Boris Godunovs reign. ... Image File history File links Early 20th-century drawing of the Hodegetria church in Kushalino near Tver (1584-92). ...

Catherine Palace

The city's decline was not irrevocable, however. With the foundation of St. Petersburg, Tver gained importance as a principal station on the highway (and later railway) from Moscow to St. Petersburg. It was much visited by Russian royalty and nobility travelling from the old capital to the new one and back. Image File history File links The Travel Palace in Tver (1781-1809). ... Image File history File links The Travel Palace in Tver (1781-1809). ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Categories of Russian nobility and royalty Kniaz (as ancient ruler) Velikiy Kniaz Boyar Tsar (Emperor), Tsarina (Empress, Empress consort) Tsar family Tsarevich, Tsarevna Velikiy Kniaz (Grand Duke) (as title), Velikaya Knyaginya (Grand Duchess), Velikaya Knyazhna (Grand Duchess) Dvoryanstvo Titled Dvoryanstvo Earl Baron Kniaz (as title) Related article Table of Ranks...


Following a great fire of 1763, the city was rebuilt in Neoclassical style. Under Catherine the Great, the downtown was thoroughly reconstructed. Crumbling medieval edifices were razed and replaced with imposing Neoclassical structures. The most important of these are the Travel Palace of the Empress (designed by the celebrated Matvei Kazakov), and the Ascension church (designed by Prince Lvov and consecrated in 1813). 1763 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Catherine the Great redirects here. ... Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture. ... Matvey Fyodorovich Kazakov (Russian: , 1738, Moscow - 1812, Ryazan) was a Russian Neoclassicist architect. ...


In 1931, the city was renamed Kalinin, after a notable Soviet leader Mikhail Kalinin who had been born nearby. A last vestige of pre-Petrine epoch, the Saviour Cathedral, was blown up in 1936. In 1940 the NKVD executed more than 6,200 Polish policemen and prisoners of war from Ostashkov camp. During the Cold War it was home to the air base Kryuchkovo, which is no longer in service. The historic name of Tver was restored in 1990. Mikhail Kalinin A 1919 image showing Joseph Stalin, Vladimir Lenin, and Mikhail Kalinin (right) Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin (Russian: ) (November 19 [O.S. November 7] 1875 – June 3, 1946) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Soviet politician. ... Ostashkov (Russian: ) is a town in Tver Oblast, Russia, 199 km west of Tver. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Kryuchkovo was an air base in Tver Oblast, Russia located 34 km northwest of Tver. ...


The Wehrmacht occupied Kalinin for two months in 1941, leaving the city in ashes. A large-scale resistance movement in the city and the region resulted in over 30,000 Nazi soldiers and officers eliminated during the occupation of the city. Actually, Kalinin was the first major city in Europe to be liberated from the Wehrmacht. Wehrmacht   (armed forces, literally defence force(s)) was the name of the armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. ... This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ...


Apart from the suburban White Trinity Church (1564), there are no ancient monuments left in Tver. The downtown is graced with Catharinian and Soviet edifices, bridges and embankments. Tver's most notable industries are a railroad cars plant, opened in 1898, an excavation-machine factory. Tver is home to Migalovo, which is one of Russia's biggest military airlift facilities. A railroad car (or, more briefly, car, not to be confused with railcar), also known as an item of rolling stock, is a vehicle on a railroad (or railway) that is not a locomotive — one that provides another purpose than purely haulage, although some types of car are powered. ... Migalovo (also given as Tver Migalovo, Kalinin, and Mikhailovo) (ICAO: UUEM) is an air base in Tver Oblast, Russia located 10 km west of Tver. ...


Education

Tver is home to Tver State University, the most highly rated university of the region. It is also home to a technical university, medical, military, and agricultural academies and more than 20 colleges and lyceums, branch campuses of some Moscow higher educational institutions and more than 50 high schools.


External links

  • Amateur photos of Tver
  • Interactive Tver map with places of interest


Coat of arms of Tver Oblast Cities and towns in Tver Oblast Flag of Russia
Administrative center: Tver

Andreapol | Bezhetsk | Bely | Bologoye | Kalyazin | Kashin | Kimry | Konakovo | Krasny Kholm | Kuvshinovo | Likhoslavl | Nelidovo | Ostashkov | Rzhev | Staritsa | Torzhok | Toropets | Udomlya | Vesyegonsk | Vyshny Volochyok | Zapadnaya Dvina | Zubtsov Image File history File links Coat_of_Arms_of_Tver_oblast. ... Tver Oblast (Russian: Тверска́я о́бласть) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Andreapol (Russian: Андреаполь) is a town in Tver Oblast in Russia, located in the upper reaches of the Western Dvina River. ... Bezhetsk (Russian: Бежецк) is a town in Tver Oblast in Russia, located on the Mologa River at its confluence with the Ostrechina River. ... Coat of arms of Bely Bely (Russian: ) is a town in Tver Oblast, Russia, situated on the Obsha River, about halfway between Smolensk (to the west), Toropets (to the north), and Rzhev (to the south-east). ... Coat of arms of Bologoye Bologoye or Bologoe (Russian: ) is a town in Tver Oblast, Russia, the administrative centre of Bologovsky District and a major railway hub. ... Kalyazin (Russian: ) is a small town in Tver Oblast, Russia. ... Country Russia Oblast Tver Oblast District Kashinsky District Founded 1238 Government  - Mayor Anatatoly Sokolov Area  - Town 5-15 km²  (-0. ... Kimry (Russian: Кимры) is a town in Tver Oblast in Russia, located on the Volga River, at its confluence with the Kimerka River. ... Konakovo (Russian: ) is a town in Tver Oblast, Russia. ... Coat of Arms of Krasny Kholm Krasny Kholm (Russian: , meaning Red Hill) is a town in the north-east of Tver Oblast, Russia. ... Kuvshinovo (Russian: ) is a town in Tver Oblast, Russia, located on the Osuga River, 133 km away from Tver. ... Likhoslavl (Russian: ) is a town in Tver Oblast, Russia, located 41 km northwest of Tver, on the Moscow-Saint Petersburg Railway. ... Nelidovo (Russian: ) is a town in Tver Oblast, Russia, located in the Valdai Hills on the Mezha River (Western Dvinas tributary) 276 km southwest of Tver. ... Ostashkov (Russian: ) is a town in Tver Oblast, Russia, 199 km west of Tver. ... Rzhev is the uppermost town situated on the Volga river. ... View of Staritsa in 2002. ... General view of the town in the 1910s. ... Toropets (Торопец in Russian) is a town of 14,600 inhabitants (2002 census) in the Tver Oblast (extreme western Russia), where the tiny Toropa River enters Lake Solomeno. ... Category:Cities_and_Towns_in_Russia Town in Tver oblast, centre of administrative district. ... Vesyegonsk (Весьего́нск) is a town in Tver Oblast, Russia. ... Memorial to Alexey Venetsianov in Vyshny Volochyok Vyshny Volochyok (Russian: ) is a town in Tver Oblast of Russia. ... Zapadnaya Dvina (Russian: ) is a town in Tver Oblast, Russia, located on the right bank of the Western Dvina River, 321 km southwest of Tver. ... The town of Zubtsov as photographed by Prokudin-Gorskii. ...

Coordinates: 56°52′N, 35°55′E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Tver — FactMonster.com (222 words)
451,000), capital of Tver region, central European Russia, at the confluence of the Volga and Tver rivers.
The city grew around a fort established in the late 12th cent.
Tver was renamed (1931) for M. Kalinin, a president of the USSR.
Tver, Russia Travel Guide (178 words)
The city of Tver is geographically situated between Russia's two main cities, Moscow and St. Petersburg.
Tver Region (Oblast), populated by 1.6 million people, covers 84,100 square kilometers and is the largest region in Central Russia.
The territory of the Tver Region is equal to the territories of Moscow, Tula, and Ivanovo Regions combined.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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