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Encyclopedia > Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun
Tutankhaten, Tutankhamon,[1] possibly Nibhurrereya (as referenced in the Amarna letters)
Preceded by:
Smenkhkare? or
Neferneferuaten?
Pharaoh of Egypt
18th Dynasty
Succeeded by:
Ay
Mask of Tutankhamun's mummy, the popular icon for ancient Egypt at The Egyptian Museum in Cairo.
Reign 1333 BC – 1324 BC
Consort(s) Ankhesenamen
Burial KV62
Tutankhamun receives flowers from Ankhesenamen

Nebkheperure Tutankhamun (alternately spelled with Tutenkh-, -amen, -amon), Egyptian twt-ˁnḫ-ı͗mn; *tuwt-ʕankh-yamān (1341 BC1323 BC) was a Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty (ruled 1333 BC1322 BC in the conventional chronology), during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom. His original name, Tutankhaten, meant "Living Image of Aten", while Tutankhamun meant "Living Image of Amun". He is possibly also the Nibhurrereya of the Amarna letters. He was likely the eighteenth dynasty king 'Rathotis', who according to Manetho, an ancient historian, had reigned for nine years—a figure which conforms exactly with Flavius Josephus' generally accurate version of Manetho's Epitome.[2] Tutankhamun is, in modern times, one of the most famous of the pharaohs, and the only one to have a nickname in popular culture (King Tut) King Tut is a 1978 novelty song performed by Steve Martin and the Toot Uncommons (Nitty Gritty Dirt Band). ... EA 161, letter by Aziru, leader of Amurru, (stating his case to pharaoh), one of the Amarna letters in cuneiform writing on a clay tablet. ... Ankhkheperure Living are the Manifestations of Re[2] Nomen Smenkhkare-Djeserkheperu Vigorous is the Soul of Re, Holy of Forms[1] Consort(s) Meritaten Died 1335 BC Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare (sometimes spelled Smenkhare and Smenkare; meaning Vigorous is the Soul of Ra) was a Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty who may... Ankhkheperure Living are the Manifestations of Re[1] Nomen Neferneferuaten Perfect One of the Atens Perfection Consort(s) Smenkhkare? Died 1333 BC Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten is believed to have been a female Pharaoh towards the end of the Amarna era, belonging to the Eighteenth Dynasty; the succession of this period... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... The Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, New Kingdom. ... Kheperkheperure–Irimaat Everlasting are the Manifestations of Re, who does what is right Nomen Itinetjer Ay Gods father, Ay Horus name Kanakht Tekhenkhau The strong bull, the one of glittering crowns Nebty name Sekhempehti dersetet Who is mighty of strength, who subdues the Asiatics Golden Horus Heqamaat sekhepertawy The... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 420 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (850 × 1212 pixel, file size: 195 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 420 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (850 × 1212 pixel, file size: 195 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free... Main entrance of the Egyptian Museum The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum, in Cairo, Egypt, is home to the most extensive collection of ancient Egyptian antiquities in the world. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Tutankhamen receives flowers from Ankhesenamun Ankhesenamun (b. ... The pharaohs solid gold funerary mask was laid to rest with him in KV62 The wall decorations in KV62s burial chamber are modest in comparison to other tombs in the Valley Tomb KV62 in Egypts Valley of the Kings is the Tomb of Tutankhamun, famous the world... Image File history File links Anuk. ... Image File history File links Anuk. ... Tutankhamen receives flowers from Ankhesenamun Ankhesenamun (b. ... -1... (Redirected from 1323 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC 1340s BC 1330s BC - 1320s BC - 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC 1270s BC Events and Trends Egypt: End of Eighteenth Dynasty, start of Nineteenth Dynasty (1320... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... The Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, New Kingdom. ... (Redirected from 1333 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC 1340s BC - 1330s BC - 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC Events and Trends Significant People 1338 BC - Queen Tiy of Egypt, Chief Queen... (Redirected from 1322 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC 1340s BC 1330s BC - 1320s BC - 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC 1270s BC Events and Trends Egypt: End of Eighteenth Dynasty, start of Nineteenth Dynasty (1320... Hathor The history of Egypt is the longest continuous history, as a unified state, of any country in the world. ... The New Kingdom is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BCE and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. ... [1] Aten (or Aton) was the disk of the sun in ancient Egyptian mythology, and originally an aspect of Ra. ... For other uses, see Amun (disambiguation). ... EA 161, letter by Aziru, leader of Amurru, (stating his case to pharaoh), one of the Amarna letters in cuneiform writing on a clay tablet. ... Manetho, also known as Manethon of Sebennytos, was an Egyptian historian and priest from Sebennytos who lived during the Ptolematic era, circa 3rd century BC. Manetho recorded Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt). ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and...

Contents

Significance

Tutankhamun was only 9 years old when he became pharaoh. He died 9 years later, at age 18. In historical terms, Tutankhamun is of only moderate significance, and most of his modern popularity stems from the fact that his tomb in the Valley of the Kings was discovered almost completely intact. However, he also is significant as a figure among those who managed the beginning of the transition from the heretical Atenism of his predecessors Akhenaten and perhaps Smenkhkare back to the familiar Egyptian religion. As Tutankhamun began his reign at such an early age, his vizier and eventual successor Ay was probably making most of the important political decisions during Tutankhamun's reign. The 1922 discovery by Howard Carter of Tutankhamun received worldwide press coverage and sparked a renewed public interest in ancient Egypt, for which Tutankhamun's burial mask remains the popular face. Location of the valley in the Theban Hills, West of the Nile, October 1988 (red arrow shows location) The Valley of the Kings (Arabic: وادي الملوك Wadi Biban el-Muluk; Gates of the King)[1] is a valley in Egypt where for a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to... Aten Atenism (or the Amarna heresy) is one of the earliest monotheistic religions, associated above all with the eighteenth dynasty Pharaoh Amenhotep IV, better known under the name he later adopted, Akhenaten. ... For other uses, see Akhenaten (disambiguation). ... Ankhkheperure Living are the Manifestations of Re[2] Nomen Smenkhkare-Djeserkheperu Vigorous is the Soul of Re, Holy of Forms[1] Consort(s) Meritaten Died 1335 BC Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare (sometimes spelled Smenkhare and Smenkare; meaning Vigorous is the Soul of Ra) was a Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty who may... Egyptian goddess Isis protecting a mummified pharaoh, a late Ptolemic relief from the Philae Temple, which was first built in the thirtieth dynasty, c. ... Kheperkheperure–Irimaat Everlasting are the Manifestations of Re, who does what is right Nomen Itinetjer Ay Gods father, Ay Horus name Kanakht Tekhenkhau The strong bull, the one of glittering crowns Nebty name Sekhempehti dersetet Who is mighty of strength, who subdues the Asiatics Golden Horus Heqamaat sekhepertawy The... For other persons of the same name, see Howard Carter. ... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River...


Parentage

Tutankhamun's parentage is uncertain. An inscription calls him a king's son, but it is not clear which king was meant. Most scholars think that he was probably a son either of Amenhotep III (although probably not by his Great Royal Wife Tiye), or more likely a son of Amenhotep III's son Akhenaten around 1342 BC. However, Professor James Allen argues that Tutankhamun was more likely to be a son of the short-lived king Smenkhkare rather than Akhenaten. Allen argues that Akhenaten consciously chose a female co-regent named Neferneferuaten as his successor rather than Tutankhamun which would have been unlikely if the latter had been his son.[3] Tutankhamun was married to Ankhesenpaaten (possibly his sister), and after the re-establishment of the traditional Egyptian religion the couple changed the –aten ending of their names to the –amun ending, becoming Ankhesenamun and Tutankhamun. They are known to have had two children, both died as babies (may have been stillborn) girls—whose mummies were discovered in his tomb. The "boy king" died by reasons still disputed.Some believe that he was murdered by his advisors, but it is also possible that he died from injuries suffered in an accident or while at war. A recent CT scan of his mummy show a very bad injury to one of his knees so some scientists now think he died of infection. The muder theory is also unlikely now because of the scan. He was buried in the Valley of the Kings, in a small tomb today known as KV62, that was not intended for a king. Nebmaatre The Lord of Truth is Re[2] Nomen Amenhotep Hekawaset Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Thebes[1] Horus name Kanakht Emkhaimaat The strong bull, appearing in truth Nebty name Semenhepusegerehtawy One establishing laws, pacifying the two lands Golden Horus Aakhepesh-husetiu Great of valour, smiting the Asiatics Consort(s... Great Royal Wife (or ḥmt nswt wrt) is the term used to refer to the chief wife of an Egyptian pharaoh on the day of his coronation. ... Tiye. ... For other uses, see Akhenaten (disambiguation). ... Ankhkheperure Living are the Manifestations of Re[1] Nomen Neferneferuaten Perfect One of the Atens Perfection Consort(s) Smenkhkare? Died 1333 BC Ankhkheperure Neferneferuaten is believed to have been a female Pharaoh towards the end of the Amarna era, belonging to the Eighteenth Dynasty; the succession of this period... Ankhesenamun, also known as Ankhesepaaten, was the third of six known daughters of the Pharaoh Akhenaten by his wife Nefertiti. ... Location of the valley in the Theban Hills, West of the Nile, October 1988 (red arrow shows location) The Valley of the Kings (Arabic: وادي الملوك Wadi Biban el-Muluk; Gates of the King)[1] is a valley in Egypt where for a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to... The pharaohs solid gold funerary mask was laid to rest with him in KV62 The wall decorations in KV62s burial chamber are modest in comparison to other tombs in the Valley Tomb KV62 in Egypts Valley of the Kings is the Tomb of Tutankhamun, famous the world...


The first theory was that he was a son of Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye. This theory seems unlikely since Tiye would have been more than fifty years old at the time of Tutankhamun's birth. Another theory is that Tutankhamun was the son of Smenkhkare and Meritaten. This is possible, but not plausible. Smenkhkare came on the scene when Akhenaten entered year 14 of his reign and it is thought that during this time Meritaten married Smenkhkare. So, if Smenkhkare is the father of Tutankhamun, he would have needed at least a three year reign, because if it had been shorter, Tutankhamun would have been barely seven when he came to the throne. However, if there had been lengthy co-regency between Amenhotep III and Akhenaten, Amenhotep definitely could be Tutankhamun's father. Nebmaatre The Lord of Truth is Re[2] Nomen Amenhotep Hekawaset Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Thebes[1] Horus name Kanakht Emkhaimaat The strong bull, appearing in truth Nebty name Semenhepusegerehtawy One establishing laws, pacifying the two lands Golden Horus Aakhepesh-husetiu Great of valour, smiting the Asiatics Consort(s... Tiye. ... Ankhkheperure Living are the Manifestations of Re[2] Nomen Smenkhkare-Djeserkheperu Vigorous is the Soul of Re, Holy of Forms[1] Consort(s) Meritaten Died 1335 BC Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare (sometimes spelled Smenkhare and Smenkare; meaning Vigorous is the Soul of Ra) was a Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty who may... Meritaten (her name means Beloved of Aten – Aten was the sun-god her father worshipped) was the firstborn of the six daughters of Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaten and Queen Nefertiti. ...


The current theory is that he was the son of Akhenaten and his minor wife Kiya. Queen Kiya's title was "Greatly Beloved Wife of Akhenaten" so it is possible that she could have borne him an heir. Supporting this theory, images on the tomb wall in the tomb of Akhenaten show that a royal fan bearer standing next to Kiya's death bed, fanning what is either a princess or more likely a wet nurse holding a baby, which would indicate that the wet nurse was holding the boy-king-to-be. A plaster study of a young woman wearing large earings, generally identified as Kiya. ...


Reign

cartouches of his birth and throne names are displayed between rampant Sekhmet lioness warrior images (perhaps with his head) crushing enemies of several ethnicities, while Nekhbet flies protectively above
cartouches of his birth and throne names are displayed between rampant Sekhmet lioness warrior images (perhaps with his head) crushing enemies of several ethnicities, while Nekhbet flies protectively above

During Tutankhamun's reign, Akhenaten's Amarna revolution (Atenism) was being reversed. Akhenaten had attempted to supplant the traditional priesthood and deities with a god who was until then considered minor, Aten. In Year 3 of Tutankhamun's reign (1331 BC), when he was still a boy at the age eleven and probably under the influence of two older advisors (Akhenaten's vizier Ay and perhaps Nefertiti), the ban on the old pantheon of deities and their temples was lifted, the traditional privileges were restored to their priesthoods, and the capital was moved back to Thebes. The young pharaoh adopted the name Tutankhamun, changing it from his birth name Tutankhaten. Because of his age at the time these decisions were made, it is generally thought that most if not all the responsibility for them falls on his advisors. Also, King Tutankhamun restored all of the traditional deities and restored order to the chaos that his relative had caused. Many temples devoted to Amun-Ra were built. And even though Tutankhamun's wooden box depicts him going to war against Hittites and Nubians and he is shown wearing the blue war crown, it is doubted that he ever went to war. Image File history File linksMetadata Kingtut2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Kingtut2. ... For other uses, see Cartouche (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sekhmet (disambiguation). ... In Egyptian mythology, Nekhbet (of Nekheb) was an early, predynastic, local vulture-goddess, patron of the city of Nekheb. ... Amarna The site of Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna or incorrectly as Tel el-Amarna; see below) (Arabic: العمارنة al-‘amārnä) is located on the east bank of the Nile River in the modern Egyptian province of al-Minya, some 58 km (38 miles) south of the city of... Aten Atenism (or the Amarna heresy) is one of the earliest monotheistic religions, associated above all with the eighteenth dynasty Pharaoh Amenhotep IV, better known under the name he later adopted, Akhenaten. ... This list of deities aims at giving information about deities in the different religions, cultures and mythologies of the world. ... [1] Aten (or Aton) was the disk of the sun in ancient Egyptian mythology, and originally an aspect of Ra. ... ik ben jaaapie A Vizier (Persian,وزير - wazīr) (sometimes also spelled Vazir, Vizir, Vasir, Wazir, Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages), literally burden-bearer or helper, is a term, originally Persian, for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or minister, often to... Kheperkheperure–Irimaat Everlasting are the Manifestations of Re, who does what is right Nomen Itinetjer Ay Gods father, Ay Horus name Kanakht Tekhenkhau The strong bull, the one of glittering crowns Nebty name Sekhempehti dersetet Who is mighty of strength, who subdues the Asiatics Golden Horus Heqamaat sekhepertawy The... Bust of Nefertiti from Berlins Altes Museum. ... Egyptian goddess Isis protecting a mummified pharaoh, a late Ptolemic relief from the Philae Temple, which was first built in the thirtieth dynasty, c. ... This list of deities aims at giving information about deities in the different religions, cultures and mythologies of the world. ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... Thebes Thebes (, Thēbai) is the Greek designation of the ancient Egyptian niwt (The) City and niwt-rst (The) Southern City. It is located about 800 km south of the Mediterranean, on the east bank of the river Nile (). Thebes was the capital of Waset, the fourth Upper Egyptian nome... Amun (also spelt Amon, Amoun, Amen, and rarely Imenand, and spelt in Greek as Ammon, and Hammon) was the name of a deity, in Egyptian mythology, who gradually rose to become one of the most important, before disappearing back into the shadows. ...


Events after his death

A now-famous letter to the Hittite king Suppiluliuma I from a widowed queen of Egypt, asking for one of his sons as a husband, has been attributed to Ankhesenamun (among others). The royal lineage of Egypt was carried by its women. Marriage to a woman of the royal line was essential for a male pharaoh, even if he came from outside the lineage. Suspicious of this good fortune, Suppiluliumas I first sent a messenger to make inquiries about the truth of the young queen's story. After receiving reports that the situation was as related to Suppiluliuma I, he sent his son, Zannanza, accepting her offer. However, Zannanza got no further than the border before he was killed, according to the Hittite archives. If Ankhesenamun were the queen in question, and his death a strategic murder, it was probably at the orders of either Horemheb or Ay, who both had the opportunity and the motive to kill him. Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from Kaneš who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... Suppiluliuma I (Shuppiluliuma) was king of the Hittites (ca. ... Ankhesenpaaten was the third of six known daughters of the Pharaoh Akhenaten by his wife Nefertiti. ... Prince Zannanza (died c. ... Djeserkheperure Setepenre Holy are the Manifestations of Re, Chosen of Re[1] Nomen Horemheb Meryamun Horus is in Jubilation, Beloved of Amun Consort(s) Mutnedjmet, Amenia Died 1292 BC Burial KV57 Djeserkheperure Horemheb was the last Pharaoh of Ancient Egypts 18th Dynasty from c. ... Kheperkheperure–Irimaat Everlasting are the Manifestations of Re, who does what is right Nomen Itinetjer Ay Gods father, Ay Horus name Kanakht Tekhenkhau The strong bull, the one of glittering crowns Nebty name Sekhempehti dersetet Who is mighty of strength, who subdues the Asiatics Golden Horus Heqamaat sekhepertawy The...


Name

Horus name

Image:Srxtail2.GIF
Kanakht Tutmesut
The strong bull, pleasing of birth
Nebti name









Neferhepusegerehtawy Wer-Ah-Amun Neb-r-Djer
One of perfect laws, who pacifies the two lands; Great of the palace of Amun; Lord of all[4]
Golden Horus name













Wetjeskhausehetepnetjeru Heqa-maat-sehetep-netjeru Wetjes-khau-itef-Re Wetjes-khau-Tjestawy-Im
Who wears crowns and pleases the gods; Ruler of Truth, who pleases the gods; Who wears the crowns of his father, Re; Who wears crowns, and binds the two lands therein
Prenomen
Image:Hiero_Ca1.png

Image:Hiero_Ca2.png
Nebkheperure
Lord of the forms of Re
Son of Re

 
Image:Hiero_Ca1.png

Image:Hiero_Ca2.png
Tutankhamun Hekaiunushema
Living Image of Amun, ruler of Upper Heliopolis

Under Atenism, Tutankhamun was named Tutankhaten, which in Egyptian hieroglyphs is: Image File history File links Srxtail2. ... copied from http://fi. ... copied from http://fi. ... copied from http://fi. ... copied from http://fi. ... For other uses, see Heliopolis. ... Aten Atenism (or the Amarna heresy) is one of the earliest monotheistic religions, associated above all with the eighteenth dynasty Pharaoh Amenhotep IV, better known under the name he later adopted, Akhenaten. ... A section of the Papyrus of Ani showing cursive hieroglyphs. ...





Technically, this name is transliterated as twt-ˁnḫ-ỉtn. In the field of Egyptology, transliteration is the process of converting (or mapping) texts written in the Egyptian language to alphabetic symbols representing uniliteral hieroglyphs or their hieratic and demotic counterparts. ...


At the reintroduction of the old pantheon, his name was changed. It is transliterated as twt-ˁnḫ-ỉmn ḥq3-ỉwnw-šmˁ, and often realized as Tutankhamun Hekaiunushema, meaning "Living image of Amun, ruler of Upper Heliopolis". On his ascension to the throne, Tutankhamun took a praenomen. This is translated as nb-ḫprw-rˁ, and realized as Nebkheperure, meaning "Lord of the forms of Re". The name Nibhurrereya in the Amarna letters may be a variation of this praenomen. For other uses, see Amun (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Heliopolis. ... For other uses, see Ra (disambiguation). ... EA 161, letter by Aziru, leader of Amurru, (stating his case to pharaoh), one of the Amarna letters in cuneiform writing on a clay tablet. ...


Cause of death

The golden mask of the "boy king"

For a long time the cause of Tutankhamun's death was unknown, and it is still the root of much speculation. How old was the king when he died? Did he suffer from any physical abnormalities? Had he been murdered? Some of these questions were finally answered in early 2005 when the results of a set of CT scans on the mummy were released, but many still remain to be unsolved. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 447 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (573 × 768 pixel, file size: 235 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Mask of Tutankhamun File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 447 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (573 × 768 pixel, file size: 235 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Mask of Tutankhamun File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... CAT apparatus in a hospital Computed axial tomography (CAT), computer-assisted tomography, computed tomography, CT, or body section roentgenography is the process of using digital processing to generate a three-dimensional image of the internals of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around...


The body originally was inspected by Howard Carter’s team in the early 1920s, although they were primarily interested in recovering the jewelry and amulets from the body. To remove these objects from the body, which often were stuck fast by the hardened embalming resins used, Carter's team cut up the mummy into various pieces: the arms and legs were detached, the torso cut in half and the head was severed. Hot knives were used to remove it from the golden mask to which it was cemented by resin. For other persons of the same name, see Howard Carter. ...


Since the body was placed back in its sarcophagus in 1926, the mummy has subsequently been X-rayed three times: first in 1968 by a group from the University of Liverpool, then in 1978 by a group from the University of Michigan, and finally in 2005 a team of Egyptian scientists led by Secretary General of the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities, Dr. Zahi Hawass, who conducted a CT scan on the mummy. The University of Liverpool is a university in the city of Liverpool, England. ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (U of M, UM or simply Michigan) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Michigan. ... Part of the Egyptian Ministry of Culture, the Supreme Council of Antiquities (commonly abbreviated SCA) is responsible for the conservation, protection and regulation of all antiquities and archaeological excavations in the Arab Republic of Egypt. ... Dr. Zahi Hawass signs an autograph (Aug. ... negron305 Cat scan redirects here. ...


X-rays of his mummy, which were taken previously, in 1968, had revealed a dense spot at the lower back of the skull. This had been interpreted as a subdural hematoma, which would have been caused by a blow. Such an injury could have been the result of an accident, but it also had been suggested that the young pharaoh was murdered. If this were the case, there are a number of theories as to who was responsible. One popular candidate was his immediate successor Ay and other candidates included his wife and chariot-driver. Interestingly, there seem to be signs of calcification within the supposed injury, which if true, meant Tutankhamun lived for a fairly extensive period of time (on the order of several months) after the injury was inflicted.[5] In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... This article is about the corpse preparation method, for other uses of Mummy see Mummy (disambiguation) An Egyptian mummy kept in the Vatican Museums. ... For other uses of Skull, see Skull (disambiguation). ... A subdural hematoma (SDH) is a form of traumatic brain injury in which blood collects between the dura (the outer protective covering of the brain) and the arachnoid (the middle layer of the meninges). ... Kheperkheperure–Irimaat Everlasting are the Manifestations of Re, who does what is right Nomen Itinetjer Ay Gods father, Ay Horus name Kanakht Tekhenkhau The strong bull, the one of glittering crowns Nebty name Sekhempehti dersetet Who is mighty of strength, who subdues the Asiatics Golden Horus Heqamaat sekhepertawy The... Dystrophic calcification is the mineralization of soft tissue without a systemic mineral imbalance. ...


Much confusion had been caused by a small loose sliver of bone within the upper cranial cavity, which was discovered from the same X-ray analysis. Some people have suggested this visible bone fragment for the supposed head injury. In fact, since Tutankhamun's brain was removed post mortem in the mummification process, and considerable quantities of now-hardened resin introduced into the skull on at least two separate occasions after that, had the fragment resulted from an injury while he was alive, some scholars, including the 2005 CT scan team, say it almost certainly would not still be loose in the cranial cavity. Human brain In animals, the brain (enkephale) (Greek for in the skull), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behavior. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses of Skull, see Skull (disambiguation). ... CAT apparatus in a hospital Computed axial tomography (CAT), computer-assisted tomography, computed tomography, CT, or body section roentgenography is the process of using digital processing to generate a three-dimensional image of the internals of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around...


2005 findings

Tutankhamun coffinette
Tutankhamun coffinette

On March 8, 2005, Egyptian archaeologist Zahi Hawass revealed the results of a CT scan performed on the pharaoh's mummy. The scan uncovered no evidence of a blow to the back of the head and no evidence suggesting foul play. There was a hole in the head, but it appeared to have been drilled, presumably by embalmers. A fracture to Tutankhamun's left thighbone was interpreted as evidence that the pharaoh badly broke his leg before he died and his leg became severely infected; however, members of the Egyptian-led research team recognized, as a less likely possibility, that the fracture was caused by the embalmers. Altogether 1,700 images were produced of Tutankhamun's mummy during the 15-minute CT scan. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (449x775, 150 KB) A coffinette that held the mummified liver of Tutankhamun. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (449x775, 150 KB) A coffinette that held the mummified liver of Tutankhamun. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr. Zahi Hawass signs an autograph (Aug. ... CAT apparatus in a hospital Computed axial tomography (CAT), computer-assisted tomography, computed tomography, CT, or body section roentgenography is the process of using digital processing to generate a three-dimensional image of the internals of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around... Foul play may refer to: Crime. ... REDITECT Embalming ...


Much was learned about the young king's life. His age at death was estimated at nineteen years, based on physical developments that set upper and lower limits to his age. The king had been in general good health and there were no signs of any major infectious disease or malnutrition during his childhood. He was slight of build, and was roughly 170 cm (5 ft 7 in) tall. He had large front incisor teeth and the overbite characteristic of the Thutmosid royal line to which he belonged. He also had a pronounced dolichocephalic (elongated) skull, although it was within normal bounds and highly unlikely to have been pathological. Given the fact that many of the royal depictions of Akhenaten (possibly his father, certainly a relative), often featured such an elongated head, it is likely an exaggeration of a family trait, rather than a distinct abnormality, and not related to Marfan Syndrome as some have speculated. The research also showed that the pharaoh had cleft palate.[6] A slight bend to his spine also was found, but the scientists agreed that there was no associated evidence to suggest that it was pathological in nature, and that it was much more likely to have been caused during the embalming process. This ended speculation based on the previous X-rays that Tutankhamun had suffered from scoliosis. (However, it was subsequently noted by Dr. Zahi Hawass that the mummy found in KV55, provisionally identified as Tutankhamun's father, exhibited several similarities to that of Tutankhamun—a cleft palate, a dolichocephalic skull and slight scoliosis.)[7] Incisors (from Latin incidere, to cut) are the first kind of tooth in heterodont mammals. ... A malocclusion refers to the misalignment of teeth. ... The cephalic index is the ratio of the maximum breadth of the head to its maximum length, sometimes multiplied by 100 for convenience. ... For other uses, see Akhenaten (disambiguation). ... Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder of the connective tissue characterized by disproportionately long limbs, long thin fingers, a typically tall stature, and a predisposition to cardiovascular abnormalities, specifically those affecting the heart valves and aorta. ... Dr. Zahi Hawass signs an autograph (Aug. ... Edward R. Ayrton discovered Tomb KV55 in Egypts Valley of the Kings on January 6, 1907; Ayrtons sponsor, Theodore M. Davis, published an account of the dig (The Tomb of Queen Tîyi) in 1910. ... The cephalic index is the ratio of the maximum breadth of the head to its maximum length, sometimes multiplied by 100 for convenience. ...

Tutankhamun at war. His death might have been caused by the crash of such a chariot.
Tutankhamun at war. His death might have been caused by the crash of such a chariot.

The 2005 conclusion by a team of Egyptian scientists, based on the CT scan findings, confirmed that Tutankhamun died of gangrene after breaking his leg. After consultations with Italian and Swiss experts, the Egyptian scientists found that the fracture in Tutankhamun's left leg most likely occurred only days before his death, which had then become gangrenous and led directly to his death. The fracture was not sustained during the mummification process or as a result of some damage to the mummy as claimed by Howard Carter. The Egyptian scientists also have found no evidence that he had been struck on the head and no other indication that he was murdered, as had been speculated previously. Further investigation of the fracture led to the conclusion that it was severe, most likely caused by a fall from some height—possibly a chariot riding accident due to the absence of pelvis injuries—and may have been fatal within hours[1]. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 559 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1432 pixel, file size: 375 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 559 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1432 pixel, file size: 375 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Gangrene is the necrosis and subsequent decay of body tissues caused by infection or thrombosis. ... For other persons of the same name, see Howard Carter. ... The pelvis (pl. ...


Despite the relatively poor condition of the mummy, the Egyptian team found evidence that great care had been given to the body of Tutankhamun during the embalming process. They found five distinct embalming materials, which were applied to the body at various stages of the mummification process. This counters previous assertions that the king’s body had been prepared carelessly and in a hurry. In November 2006, at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America, Egyptian radiologists stated that that CT images and scans of the king's mummy revealed Tutankhamun's height to be 180 centimetres or 5 feet 11 inches tall, a revision upward from the earlier estimates.[2] The Radiological Society of North America (RSNA), founded in 1915, has the purpose to promote and develop the highest standards of radiology and related sciences through education and research. The society publishes the journals Radiology and RadioGraphics. ...


Michael R. King continues to dispute these findings, claiming that the king was murdered. He argues that the loose sliver of bone was loosened by the embalmers during mummification, but that it had been broken before. He argues that a blow to the back of the head (from a fall or an actual blow) may have caused the brain to move forward, hitting the front of the skull, breaking small pieces of the bone right above the eyes.[8] This article is about the corpse preparation method, for other uses of Mummy see Mummy (disambiguation) An Egyptian mummy kept in the Vatican Museums. ...


Discovery of KV62

Main article: KV62
Tomb of Tutankhamun in the Valley of the Kings
Tomb of Tutankhamun in the Valley of the Kings

Tutankhamun seems to have faded from public consciousness in Ancient Egypt within a short time after his death, and he remained virtually unknown until the early twentieth century. His tomb was robbed at least twice in antiquity, but based on the items taken (including perishable oils and perfumes) and the evidence of restoration of the tomb after the intrusions, it seems clear that these robberies took place within several months at most of the initial burial. Eventually the location of the tomb was lost because it had come to be buried by stone chips from subsequent tombs, either dumped there or washed there by floods. In the years that followed, some huts for workers were built over the tomb entrance, clearly not knowing what lay beneath. When at the end of the twentieth dynasty the Valley of the Kings burials were systematically dismantled, the burial of Tutankhamun was overlooked, presumably because knowledge of it had been lost and even his name may have been forgotten. The pharaohs solid gold funerary mask was laid to rest with him in KV62 The wall decorations in KV62s burial chamber are modest in comparison to other tombs in the Valley Tomb KV62 in Egypts Valley of the Kings is the Tomb of Tutankhamun, famous the world... Painted walls in the burial chamber KV62 (Tutankhamuns tomb) Valley of the Kings, Egypt Photo taken by Hajor, Dec. ... Painted walls in the burial chamber KV62 (Tutankhamuns tomb) Valley of the Kings, Egypt Photo taken by Hajor, Dec. ... Location of the valley in the Theban Hills, West of the Nile, October 1988 (red arrow shows location) The Valley of the Kings (Arabic: وادي الملوك Wadi Biban el-Muluk; Gates of the King)[1] is a valley in Egypt where for a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to...


For many years, rumors of a "Curse of the Pharaohs" (probably fueled by newspapers seeking sales at the time of the discovery) persisted, emphasizing the early death of some of those who had first entered the tomb. However, a recent study of journals and death records indicates no statistical difference between the age of death of those who entered the tomb and those on the expedition who did not. Indeed, most lived past seventy. The Curse of the Pharaohs refers to the belief that any person who disturbs the mummy of an Ancient Egyptian pharaoh is placed under a curse whereby they will shortly die. ... This article is about the field of statistics. ...

Senet board game
Senet board game

Ancient Egyptian senet games similar to the one displayed at the right, were found in the tomb.[9] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 507 pixelsFull resolution (1738 × 1101 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 507 pixelsFull resolution (1738 × 1101 pixel, file size: 2. ... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... Nefertari playing Senet. ...


Some of the treasures in Tutankhamun's tomb are noted for their apparent departure from traditional depictions of the boy king. Certain cartouches where a king's name should appear have been altered, as if to reuse the property of a previous pharaoh—as often occurred. However, this instance may simply be the product of "updating" the artifacts to reflect the shift from Tutankhaten to Tutankhamun. Other differences are less easy to explain, such as the older, more angular facial features of the middle coffin and canopic coffinettes. The most widely accepted theory for these latter variations is that the items were originally intended for Smenkhkare, who may or may not be the mysterious KV55 mummy. Said mummy, according to craniological examinations, bears a striking first-order (father-to-son, brother-to-brother) relationship to Tutankhamun.[10] Ankhkheperure Living are the Manifestations of Re[2] Nomen Smenkhkare-Djeserkheperu Vigorous is the Soul of Re, Holy of Forms[1] Consort(s) Meritaten Died 1335 BC Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare (sometimes spelled Smenkhare and Smenkare; meaning Vigorous is the Soul of Ra) was a Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty who may...


2007 discoveries in Tutankhamun's tomb

On September 24, 2007, it was announced that a team of Egyptian archaeologists led by Zahi Hawass, discovered eight baskets of 3,000 year old doum fruit in the treasury of Tutankhamun's tomb.[11] Doum comes from a type of palm tree native to the Nile Valley. The doum fruit are traditionally offered at funerals. Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Dr. Zahi Hawass signs an autograph (Aug. ... Four styles of household basket. ... A doum palm (Hyphaene thebaica) is a type of palm tree, also called gingerbread tree, with edible oval fruit, originally native to the Nile valley. ... Genera Many; see list of Arecaceae genera Arecaceae (also known as Palmae or Palmaceae), the palm family, is a family of flowering plants, belonging to the monocot order Arecales. ... ... Underwater funeral in Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea A funeral is a ceremony marking a persons death. ...


Fifty clay pots bearing Tutankhamun's official seal were also discovered. According to Dr Hawas, the containers probably contained money that were destined to travel with the pharaoh to the afterlife. He said the containers will soon be opened. The objects were originally discovered, but not opened or removed from the tomb, by Howard Carter.[11] Plate LXXA shows detail on a ceremonial walking staff found buried with Tutankhamun; it depicts the two foes, or the Northern and Southern enemies of Egypt. ...


King Tutankhamun still rests in his tomb in the Valley of the Kings, in a temperature-controlled glass case. On November 4, 2007, 85 years to the day since Howard Carter's discovery, the actual face of the 19-year-old pharaoh was put on view in his underground tomb at Luxor, when the linen-wrapped mummy was removed from its golden sarcophagus for display in a climate-controlled glass box. This was done to prevent the heightened rate of decomposition caused by the humidity and warmth from tourists visiting the tomb.[12] Location of the valley in the Theban Hills, West of the Nile, October 1988 (red arrow shows location) The Valley of the Kings (Arabic: وادي الملوك Wadi Biban el-Muluk; Gates of the King)[1] is a valley in Egypt where for a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to... Luxor on Nile, at Luxor Temple with mosque. ...


Tutankhamun in popular culture

If Tutankhamun is the world's best known pharaoh, it is partly because his tomb is among the best preserved, and his image and associated artifacts the most-exhibited. He also has entered popular culture—he has, for example, been commemorated in the whimsical song "King Tut" by the American comedian Steve Martin with a backup group he called "The Toot Uncommons". He was also the namesake of one of Batman's arch enemies played by Victor Buono in the 1960s American television series "Batman" with Adam West. Egypt in the European imagination has loomed large from the very first written texts in the Greek and Hebrew traditions. ... King Tut is a 1978 novelty song performed by Steve Martin and the Toot Uncommons (Nitty Gritty Dirt Band). ... For other uses, see Steve Martin (disambiguation). ... Victor Buono Victor Buono (February 3, 1938 - January 1, 1982) was an American actor. ... This article is about the 1960s television series. ... Adam West (born William West Anderson on September 19, 1928) is an American actor who is best known for playing the role of Batman/Bruce Wayne on the 1960s TV series Batman (which also had a film adaptation). ...

In 1939, The Three Stooges spoofed the discovery of King Tutankhamun with their short film We Want Our Mummy.
In 1939, The Three Stooges spoofed the discovery of King Tutankhamun with their short film We Want Our Mummy.

In 1939, slapstick comedy trio the Three Stooges filmed We Want Our Mummy, in which they explored the tomb of the midget King Rutentuten (pronounced "rootin'-tootin'") and his Queen, Hotsy Totsy. A decade later, they were crooked used chariot salesmen in Mummy's Dummies, in which they ultimately assist a different King Rootentootin (Vernon Dent) with a toothache. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... We Want Our Mummy is the 38th Three Stooges short released by Columbia Pictures. ... The Three Stooges were an American vaudeville and comedy act of the mid 20th century best known for their numerous short subject films. ... We Want Our Mummy is the 38th Three Stooges short released by Columbia Pictures. ... For the New York prison see The Tombs. ... In the 19th century, midget was a medical term referring to an extremely short but normally-proportioned person and was used in contrast to dwarf, which denoted disproportionate shortness. ... For other uses, see Chariot (disambiguation). ... Mummys Dummies (1948) Ancient Egypt The Three Stooges are used chariot salesmen in Ancient Egypt. ... Vernon Bruce Dent (born February 16th, 1895, in San Jose, CA; died November 5th, 1963, in Hollywood, CA) was a comic actor who co-starred in many short films for Columbia Pictures. ...


As a side effect, the interest in this tomb and its alleged "curse" led to horror movies featuring a vengeful mummy. As Jon Manchip White writes, in his forward to the 1977 edition of Carter's The Discovery of the Tomb of Tutankhamun, "The pharaoh who in life was one of the least esteemed of Egypt's kings has become in death the most renowned." DVD cover showing horror characters as depicted by Universal Studios. ...


Tutankhamun's appearance and controversy

A rendering of Tutankhamun on the cover of National Geographic in 2005 - considered controversial by some because it exhibits hazel eyes and a mid-range of skin tones
A rendering of Tutankhamun on the cover of National Geographic in 2005 - considered controversial by some because it exhibits hazel eyes and a mid-range of skin tones
See also: Racial characteristics of ancient Egyptians

In 2005, three teams of scientists (Egyptian, French, and American), in partnership with the National Geographic Society, developed a new facial likeness of Tutankhamun. The Egyptian team worked from 1,700 three-dimensional CT scans of the pharaoh's skull. The French and American teams worked plastic moulds created from these—but the Americans were never told who the subject of the reconstruction was.[13] All three teams created silicone busts of their interpretation of what the young monarch looked like. King Tuts face. ... King Tuts face. ... The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ... From left: Libyan, Nubian, Syrian, and Egyptian. ... This article is about the organization. ... 2-dimensional renderings (ie. ... CAT apparatus in a hospital Computed axial tomography (CAT), computer-assisted tomography, computed tomography, CT, or body section roentgenography is the process of using digital processing to generate a three-dimensional image of the internals of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around... Silicones (more accurately called polymerized siloxanes or polysiloxanes) are inorganic-organic polymers with the chemical formula [R2SiO]n, where R = organic groups such as methyl, ethyl, and phenyl. ...


Skin tone

Although modern technology can reconstruct Tutankhamun's facial structure with a high degree of accuracy based on CT data from his mummy,[14][15] correctly determining his skin tone is impossible. The problem is not a lack of skill on the part of Ancient Egyptians. Egyptian artisans distinguished quite accurately among different ethnicities, as can be seen clearly in the image, above at "Reign", where the enemies being vanquished are displayed under the rampant lioness with Tutankhamun's head. Sometimes they depicted their subjects in totally unreal colors, the purposes for which aren't completely understood. The colours may have had ritual significance. There is no consensus on King Tut's skin tone.


Terry Garcia, National Geographic's executive vice president for mission programs, said, in response to some protesters of the King Tut reconstruction—

The big variable is skin tone. North Africans, we know today, had a range of skin tones, from light to dark. In this case, we selected a medium skin tone, and we say, quite up front, 'This is midrange.' We will never know for sure what his exact skin tone was or the colour of his eyes with 100% certainty.  … Maybe in the future, people will come to a different conclusion.[16]

Exhibitions

The splendors of Tutankhamun's tomb are among the most traveled artifacts in the world. They have been to many countries, but probably the best-known exhibition tour was the Treasures of Tutankhamun tour, which ran from 1972-1979. This exhibition was first shown in London at the British Museum from 30 March until 30 September 1972. More than 1.6 million visitors came to see the exhibition, some queueing for up to eight hours and it was the most popular exhibition ever in the Museum. The exhibition moved on to many other countries, including the USA, USSR, Japan, France, Canada, and West Germany. The exhibition in the United States was organized by the Metropolitan Museum of Art and ran from from 17 November, 1976 through 15 April, 1979. It was attended by more than eight million people in the United States. London museum | name = British Museum | image = British Museum from NE 2. ... Metropolitan Museum of Art New York Elevation The Metropolitan Museum of Art, often referred to simply as the Met, is one of the worlds largest and most important art museums. ...


An excerpt from the site of the American National Gallery of Art: The West building of the National Gallery of Art with the East building visible behind and to to the left The National Gallery of Art is an art museum, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C. The museum was established in 1937 by the Congress, with funds for...

"...55 objects from the tomb of Tutankhamun included the boy-king's solid gold funeral mask, a gilded wood figure of the goddess Selket, lamps, jars, jewelry, furniture, and other objects for the afterlife. This exhibition established the term 'blockbuster.' A combination of the age-old fascination with ancient Egypt, the legendary allure of gold and precious stones, and the funeral trappings of the boy-king created an immense popular response. Visitors waited up to 8 hours before the building opened to view the exhibition. At times the line completely encircled the West Building."[17]

In 2005, hoping to inspire a whole new generation of museum visitors, Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities, in partnership with Arts and Exhibitions International and the National Geographic Society, launched a new tour of Tutankhamun's treasures, this time called "Tutankhamun and the Golden Age of the Pharaohs." It was expected to draw more than three million people.[18]


The exhibition started in Los Angeles, California, then moved to Fort Lauderdale, Florida, and Chicago. The fourth location is Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and the fifth will be London[19] before finally returning to Egypt in August 2008. Subsequent events have propelled an encore of the exhibition in the United States, beginning with the Dallas Museum of Art in October of 2008.[20] The tour will continue on to two other U.S. cities which have yet to be named. [21] Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country State County Broward Established 27 March 1911 Government  - Type Commission-Manager  - Mayor Jim Naugle Area [1]  - City 36. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City 234. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


The exhibition includes 80 exhibits from the reigns of Tutankhamun's immediate predecessors in the eighteenth dynasty, such as Hatshepsut, whose trade policies greatly increased the wealth of that dynasty and enabled the lavish wealth of Tutankhamun's burial artifacts, as well as 50 from Tutankhamun's tomb. The exhibition does not include the gold mask that was a feature of the 1972-1979 tour.[22] Maatkare[1] Truth is the Ka of Re Nomen Khnumt-Amun Hatshepsut[1] Joined with Amun, Foremost of Noble Ladies Horus name Wesretkau [1] Mighty of Kas Nebty name Wadjrenput[1] Flourishing of years Golden Horus Netjeretkhau[1] Divine of appearance Consort(s) Thutmose II Issue Neferure Father Thutmose I...


In fiction

Tutankhamun/Tutankhaten appears in P. C. Doherty's trilogy of Ancient Egyptian novels, An Evil Spirit Out of the West (2003), The Season of the Hyaena (2005) and The Year of the Cobra (2005). Paul C. Doherty (1946) is a British writer, with a doctorate in history from Oxford, who writes historical mysteries and novels under the pennames Anna Apostolou, Michael Clynes, Ann Dukthas, C. L. Grace, Paul Harding, and Mollie Hardwick. ...


Tutankhamun is also the major character in a series of historical novels by the American author Lynda Robinson. Lynda S. Robinson is the author of mystery and romance novels (the latter under the name Suzanne Robinson). ...


The historical novel Tutankhamun-Speak my Name (2005) ISBN 1-4120-6325-6 by Anthony Holmes is the comprehensive (678 page) story of the life of the young king from his birth to Kiye, the concubine of Akhenaten, until his death 6,666 days later and beyond into the afterlife of his KA in the tomb eventually discovered by Howard Carter.


Tutankhamun appears as a 10-year-old mummy in the Discovery Kids show Tutenstein. Discovery Kids Channel is a digital cable television channel, owned by Discovery Communications (see Discovery Channel) with programming for education of children. ... Tutenstein is an animated television series, produced by Porchlight Entertainment for Discovery Kids. ...


King Tut, as played by Victor Buono, was a villain on the Batman TV series aired in 1966-1968. Mild-mannered Egyptologist William Omaha McElroy, after suffering a concussion, came to believe he was the reincarnation of Tutankhamun. His response to this knowledge was to embark upon a crime spree that required him to fight against the "Caped Crusaders", Batman and Robin. King Tut was a villain created for the 1960s television series Batman. ... Victor Buono Victor Buono (February 3, 1938 - January 1, 1982) was an American actor. ... This article is about the 1960s television series. ... Batman (originally referred to as the Bat-Man and still referred to at times as the Batman) is a DC Comics fictional superhero who first appeared in Detective Comics #27 in May 1939. ... Robin is a fictional character, a superhero in the DC Comics universe. ...


Gallery depicting kin of Tutankhamun

References

  1. ^ Clayton, Peter A. Chronicle of the Pharaohs: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt. p.128. Thames & Hudson. 2006. ISBN 0-500-28628-0
  2. ^ Manetho's King List.
  3. ^ Allen, James P. (2006). "The Amarna Succession", Causing His Name to Live: Studies in Egyptian Epigraphy and History in Memory of William J. Murnane (Online publication in PDF), Memphis, TN: University of Memphis, pp. 7, 12-14. Retrieved on 2006-08-05. 
  4. ^ Digital Egypt for Universities: Tutankhamun. University College London. Retrieved on 2006-08-05.
  5. ^ Bob Brier, The Murder of Tutankhamun: A True Story, 1999
  6. ^ Handwerk, Brian. "King Tut Not Murdered Violently, CT Scans Show", National Geographic News, March 8, 2005, p. 2. Retrieved on 2006-08-05. 
  7. ^ Nefertiti and the Lost Dynasty, National Geographic Channel 2007.
  8. ^ Michael R. King, Gregory M.Cooper, Who Killed King Tut?: Using Modern Forensics to Solve a 3300-Year-Old Mystery (With New Data on the Egyptian CT Scan), New Ed edition,13 Sep 2006
  9. ^ Welcome to Senet. Texas Humanities Resource Center (December 17, 2004). Retrieved on 2006-08-05.
  10. ^ C. Nicholas Reeves, The Complete Tutankhamun: The King, the Tomb, the Royal Treasure, London: Thames & Hudson, November 1, 1990
  11. ^ a b The Plateau, Official website of Dr. Zahi Hawass.
  12. ^ 3,000 years old: the face of Tutankhamun
  13. ^ Handwerk, Brian. "King Tut's New Face: Behind the Forensic Reconstruction", National Geographic News, May 11, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-08-05. 
  14. ^ discovery reconstruction.
  15. ^ Science museum images
  16. ^ Henerson, Evan. "King Tut's skin colour a topic of controversy", U-Daily News - L.A. Life, June 15, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-08-05. 
  17. ^ NGA - Treasures of Tutankhamun (11/1976). National Gallery of Art. Retrieved on 2006-08-05.
  18. ^ King Tut exhibition. Tutankhamun & the Golden Age of the Pharaohs. Treasures from the Valley of the Kings. Arts and Exhibitions International. Retrieved on 2006-08-05.
  19. ^ Return of the King (Times Online)
  20. ^ Dallas Museum of Art Website
  21. ^ Associated Press, "Tut Exhibit to Return to US Next Year"
  22. ^ http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article409075.ece?token=null&offset=12

PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ...

Further reading

  • Howard Carter, Arthur C. Mace, The Discovery of the Tomb of Tutankhamun. Courier Dover Publications, June 1, 1977, ISBN 0-486-23500-9 The semi-popular account of the discover and opening of the tomb written by the archaeologist responsible
  • C. Nicholas Reeves, The Complete Tutankhamun: The King, the Tomb, the Royal Treasure. London: Thames & Hudson, November 1, 1990, ISBN 0-500-05058-9 (hardcover)/ISBN 0-500-27810-5 (paperback) Fully covers the complete contents of his tomb
  • T. G. H. James, Tutankhamun. New York: Friedman/Fairfax, September 1, 2000, ISBN 1-58663-032-6 (hardcover) A large-format volume by the former Keeper of Egyptian Antiquities at the British Museum, filled with colour illustrations of the funerary furnishings of Tutankhamun, and related objects
  • Christiane Desroches-Noblecourt, Sarwat Okasha (Preface), Tutankhamun: Life and Death of a Pharaoh. New York: New York Graphic Society, 1963, ISBN 0-8212-0151-4 (1976 reprint, hardcover) /ISBN 0-14-011665-6 (1990 reprint, paperback)
  • Thomas Hoving, The search for Tutankhamun: The untold story of adventure and intrigue surrounding the greatest modern archeological find. New York: Simon & Schuster, October 15, 1978, ISBN 0-671-24305-5 (hardcover)/ISBN 0-8154-1186-3 (paperback) This book details a number of interesting anecdotes about the discovery and excavation of the tomb
  • Bob Brier, The Murder of Tutankhamun: A True Story. Putnam Adult, April 13, 1998, ISBN 0-425-16689-9 (paperback)/ISBN 0-399-14383-1 (hardcover)/ISBN 0-613-28967-6 (School & Library Binding)
  • Iorwerth Eiddon Stephen Edwards, Treasures of Tutankhamun. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1976, ISBN 0-345-27349-4 (paperback)/ISBN 0-670-72723-7 (hardcover)
  • Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities, The Mummy of Tutankhamun: the CT Scan Report, as printed in Ancient Egypt, June/July 2005.
  • Michael Haag, "The Rough Guide to Tutankhamun: The King: The Treasure: The Dynasty". London 2005. ISBN 1-84353-554-8.
  • John Andritsos, Social Studies of ancient Egypt: Tutankhamun. Australia 2006

London museum | name = British Museum | image = British Museum from NE 2. ... Dr Iorweth Eiddon Stephen Edwards (Born London July 1909-September 1996) - I.E.S. Edwards was for the last half of the 20th Century considered to be the worlds leading expert and authors on the Pyramids of Egypt. ... Metropolitan Museum of Art New York Elevation The Metropolitan Museum of Art, often referred to simply as the Met, is one of the worlds largest and most important art museums. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • End Paper: A New Take on Tut's Parents by Dennis Forbes (KMT 8:3 . FALL 1997, KMT Communications)
  • The mummy's curse: historical cohort study (Mark R Nelson, British Medical Journal 2002;325:1482
  • Original photographs and descriptions of objects found in the tomb by Carter and his team at the Griffith Institute, Oxford University
  • A 3,000-year-old mystery is finally solved: Tutankhamun died in a hunting accident Article published in British newspaper The Independent, the 20th October 2007 sea also the British TV documentary on the findings of the Egyptian team of archaeologists in in the History page of The-Maker.net

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Griffith Institute is an institution based in the Ashmolean Museum of the University of Oxford for the advancement of Egyptology as a discipline. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... ... The Early Dynastic Period of Egypt is taken to include the First and Second Dynasties, lasting from 2920 BC, following the Protodynastic Period of Egypt, until 2575 BC, or the beginning of the Old Kingdom. ... Narmer was an Egyptian pharaoh who ruled in the 31st century BC. Thought to be the successor to the predynastic Serket, he is considered by some to be the founder of the First dynasty, and therefore the first pharaoh of all Egypt. ... Hor-Aha was the 2nd Pharaoh of the 1st dynasty of Ancient Egypt. ... This article is about the Pharaoh. ... Image File history File links Ankh. ... The Old Kingdom is the name commonly given to that period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization in complexity and achievement – this was the first of three so-called Kingdom periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile... Netjerikhet Consort(s) Inetkawes, Hetephernebti Unknown Father Khasekhemwy? Mother Nimaethap? Major Monuments Pyramid of Djoser Netjerikhet Djoser (Turin King List Dsr-it; Manetho Tosarthros) is the best-known pharaoh of the Third dynasty of Egypt, for commissioning the official Imhotep to build his Step Pyramid at Saqqara. ... Sneferu He of Beauty[1] Horus name Neb-maat[2] Nebty name Neb-maat-nebty[2] Golden Horus Bik-nub[2] Consort(s) Hetepheres I Issues Khufu Father Huni Mother Meresankh I Died 2589 BC Major Monuments Bent Pyramid, Red Pyramid Sneferu, also spelt as Snefru or Snofru (in Greek... For other uses, see Khufu (disambiguation). ... The Pyramid of Khafra and the Great Sphinx of Giza Portrait of Khafra, originally found at Mit Rahina, now residing in the Egyptian Museum, in Cairo. ... Men-kau-re[1] Eternal like the Souls of Re Nomen Consort(s) Khamerernebty II Issues Khuenre, Shepseskaf, Khentkawes Father Khafre Mother Khamaerernebty I Died 2504 BC Burial Pyramid at Giza Major Monuments Pyramid at Giza Menkaura (or Men-Kau-Re; Mycerinus in Latin; Mykerinos in Greek) was a pharaoh... nomen or birth name Pepi II (c. ... The Middle Kingdom is the period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth Dynasty, roughly between 2030 BC and 1640 BC. The period comprises two phases, the 11th Dynasty, which ruled from Thebes and the 12th Dynasty... nomen or birth name Nebhotepre Mentuhotep II (2046-1995 BCE) was a Pharaoh of the 11th dynasty, the son of Intef III of Egypt and a minor queen called Iah. ... nomen or birth name Nebtawyre Mentuhotep IV was the last king of the 11th Dynasty. ... Khakhaure (The king of the two lands, The kas of Ra have appeared) Nomen Senusret (The son of Ra, man of the strong one) Horus name Netcher Kheperu (Horus, divine of form) Nebty name Netcher Mesut (The two ladies, divine of birth) Golden Horus Kheper (The golden Horus has... ny m3ˁt rˁ (Nimaatre)[1] Belonging to the truth of Re Nomen Amenemhat[1] Amun is in front Horus name Wahankh[1] Long of life Nebty name Itjijautawy[1] Who comes to the inheritance of the two lands Golden Horus ˁ3 ba(u) (Aabaw)[1] Great of power Issues... Sobek-kare Sobek is the Ka of Re Nomen Sobekneferu The beauties of Sobek Horus name Meritra Beloved of Re Nebty name Satsekhem Nebettawy Daughter of the powerful one, Mistress of the two lands Golden Horus Djedetkhau Established of crowns Died 1802 BC Sobekneferu (sometimes written Nefrusobek) was an Egyptian... The New Kingdom is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BCE and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. ... Maatkare[1] Truth is the Ka of Re Nomen Khnumt-Amun Hatshepsut[1] Joined with Amun, Foremost of Noble Ladies Horus name Wesretkau [1] Mighty of Kas Nebty name Wadjrenput[1] Flourishing of years Golden Horus Netjeretkhau[1] Divine of appearance Consort(s) Thutmose II Issue Neferure Father Thutmose I... Menkheperre Lasting is the Manifestation of Re[1] Nomen Thutmose Neferkheperu Thoth is born, beautiful of forms Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset Mighty Bull, Arising in Thebes Nebty name Wahnesytmireempet Enduring in kingship like Re in heaven Golden Horus Sekhempahtydsejerkhaw Powerful of strength, holy of diadems Consort(s) Hatshepsut-Meryetre, Nebtu... Nebmaatre The Lord of Truth is Re[2] Nomen Amenhotep Hekawaset Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Thebes[1] Horus name Kanakht Emkhaimaat The strong bull, appearing in truth Nebty name Semenhepusegerehtawy One establishing laws, pacifying the two lands Golden Horus Aakhepesh-husetiu Great of valour, smiting the Asiatics Consort(s... For other uses, see Akhenaten (disambiguation). ... Menpehtyre Eternal is the Strength of Re[2] Nomen Ra-messes Re has fashioned him[1] Consort(s) Queen Sitre Issue Seti I Died 1290 BC Burial KV16 Menpehtyre Ramesses I (traditional English: Ramesses or Rameses ) was the founding Pharaoh of Ancient Egypts 19th dynasty. ... Menmaatre Eternal is the Strength of Re[1] Nomen Seti Merenptah He of the god Seth, beloved of Ptah[2] Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset-Seankhtawy Nebty name Wehemmesut Sekhemkhepesh Derpedjetpesdjet Golden Horus Wehemkhau Weserpedjutemtawnebu[3] Consort(s) Queen Tuya Issue Tia, Amennefernebes, Ramesses II, Henutmire (?) Father Ramesses I Mother Sitre... Usermaatre-setepenre The Justice of Re is Powerful, Chosen of Re Nomen Ramesses (meryamun) Born of Re, (Beloved of Amun) Horus name [2] Kanakht Merymaa Golden Horus [2] Userrenput-aanehktu[1] Consort(s) Henutmire, Isetnofret, Nefertari Maathorneferure Issue Bintanath, Khaemweset, Merneptah, Amun-her-khepsef, Meritamen see also: List of children... Hedjkheperre Setepenre Nomen Shoshenq Hedjkheperre Setepenre Shoshenq I (Egyptian ššnq), also known as Shishak, Sheshonk or Sheshonq I (for discussion of the spelling, see Shoshenq), was a Meshwesh Libyan king of Egypt and founder of the Twenty-second Dynasty. ... Piye, whose name was once transliterated as Py(ankh)i. ... Taharqa (also spelled Tirhakah, Taharka, Manethos Tarakos) was king of Egypt, and a member of the Nubian or Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt, whose reign is usually dated 690 BC to 664 BC. He was also the son of Piye, the Nubian king of Napata who had first conquered... Wahibre Nomen Psamtik Horus name Aaib Nebty name Neba Golden Horus Qenu Issues Nitocris I Died 610 BC Burial Sais Psammetichus, or Psamtik I, was the first of three kings of the Saite, or Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt. ... Wahemibre Nomen Necho Horus name Maaib Nebty name Maakheru Golden Horus Merynetjeru Consort(s) Khedebarbenet Died 595 BC Necho II (or more accurately, Nekau II) was a king of the Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt (610 - 595 BC), and the son of Psammetichus I. His prenomen or royal name Wahemibre... nomen or birth name Ankhkaenre Psammetichus III (Psamtik III) was the last Pharaoh of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt, 526 BC–525 BC. He was defeated by King Cambyses II of Persia at Pelusium, carried to Susa in chains, and executed. ... Ptolemy I Soter (Greek: , Ptolemaios Soter, i. ... Cleopatra redirects here. ... Ptolemy XIII (lived 62 BC/61 BC -January 13? 47 BC, reigned 51 BC - January 13?, 47 BC) was one of the last members of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt. ... Tetisheri was the matriarch of the Egyptian royal family of the late 17th Dynasty and early 18th Dynasty. ... Queen Ahmose-Nefertari of Egypt was the sister-wife of Egypts Pharaoh King Ahmose I. She had two children-Amenhotep I and Aahhotep II, who wed each other and had the Princess Aahmes. ... Queen Ahmose was the mother of Hatshepsut of Egypt. ... Tiye. ... Bust of Nefertiti from Berlins Altes Museum. ... Ankhesenamun, also known as Ankhesepaaten, was the third of six known daughters of the Pharaoh Akhenaten by his wife Nefertiti. ... A picture of Nefertari taken in her Abu Simbel temple. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... This article is about the ancient Egyptian official. ... Weni the Elder was a court official of the 6th dynasty of Ancient Egypt. ... Ahmose, son of Ebana served in the Egyptian military under the pharaohs Tao II Seqenenre, Ahmose I, Amenhotep I, and Thutmose I. His autobiography has survived intact on the wall of his tomb and has proven a valuable source of information on the late 17th Dynasty and the early 18th... Ineofficial of the 18th Dynasty, responsible for major constructions un Egypt| Thutmose II]], Hatshepsut, and Thutmose III. Ineni came from an aristocratic family and likely began his career as an architect under Amenhotep I. Amenhotep I commissioned Ineni to expand the Temple of Karnak. ... Senemut was an 18th dynasty Ancient Egyptian architect and government official. ... Rekhmire was an 18th dynasty official, serving as Governor of the Town (Thebes) and Vizier during the reigns of Tuthmosis III and Amenhotep II. He is noted for constructing a lavishly decorated tomb for himself in the Valley of the Nobles, containing lively, well preserved scenes of daily life during... Yuya (sometimes Iouiya) also known as Yaa, Ya, Yiya, Yayi, Yu, Yuyu, Yaya, Yiay, Yia, Yuy[1] was a powerful Egyptian courtier of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt (circa 1390 BC). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Maya (Egyptian official). ... Yuny was an official through the reign of Ramesses II, in the 19th Dynasty, serving as chief scribe of the court, the overseer of priests, and royal steward. ... Manetho, also known as Manethon of Sebennytos, was an Egyptian historian and priest from Sebennytos who lived during the Ptolematic era, circa 3rd century BC. Manetho recorded Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt). ... Pothinus (early 1st Century BC - 48 or 47 BC) was regent for Pharaoh Ptolemy XIII of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Ancient Egypt. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Tutankhamun and the Golden Age of the Pharaohs Hospitality and Special Events (309 words)
The Tutankhamun Exhibition last visited the UK in the 1970s on a tour that became a global sensation, shattering attendance records worldwide.
Tutankhamun Hospitality, a joint venture between the exhibition organisers (National Geographic, AEG Exhibitions and Arts and Exhibitions International) and Hospitality in Partnership, will create a dedicated hospitality suite, The Pharaohs' Palace, inside The O2 with direct private access to the Exhibition itself.
The current Exhibition is far larger than the 1970's tour, including 130 priceless exhibits from Tutankhamun's tomb and other ancestral burials in the Valley of the Kings.
Tutankhamun - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3379 words)
Nebkheperure Tutankhamun (alternately spelled with Tuten-, -amen, -amon; lack of written vowels in ancient Egyptian allows for different transliterations) was Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt (ruled 1333 BC 1324 BC), during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom.
Tutankhamun was married to Ankhesenpaaten (possibly his sister), and after the re-establishment of the traditional Egyptian religion the couple changed the –aten ending of their names to the –amun ending, becoming Ankhesenamun and Tutankhamun.
A fracture to Tutankhamun's left thighbone was interpreted as evidence that suggests the pharaoh badly broke his leg before he died, and his leg became infected; however, members of the Egyptian-led research team recognized, as a less likely possibility, that the fracture was caused by the embalmers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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