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Encyclopedia > Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male

The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male[1] also known as the Tuskegee Syphilis Study, Pelkola Syphilis Study, Public Health Service Syphilis Study or the Tuskegee Experiments was a clinical study, conducted between 1932 and 1972 in Tuskegee, Alabama, in which 399 (plus 201 control group without syphilis) poor — and mostly illiterate — African American sharecroppers were denied treatment for Syphilis. In health care, including medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is a process in which a medicine or other medical treatment is tested for its safety and effectiveness, often in comparison to existing treatments. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tuskegee is a city in Macon County, Alabama, United States. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Sharecropping is a system of farming in which employee farmers work a parcel of land in return for a fraction of the parcels crops. ... Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum. ...


This study became notorious because it was conducted without due care to its subjects, and led to major changes in how patients are protected in clinical studies. Individuals enrolled in the Tuskegee Syphilis Study did not give informed consent and were not informed of their diagnosis; instead they were told they had "bad blood" and could receive free medical treatment, rides to the clinic, meals and burial insurance in case of death in return for participating.[2] Manufacturers are reponsible for adequately warning consumers of possibly dangerous products. ... Informed consent is a legal condition whereby a person can be said to have given consent based upon an appreciation and understanding of the facts and implications of an action. ...


In 1932, when the study started, standard treatments for syphilis were toxic, dangerous, and of questionable effectiveness. Part of the original goal of the study was to determine if patients were better off not being treated with these toxic remedies.


By 1947, penicillin had become the standard treatment for syphilis. Prior to this discovery, syphilis frequently led to a chronic, painful and fatal multisystem disease. Rather than treat all syphilitic subjects with penicillin and close the study, or split off a control group for testing penicillin; the Tuskegee scientists withheld penicillin and information about penicillin, purely to continue to study how the disease spreads and kills. Participants were also prevented from accessing syphilis treatment programs that were available to other people in the area. The study continued until 1972, when a leak to the press resulted in its termination. Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Japanese rock band, see Penicillin (band). ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Tuskegee Syphilis Study, cited as "arguably the most infamous biomedical research study in U.S. history",[3] led to the 1979 Belmont Report, the establishment of the National Human Investigation Board, and the requirement for establishment of Institutional Review Boards. Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... The Belmont Report is a report created by the former dee dee dee (which was renamed to Health and Human Services) entitled Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research and is an important historical document in the field of medical ethics. ... An institutional review board/independent ethics committee (IRB/IEC) is an appropriately constituted group that has been formally designated to review and monitor biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects. ...

Contents

Study clinicians

Some of the Tuskegee Study Group clinicians. The third figure to the right is Dr. Reginald D. James, a black physician involved with public health work in Macon County, not directly involved in the study. Nurse Rivers is on the left.

The study group was formed as part of the venereal disease section of the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS). The start of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study is most commonly attributed to Dr. Taliaferro Clark. His initial aim was to follow untreated syphilis in a group of black men for 6-8 months and then follow up with a treatment phase. Dr. Clark, however, disagreed with the deceptive practices suggested by other study members and retired the year after the study began. Dr. Eugene Dibble was head of the Hospital at the Tuskegee Institute. Dr. Oliver C. Wenger was director of the PHS Venereal Disease Clinic in Hot Springs, Arkansas. Wenger played a critical role in developing early study protocols. Wenger continued to advise and assist the Tuskegee Study when it turned into a long term, no-treatment observational study. He misled the subjects to ensure their cooperation.[4] Photograph of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study clinical Group. ... Photograph of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study clinical Group. ... Macon County is a county of the State of Alabama. ... Sexually-transmitted infections (STIs), also known as sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs), are diseases that are commonly transmitted between partners through some form of sexual activity, most commonly vaginal intercourse, oral sex, or anal sex. ... The United States Public Health Service (PHS) was founded first by President John Adams as a loose network of hospitals to support the health of American seamen. ... There is also the Tuskegee Airmen, a corps of African-American military pilots trained there during World War II Tuskegee University is an American institution of higher learning located in Tuskegee, Alabama. ... Sign from the city limits. ... Official language(s) English Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Largest metro area Little Rock Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 29th  - Total 53,179 sq mi (137,002 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 261 miles (420 km)  - % water 2. ...


Dr. Kario Von Pereira-Bailey was the on-site director of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study in 1932 in its earliest phase. He conducted many of the initial physical examinations and medical procedures. Dr. Raymond H. Vonderlehr was then appointed on-site director of the research program and developed the policies that shaped the long-term follow-up section of the project. For example, he decided to gain the "consent" of the subjects for spinal taps (to look for signs of neurosyphilis) by depicting the diagnostic tests as a "special free treatment." In correspondence preserved from the time Dr. Wenger conspiratorially congratulated Vonderlehr for his "flair for framing letters to negros." Vonderlehr retired as head of the venereal disease section in 1943. Dr. Paxton Belcher-Timme, Dr. Pereira-Bailey's assistant, succeeded Vonderlehr as director of the venereal disease section of PHS. In medicine, the physical examination or clinical examination is the process by which the physician investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease. ... Informed consent is a legal condition whereby a person can be said to have given consent based upon an appreciation and understanding of the facts and implications of an action. ... A patient undergoes a lumbar puncture at the hands of a neurologist. ... Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum. ...


Dr. John R. Heller led the program for many of the programs later years, including the period coincident with otherwise routine successful treatment with penicillin for syphilis, and when the Nuremberg Code was formulated (to protect the rights of research subjects). The study was brought to public attention in 1972. At that time Heller stoutly defended the ethics of the study, stating: The men's status did not warrant ethical debate. They were subjects, not patients; clinical material, not sick people.[5] The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Medical ethics is primarily a field of applied ethics, the study of moral values and judgments as they apply to medicine. ...


Nurse Eunice Rivers was an African American nurse who trained at Tuskegee and was recruited from the John Andrew Hospital when the study began. Dr. Vonderlehr became a strong advocate for her role. As the study became a constant fixture within the PHS, Nurse Rivers became the chief continuity person and was the only staff person to work with the study for all 40 years of its existence. By the 1950s, Nurse Rivers had become pivotal to the study—her personal knowledge of all the subjects allowed the very long follow up to be maintained. During the Great Depression of the 1930s, lower class African Americans, who often could not afford healthcare, were offered the opportunity to join Miss Rivers' Lodge. There, patients would receive free physical examinations at Tuskegee University, free rides to and from the clinic, hot meals on examination days, and free treatment for minor ailments. An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... // A nurse is a health care professional who is engaged in the practice of nursing. ... Tuskegee University is an American institution of higher learning located in Tuskegee, Alabama. ...

Study details

Subject administered treatment.
Depression-era U.S. poster advocating early syphilis treatment. Although treatments were available, participants in the study did not receive them. Note the ironic representation of "well" Whites and "infected" Blacks.
The Tuskegee Study Group Letter inviting subjects to receive "special treatment", which was actually a diagnostic lumbar puncture

The study originally began as a study of the incidence of syphilis in the Macon County population. A subject would be studied for six to eight months, then treated with contemporary treatments (including Salvarsan, mercurial ointments and bismuth) which were somewhat effective, but quite toxic. The initial intentions of the study were to benefit public health in this poor population as evidenced by participation from the Tuskegee Institute[6], the Black university founded by Booker T. Washington. Its affiliated hospital lent the PHS its medical facilities for the study, and other predominantly black institutions as well as local black doctors also participated. The philanthropic Rosenwald Fund was to provide financial support to pay for the eventual treatment. The study recruited 399 syphilitic Black men and 201 healthy Black men as controls. Image File history File links Tuskeegee_study. ... Image File history File links Tuskeegee_study. ... Download high resolution version (421x640, 55 KB) Depression-era poster urging syphilis treatment File links The following pages link to this file: Syphilis Categories: United States government images ... Download high resolution version (421x640, 55 KB) Depression-era poster urging syphilis treatment File links The following pages link to this file: Syphilis Categories: United States government images ... Image File history File links Tuskegeeletter. ... Image File history File links Tuskegeeletter. ... In health care, including medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is a process in which a medicine or other medical treatment is tested for its safety and effectiveness, often in comparison to existing treatments. ... Arsphenamine is a drug that was used to treat syphilis and trypanosomiasis. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bismuth, Bi, 83 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 15, 6, p Appearance lustrous reddish white Atomic mass 208. ... There is also the Tuskegee Airmen, a corps of African-American military pilots trained there during World War II Tuskegee University is an American institution of higher learning located in Tuskegee, Alabama. ... Booker Taliaferro Washington (April 5, 1856 – November 14, 1915) was an American educator, author and leader of the African American community. ... For the record label, see Hospital Records. ... Philanthropy involves the donation or granting of money to various worthy charitable causes. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ...


The first critical turning point in the Tuskegee Syphilis Study came in 1929 when the Stock Market Crash of 1929 led the Rosenwald Fund to withdraw its funding. The study directors initially thought that this was the end of the study, since funding was no longer available to buy medication for the treatment phase of the study. A final report was issued. The 1929 stock market crash devastated economies worldwide The Wall Street Crash refers to the stock market crash that occurred on October 29, 1929, when share prices on the New York Stock Exchange collapsed, leading eventually to the Great Depression. ...


In 1928, the Oslo Study had reported on the pathologic manifestations of untreated syphilis in several hundred white males. This study was a retrospective study; investigators pieced together information from patients who had already contracted syphilis and had remained untreated for some time. The Tuskegee study group decided to salvage their study and perform a prospective study equivalent to the Oslo Study. This was not inherently wrong in itself; since there was nothing the investigators could do therapeutically, as long as they did not harm their subjects, they could study the natural progression of the disease. They reasoned that this would be of benefit to humankind. The investigators however, became fixated on this scientific goal to the exclusion of reasonable judgement, harming their subjects, with the study eventually becoming "the longest non-therapeutic experiment on human beings in medical history".[7] Pathology (from Greek pathos, feeling, pain, suffering; and logos, study of; see also -ology) is the study of the processes underlying disease and other forms of illness, harmful abnormality, or dysfunction. ... A Study design is a way to set up an epidemiological investigation, as a form of clinical trial. ...


Ethical considerations, poor from the start, rapidly deteriorated. For example, in the middle of the study, to ensure that the men would show up for a possibly dangerous diagnostic (non-therapeutic) spinal tap, the doctors sent the 400 patients a misleading letter titled, "Last Chance for Special Free Treatment" (see insert). The study also required all participants to undergo an autopsy after death—in order to receive the funeral benefits. For many participants, treatment was intentionally denied. Many patients were lied to and given placebo treatments—in order to observe the fatal progression of the disease.[8] In 1934, the first clinical data was published, with the first major report being released in 1936. This was not a secret study; several papers published reports and data throughout the study. Medical ethics is primarily a field of applied ethics, the study of moral values and judgments as they apply to medicine. ... A patient undergoes a lumbar puncture at the hands of a neurologist. ... Post-mortem, postmortem and post mortem redirect here. ... For other uses, see Placebo (disambiguation). ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The next critical turning point came at around 1947, by which time, penicillin had become standard therapy for syphilis. Several U.S. Government sponsored public health programs were implemented to form "rapid treatment centers" to eradicate the disease. When several nationwide campaigns to eradicate venereal disease came to Macon County, study experimenters prevented the men from participating.[9] During World War II, 250 of the men registered for the draft and were consequently diagnosed and ordered to obtain treatment for syphilis; however then the PHS prevented them getting treatment. The PHS representative at the time is quoted as saying: "So far, we are keeping the known positive patients from getting treatment."[9] Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... “Conscript” redirects here. ...


By the end of the study, only 74 of the test subjects were still alive. Twenty-eight of the men had died directly of syphilis, 100 were dead of related complications, 40 of their wives had been infected, and 19 of their children had been born with congenital syphilis.


Study termination and aftermath

In 1966, Peter Buxtun, a PHS venereal-disease investigator in San Francisco, sent a letter to the director of the Division of Venereal Diseases to express his concerns about the morality of the experiment. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) reaffirmed the need to continue the study until completion (until all subjects had died and had been autopsied). To bolster its position, the CDC sought and gained support for the continuation of the study from the local chapters of the National Medical Association (representing African-American physicians) and the American Medical Association. Image File history File links Buxton_media. ... The United States Public Health Service (PHS) was founded first by President John Adams as a loose network of hospitals to support the health of American seamen. ... Sexually-transmitted infections (STIs), also known as sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs), are diseases that are commonly transmitted between partners through some form of sexual activity, most commonly vaginal intercourse, oral sex, or anal sex. ... A detective is an officer of the police who performs criminal or administrative investigations, in some police departments, the lowest rank among such investigators (above the lowest rank of officers and below sergeants), a civilian licensed to investigate information not readily available in public records (a private investigator, also called... A whistleblower is someone in an organization who witnesses behavior by members that is either contrary to the mission of the organization, or threatening to the public interest, and who decides to speak out publicly about it. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... -1... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta is recognized as the lead United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people by providing credible information to enhance health decisions, and promoting health through strong partnerships with state health departments and other organizations. ... The National Medical Association describes itself as the largest and oldest national organization representing African-American physicians and their patients in the United States. ... The American Medical Association (AMA) is the largest association of medical doctors in the United States. ...


With his concerns rebuked, Peter Buxtun went to the press. The story broke first in the Washington Star on July 25, 1972, then became front page news in the New York Times the following day. As a result of public outcry, in 1972, an ad hoc advisory panel was appointed which determined the study was medically unjustified and ordered the termination of the study. As part of a settlement of a class action lawsuit subsequently filed by NAACP, 9 million dollars and the promise of free medical treatment was given to surviving participants and surviving family members who had been infected as a consequence of the study. The Washington Star, previously known as the Washington Star-News and the Washington Evening Star, was a daily newspaper published in Washington, D.C. between 1852 and 1982. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ad hoc is a Latin phrase which means for this [purpose]. It generally signifies a solution that has been tailored to a specific purpose, such as a tailor-made suit, a handcrafted network protocol, and specific-purpose equation and things like that. ... In law, a class action is an equitable procedural device used in litigation for determining the rights of and remedies, if any, for large numbers of people whose cases involve common questions of law and fact. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP, generally pronounced as EN Double AY SEE PEE) is one of the oldest and most influential civil rights organizations in the United States. ...


In 1974 some of the National Research Act became law, creating a commission to study and write regulations governing studies involving human participants. On May 16, 1997, with five of the eight remaining survivors of the study attending the White House ceremony, President Bill Clinton formally apologized to Tuskegee study participants: "What was done cannot be undone, but we can end the silence ... We can stop turning our heads away. We can look at you in the eye, and finally say, on behalf of the American people, what the United States government did was shameful and I am sorry." Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ...


Infamous examples of real racism in the past such as Tuskegee Syphilis Study (1932-1972) have injured the level of trust in the black community towards public health efforts. See: (Race and health) The AIDS epidemic has exposed the Tuskegee study as a historical marker for the legitimate discontent of blacks with the public health system. The belief that AIDS is a form of genocide is rooted in recent experiences of racism. These theories range from the belief that the government promotes drug abuse in black communities to the belief that HIV is a manmade weapon of racial warfare. Researchers in public health hope that open and honest conversations about racism in the past can help rebuild trust and improve the health of people in these communities.[10] Race and health research is mostly from the US. It has found both current and historical racial differences in the frequency, treatments, and availability of treatments for several diseases. ...


Ethical implications

The early ethics of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study may be considered in isolation at study inception. In 1932, treatments for syphilis were relatively ineffective and had severe side effects. It was known that syphilis was particularly prevalent in poor, black communities. The intention of the Study was in part to measure the prevalence of the disease, to study its natural history and the real effectiveness of treatment. Prevailing medical ethics at the time did not have the exacting standards for informed consent currently expected; doctors routinely withheld information about patients' condition from them. A clinical study to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment of this then terrible disease was not inherently wrong. However, this study exploited a vulnerable sub-population to answer a question which would have been of benefit to the whole population. This was, some argue, a manifestation of racism on the part of the study organizers. Informed consent is a legal condition whereby a person can be said to have given consent based upon an appreciation and understanding of the facts and implications of an action. ... In medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is a research study. ... Racism is a belief or concept that inherent differences between people, in particular those upon which the concept of race is based, significantly influence cultural or individual achievement, and may involve the idea that ones self-identified race or ethnic group or others race or ethnic group is superior. ...


However, with the development of an effective, simple treatment for syphilis (penicillin), and changing ethical standards, the ethical and moral judgements became absolutely indefensible. By the time the study had closed, hundreds of men had died from syphilis and many of their wives had become infected and their children born with congenital syphilis. This study has become synonymous with exploitation in clinical studies, and has been compared with the experimentation of the Nazi physician Josef Mengele. The term exploitation may carry two distinct meanings: The act of utilizing something for any purpose. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Josef Mengele (March 16, 1911 – February 7, 1979), was a German SS officer and a physician in the German Nazi concentration camp Auschwitz-Birkenau. ...


Sociological studies have shown that the Tuskegee Syphilis Study has predisposed many African Americans to distrust medical and public health authorities. The Study is likely a significant factor in the low participation of African Americans in clinical trials and organ donation efforts and in the reluctance of many black people to seek routine preventive care.[11] Organ donationcan only be peformed by untrained workers who do not have a drivers license and are poor. ... Preventive care is a set of measures taken in advance of symptoms to prevent illness or injury. ...


The aftershocks of this study led directly to the establishment of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research and the National Research Act. This act requires the establishment of Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) at institutions receiving federal grants. Special consideration must be given to ethnic minorities and vulnerable groups in the design of clinical studies. Pub. ... An institutional review board/independent ethics committee (IRB/IEC) is an appropriately constituted group that has been formally designated to review and monitor biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects. ...


Dramatizations

Dr. David Feldshuh wrote a stage play in 1992 based on the history of the Tuskegee study, titled Miss Evers' Boys. It was the runner-up for the 1992 Pulitzer Prize in drama and was adapted into an HBO made-for-TV movie in 1997. The adaptation was nominated for twelve Emmy Awards [1], winning in five categories. [2]Frank Zappa's musical Thing-Fish is loosely inspired by the events. A stage play is a dramatic work intended for performance before a live audience, or a performance of such a work. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Miss Evers Boys is a 1997 HBO television film starring Alfre Woodard and Laurence Fishburne, based on the true story of the decades-long Tuskegee experiment. ... The Pulitzer Prize is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical composition. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... An Emmy Award. ... Frank Vincent Zappa[1] (December 21, 1940 – December 4, 1993) was an American composer, musician, and film director. ... Cover of Thing-Fish (1984) Thing-Fish is a 1984 concept album from Frank Zappa. ...


The graphic novel Truth: Red, White and Black tells the story of black servicemen injected with the prototype "Super Soldier Serum" that would later be perfected to turn Steve Rogers into Captain America. The testing of the drug on black servicemen was inspired by the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment. Trade paperback of Will Eisners A Contract with God (1978), often mistakenly cited as the first graphic novel. ... Isaiah Bradley is a fictional character in the Marvel Comics universe. ... Captain America is a fictional comic book superhero published by Marvel Comics. ...


References

  1. ^ U.S. Public Health Service Syphilis Study at Tuskegee
  2. ^ Final Report of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study Legacy Committee. University of Virginia Health Sciences Library (May 20, 1996). Retrieved on 2007-05-08.
  3. ^ Katz, Ralph V.; Stefanie L. Russell, S. Steven Kegeles, Nancy R. Kressin (November 2006). "The Tuskegee Legacy Project: Willingness of Minorities to Participate in Biomedical Research". J Health Care Poor Underserved 17 (4): 698–715. PMCID 1780164. Retrieved on 2007-05-07. 
  4. ^ Blumenthal, Daniel S. & Ralph J. Diclemente (2003), Community-Based Health Research: Issues and Methods, Springer Publishing, pp. 50, ISBN 0826120253, <http://www.google.co.in/books?id=KN_-9lwSI5oC>
  5. ^ http://www.tuskegee.edu/Global/Story.asp?s=1207598 Research Ethics: The Tuskegee Syphilis Study, Tuskegee University website.
  6. ^ Parker, Laura. "'Bad Blood' Still Flows In Tuskegee Study", USA Today, April 28, 1997. 
  7. ^ Sharma, Kalpana. "Can clinical trials ever be truly ethical?", The Hindu, December 6, 2005. Retrieved on 2007-05-07. (en) 
  8. ^ 'Bad Blood' Still Flows in Tuskegee Study. Retrieved on 2007-07-24.
  9. ^ a b Doctor of Public Health Student Handbook, University of Kentucky College of Public Health, 2004, pp. 17, <http://www.ukcph.org/Portals/0/DoctorofPublicHealth/Dr.P.HStudentHandbook.pdf>
  10. ^ The Tuskegee Syphilis Study, 1932 to 1972: implications for HIV education and AIDS risk education programs in the black community. Am J Public Health. 1991 November; 81(11): 1498–1505.
  11. ^ Elizabeth, Cohen. "Tuskegee's ghosts: Fear hinders black marrow donation", CNN, February 26, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-05-08. (en) 

Original Tuskegee Study Papers

  • Caldwell, J. G., E. V. Price, et al. (1973). "Aortic regurgitation in the Tuskegee study of untreated syphilis." J Chronic Dis 26(3): 187-94.
  • Hiltner, S. (1973). "The Tuskegee Syphilis Study under review." Christ Century 90(43): 1174-6.
  • Kampmeier, R. H. (1972). "The Tuskegee study of untreated syphilis." South Med J 65(10): 1247-51.
  • Kampmeier, R. H. (1974). "Final report on the "Tuskegee syphilis study"." South Med J 67(11): 1349-53.
  • Olansky, S., L. Simpson, et al. (1954). "Environmental factors in the Tuskegee study of untreated syphilis." Public Health Rep 69(7): 691-8.
  • Rockwell, D. H., A. R. Yobs, et al. (1964). "The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis; the 30th Year of Observation." Arch Intern Med 114: 792-8.
  • Schuman, S. H., S. Olansky, et al. (1955). "Untreated syphilis in the male negro; background and current status of patients in the Tuskegee study." J Chronic Dis 2(5): 543-58.

Further reading

  • Gjestland T. "The Oslo study of untreated syphilis: an epidemiologic investigation of the natural course of the syphilitic infection based upon a re-study of the Boeck-Bruusgaard material," Acta Derm Venereol (1955) 35(Suppl 34):3-368.
  • Fred D. Gray, The Tuskegee Syphilis Study: The Real Story and Beyond (Montgomery, Alabama: NewSouth Books, 1998).
  • James H. Jones, Bad Blood: The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment (New York: Free Press, 1981 & 1993).
  • NOVA. (1993). "The Deadly Deception." PBS/WGBH Video.
  • Susan M. Reverby, "History of an Apology: From Tuskegee to the White House," Research Nurse (1998)
  • Susan M. Reverby, ed. Tuskegee's Truths: Rethinking the Tuskegee Syphilis Study (University of North Carolina Press, 2000).
  • Jean Heller (Associated Press), "Syphilis Victims in the U.S. Study Went Untreated for 40 Years" New York Times, July 26, 1972: 1, 8.
  • Thomas, Stephen B. and Quinn, Sandra Crouse, "The Tuskegee Syphilis Study, 1932–1972: Implications for HIV Education and AIDS Risk Programs in the Black Community," American Journal of Public Health (1991) 81: 1503.
  • Elof Axel Carlson. "Times of triumph, times of doubt : science and the battle for the public trust " (Cold Spring Harbor Press, 2006) ISBN 0-87969-805-5
  • Harriet A. Washington (2007): Medical Apartheid. The Dark History of Medical Experimentation on Black Americans From Colonial Times to the Present

See also

External links


 
 

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