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Encyclopedia > Turtle
Turtle
Fossil range: Triassic - Recent
"Chelonia" from Ernst Haeckel's Kunstformen der Natur, 1904
"Chelonia" from Ernst Haeckel's Kunstformen der Natur, 1904
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Sauropsida
Order: Testudines
Linnaeus, 1758

Cryptodira
Pleurodira
See text for families.
Turtle may refer to: The reptile turtle The bird turtle dove Turtle (1775), the first military submarine, built by American David Bushnell during the American Revolutionary War DSV-3 Turtle (1968), a retired Deep Submergence Vehicle of the US Navy A virtual turtle, the Logo turtle, was the basis of... The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 251 ± 0. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2342x3285, 2685 KB) Summary The 89th plate from Ernst Haeckels Kunstformen der Natur (1904), depicting organisms classified as Chelonia. ... Ernst Haeckel. ... The 8th print, Discomedusae. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Superclasses Anapsida Eurapsida Diapsida Reptilia was an old kingdom or phylum classification that has since been divided into 4 classes. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Pleurodira are a group of southern-hemisphere turtles which, in order to draw their heads into their shells, must fold their neck to the side, instead of withdrawing it directly under their spine like their cousins the cryptodira. ...

Turtles are reptilians of the Order Testudines (all living turtles belong to the crown group Chelonia), most of whose body is shielded by a special bony or cartilaginous shell developed from their ribs. The Order Testudines includes both extant (living) and extinct species. The earliest known turtles date from 215 million years ago,[1] making turtles one of the oldest reptile groups and a more ancient group than lizards and snakes. About 300 species are alive today, and some are highly endangered. Orders  Crocodilia - Crocodilians scary crocodiles. ... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... A crown group is a living monophyletic group or clade, consisting of the last common ancestor of all living examples, plus all of its descendants. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... Cartilage is a type of dense connective tissue. ... Various seashells Danielle A shell is the hard, rigid outer covering, or integument, allanimals. ... The human rib cage. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... Look up million in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ...


Turtles cannot breathe in water, but they can hold their breath for various periods of time.


Like other reptiles, turtles are poikilothermic (or "of varying temperature"[2]). Like other amniotes (reptiles, dinosaurs, birds, and mammals), they breathe air and don't lay eggs underwater, although many species live in or around water. The largest turtles are aquatic. Cold-blooded organisms, more technically known as poikilothermic, are animals that have no internal metabolic mechanism for regulating their body temperatures. ... Extant subgroups Synapsida     Mammalia (mammals) Sauropsida    Anapsida        Testudines (turtles)    Diapsida        Lepidosauria           Squamata (lizards and snakes)           Sphenodontida (tuatara)        Archosauria           Crocodilia (crocodiles and alligators)           Aves (birds) The amniotes are a group of vertebrates, comprising the mammals, birds, and various other groups collectively referred to as reptiles. ...

Contents

Anatomy and morphology

The largest chelonian is the great leatherback sea turtle, which reaches a shell length of 200 cm (80 inches) and can reach a weight of over 900 kg (2,000 lb, or 1 short ton). Freshwater turtles are generally smaller, but with the largest species, the Asian softshell turtle Pelochelys cantorii, a few individuals have been reported up to 200 cm or 80 in (Das, 1991). This dwarfs even the better-known alligator snapping turtle, the largest chelonian in North America, which attains a shell length of up to 80 cm (31½ in) and a weight of about 60 kg (170 lb). Binomial name Dermochelys coriacea (Vandelli, 1761) The Leatherback Sea Turtle (Dermochelys coriacea) is the biggest of all living turtles, reaching a length of over 2. ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Kg redirects here. ... Look up pound in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Binomial name Troost, 1835 Synonyms Macroclemmys temminckii Boulenger, 1889 Chelonura temminckii Troost, 1835 Testudo planitia Gmelin, 1789 The Alligator Snapping Turtle (Macrochelys temminckii) is the largest freshwater turtle in North America. ...


Giant tortoises of the genera Geochelone, Meiolania, and others were relatively widely distributed around the world into prehistoric times, and are known to have existed in North and South America, Australia, and Africa. They became extinct at the same time as the appearance of Man, and it is assumed that humans hunted them for food. The only surviving giant tortoises are on the Seychelles and Galápagos Islands and can grow to over 130 cm (50 in) in length, and weigh about 300 kg (670 lb).[3] Species G. carbonaria G. elegans G. gigantea G. nigra G. pardalis G. platynota G. radiata G. sulcata Geochelone is a genus of tortoises. ... Synonyms Miolania Meiolania is an extinct genus of cryptodire turtle from the Pleistocene period. ... Giant tortoises are characteristic reptiles of certain tropical islands. ... Galápagos redirects here. ...


The largest ever chelonian was Archelon ischyros, a Late Cretaceous sea turtle known to have been up to 4.6 m (15 ft) long.[4] Binomial name Archelon ischyros Wieland, 1896 ARCHELON is also a sea-turtle conservation society, see ARCHELON, the Sea Turtle Protection Society of Greece Archelon is a genus of extinct sea turtle, the largest that has ever lived. ... // The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ...


The smallest turtle is the speckled padloper tortoise of South Africa. It measures no more than 8 cm (3 in) in length and weighs about 140 g (5 oz). Two other species of small turtles are the American mud turtles and musk turtles that live in an area that ranges from Canada to South America. The shell length of many species in this group is less than 13 cm (5 in) in length. The Speckled padloper tortoise (Homopus signatus), is the worlds smallest tortoise. ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ... This article is about Ounce (unit of mass). ... Mud turtle is the common name given to two genera of aquatic turtles: Kinosternon, mud turtles found in North and South America, and Pelusios, mud turtles found in Africa. ... Musk turtle is the common name given to two genera of aquatic turtles: Sternotherus just known as musk turtles, and Staurotypus, the giant musk turtles. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


Neck folding

Turtles are broken down into two groups, according to how they evolved a solution to the problem of withdrawing their neck into their shell (something the ancestral Proganochelys could not do): the Cryptodira, which can draw their neck in while contracting it under their spine; and the Pleurodira, which contract their neck to the side. Proganochelys is the oldest turtle species discovered to date, known only from fossils found in Germany and Thailand in strata from the late Triassic, dating to approximately 210 million years ago. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Pleurodira are a group of southern-hemisphere turtles which, in order to draw their heads into their shells, must fold their neck to the side, instead of withdrawing it directly under their spine like their cousins the cryptodira. ...

Closeup head-on view of a common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina), taken near the St. Lawrence River in northern New York State
Closeup head-on view of a common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina), taken near the St. Lawrence River in northern New York State
Turtle in the zoo of Sharm el-Sheikh
Turtle in the zoo of Sharm el-Sheikh

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1531x1021, 611 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Turtle User:Moondigger ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1531x1021, 611 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Turtle User:Moondigger ... Genera See text Snapping turtles (or snappers) are large, New World freshwater turtles of the family Chelydridae. ... The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,272 × 1,704 pixels, file size: 846 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,272 × 1,704 pixels, file size: 846 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... View of the Red Sea and Tiran Island from the Sheraton Sharm hotel. ...

Head

Most turtles that spend most of their life on land have their eyes looking down at objects in front of them. Some aquatic turtles, such as snapping turtles and soft-shelled turtles, have eyes closer to the top of the head. These species of turtles can hide from predators in shallow water where they lie entirely submerged except for their eyes and nostrils. Sea turtles possess glands near their eyes that produce salty tears that rid their body of excess salt taken in from the water they drink. This article is about common table salt. ...


Turtles are thought to have exceptional night vision due to the unusually large number of rod cells in their retinas. Turtles have color vision with a wealth of cone subtypes with sensitivities ranging from the near Ultraviolet (UV A) to Red. Some land turtles have very poor pursuit movement abilities, which are normally reserved for predators that hunt quick moving prey, but carnivorous turtles are able to move their heads quickly to snap. Normalised absoption spectra of human rod (R) and cone (S,M,L) cells. ... Pursuit movement is the ability of the eyes to smoothly follow a moving object. ...


Turtles have a rigid beak. Turtles use their jaws to cut and chew food. Instead of teeth, the upper and lower jaws of the turtle are covered by horny ridges. Carnivorous turtles usually have knife-sharp ridges for slicing through their prey. Herbivorous turtles have serrated-edged ridges that help them cut through tough plants. Turtles use their tongues to swallow food, but they can't, unlike most reptiles, stick out their tongues to catch food. Human jaw front view Human jaw left view Human jaw top view The jaw is either of the two opposable structures forming, or near the entrance to, the mouth. ...


Shell

The upper shell of the turtle is called the carapace. The lower shell that encases the belly is called the plastron. The carapace and plastron are joined together on the turtle's sides by bony structures called bridges. The inner layer of a turtle's shell is made up of about 60 bones that includes portions of the backbone and the ribs, meaning the turtle cannot crawl out of its shell. In most turtles, the outer layer of the shell is covered by horny scales called scutes that are part of its outer skin, or epidermis. Scutes are made up of a fibrous protein called keratin that also makes up the scales of other reptiles. These scutes overlap the seams between the shell bones and add strength to the shell. Some turtles do not have horny scutes. For example, the leatherback sea turtle and the soft-shelled turtles have shells covered with leathery skin instead. The term carapace refers to a dorsal section of an exoskeleton or shell, in a number of animal groups. ... The plastron is the nearly flat part of the shell structure of a tortoise, what we would call the belly, similar in composition to the carapace; with an external layer of horny material divided into plates called scutes and an underlying layer of interlocking bones. ... A scute (Latin scutum, shield) is a horny, chitinous, or bony external plate or scale, as on the shell of a turtle or the underside of a snake. ... Cross-section of all skin layers Optical Coherence Tomography tomogram of fingertip, depicting stratum corneum (~500µm thick) with stratum disjunctum on top and stratum lucidum (connection to stratum spinosum) in the middle. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Not to be confused with kerogen or carotene. ...


The shape of the shell gives helpful clues to how the turtle lives. Most tortoises have a large dome-shaped shell that makes it difficult for predators to crush the shell between their jaws. One of the few exceptions is the African pancake tortoise which has a flat, flexible shell that allows it to hide in rock crevices. Most aquatic turtles have flat, streamlined shells which aid in swimming and diving. American snapping turtles and musk turtles have small, cross-shaped plastrons that give them more efficient leg movement for walking along the bottom of ponds and streams. Binomial name Malacochersus tornieri The Pancake Tortoise, or Malacochersus tornieri, is a flat-shelled tortoise most commonly found in Tanzania and Kenya. ... Genera See below. ... Musk turtle is the common name given to three genera of aquatic turtles: Sternotherus, the musk turtles proper, Staurotypus, variously called Mexican, three-keeled or giant musk turtles, and. ...


The color of a turtle's shell may vary. Shells are commonly colored brown, black, or olive green. In some species, shells may have red, orange, yellow, or grey markings and these markings are often spots, lines, or irregular blotches. One of the most colorful turtles is the eastern painted turtle which includes a yellow plastron and a black or olive shell with red markings around the rim. Binomial name (Schneider, 1783) Subspecies - Eastern Painted Turtle - Southern Painted Turtle - Midland Painted Turtle - Western Painted Turtle Painted Turtle is also the name of an imprint of Wayne State University Press. ...


Tortoises, being land-based, have rather heavy shells. In contrast, aquatic and soft-shelled turtles have lighter shells that help them avoid sinking in water and swim faster with more agility. These lighter shells have large spaces called fontanelles between the shell bones. The shell of a leatherback turtle is extremely light because they lack scutes and contain many fontanelles. In human anatomy, a fontanelle (or fontanel) is one of two soft spots on a newborn humans skull. ...


Skin and molting

As mentioned above, the outer layer of the shell is part of the skin, each scute (or plate) on the shell corresponding to a single modified scale. The remainder of the skin is composed of skin with much smaller scales, similar to the skin of other reptiles. Turtles and terrapins do not moult their skins all in one go, as snakes do, but continuously, in small pieces. When kept in aquaria, small sheets of dead skin can be seen in the water (often appearing to be a thin piece of plastic) when it has been sloughed off, often when the animal deliberately rubs itself against a piece of wood or stone. Tortoises also shed skin, but a lot of dead skin is allowed to accumulate into thick knobs and plates that provide protection to parts of the body outside the shell.


By counting the rings formed by the stack of smaller, older scutes on top of the larger, newer ones, it is possible to estimate the age of a turtle, if you know how many scutes are produced in a year.[5] This method is not very accurate, partly because growth rate is not constant, but also because some of the scutes eventually fall away from the shell.


Limbs

Terrestrial tortoises have short, sturdy feet. Tortoises are famous for moving slowly, in part because of their heavy, cumbersome shell but also because of the relatively inefficient sprawling gait that they have, with the legs being bent, as with lizards rather than being straight and directly under the body, as is the case with mammals. A number of animals have evolved so as to be able to travel over the ground. ... This page is about Lizards, the order of reptile. ... Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary...


The amphibious turtles normally have limbs similar to those of tortoises except that the feet are webbed and often have long claws. These turtles swim using all four feet in a way similar to the dog paddle, with the feet on the left and right side of the body alternately providing thrust. Large turtles tend to swim less than smaller ones, and the very big species, such as alligator snapping turtles, hardly swim at all, preferring to simply walk along the bottom of the river or lake. As well as webbed feet, turtles also have very long claws, used to help them clamber onto riverbanks and floating logs, upon which they like to bask. Male turtles tend to have particularly long claws, and these appear to be used to stimulate the female while mating. While most turtles have webbed feet, a few turtles, such as the pig-nose turtles, have true flippers, with the digits being fused into paddles and the claws being relatively small. These species swim in the same way as sea turtles (see below). CLAWS can also refer to the web site of Creating Livable Alternatives to Wage Slavery (CLAWS)[1] CLAWS is a modular open-source software package that provides account and identity management functions in a heterogeneous computing environment. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Classification: Family Carettochelyidae Genus Carettochelys Categories: Stub | Turtles ...


Sea turtles are almost entirely aquatic and instead of feet they have flippers. Sea turtles "fly" through the water, using the up-and-down motion of the front flippers to generate thrust; the back feet are not used for propulsion but may be used as rudders for steering. Compared with freshwater turtles, sea turtles have very limited mobility on land, and apart from the dash from the nest to the sea as hatchlings, male sea turtles normally never leave the sea. Females must come back onto land to lay eggs. They move very slowly and laboriously, dragging themselves forwards with their flippers. The back flippers are used to dig the burrow and then fill it back with sand once the eggs have been deposited. Stern-mounted steering oar of an Egyptian riverboat depicted in the Tomb of Menna (c. ...


Ecology and life history

An American map turtle hatchling.
An American map turtle hatchling.

Although many turtles spend large amounts of their lives underwater, all turtles and tortoises breathe air, and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs. They can also spend much of their lives on dry land. Aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. Some species have large cloacal cavities that are lined with many finger-like projections. These projections, called "papillae", have a rich blood supply, and increase the surface area of the cloaca. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water using these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills to respire. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Graptemys is a genus of turtles known commonly as map turtles or sometimes sawback turtles. ... In zoological anatomy, a cloaca is the posterior opening that serves as the only such opening for the intestinal, urinary, and genital tracts of certain animal species. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... For other uses, see Gill (disambiguation). ...


Turtles lay eggs, like other reptiles, which are slightly soft and leathery. The eggs of the largest species are spherical, while the eggs of the rest are elongated. Their albumen is white and contains a different protein than bird eggs, such that it will not coagulate when cooked. Turtle eggs prepared to eat consist mainly of yolk. In some species, temperature determines whether an egg develops into a male or a female: a higher temperature causes a female, a lower temperature causes a male. Large numbers of eggs are deposited in holes dug into mud or sand. They are then covered and left to incubate by themselves. When the turtles hatch, they squirm their way to the surface and head toward the water. There are no known species in which the mother cares for the young. In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ...


Sea turtles lay their eggs on dry, sandy beaches. Immature sea turtles are not cared for by the adults. Most are endangered largely as a result of beach development and over harvesting.[citation needed] Turtles can take many years to reach breeding age, and in many cases breed every few years rather than annually.


Researchers have recently discovered a turtle’s organs do not gradually break down or become less efficient over time, unlike most other animals. It was found that the liver, lungs and kidneys of a centenarian turtle are virtually indistinguishable from those of its immature counterpart. This has inspired genetic researchers to begin examining the turtle genome for longevity genes.[6]


Taxonomy

Main article: Testudines

Turtles are divided into three suborders, one of which, the Paracryptodira, is extinct. The two extant suborders are the Cryptodira and the Pleurodira. The Cryptodira is the larger of the two groups and includes all the marine turtles, the terrestrial tortoises, and many of the freshwater turtles. The Pleurodira are sometimes known as the side-necked turtles, a reference to the way they withdraw their heads into their shells. This smaller group consists primarily of various freshwater turtles. Families See text Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudinata, most of whose body is shielded by a special bony shell developed from their ribs. ... Scientific classification or biological classification refers to how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... In biology, extant taxon is commonly used in discussions of living and fossil species. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Pleurodira are a group of southern-hemisphere turtles which, in order to draw their heads into their shells, must fold their neck to the side, instead of withdrawing it directly under their spine like their cousins the cryptodira. ...


Evolutionary history

The first turtles are believed to have existed in the early Triassic Period of the Mesozoic era, about 200 million years ago. Their exact ancestry is disputed. It was believed that they are the only surviving branch of the ancient clade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonoids, millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs. All anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening, while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals the hole has become the zygomatic arch). The millerettids, protorothyrids and pareiasaurs became extinct in the late Permian period, and the procolophonoids during the Triassic.[7] The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 251 ± 0. ... Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ... Orders Testudines (Turtles) Millerettid - extinct Nyctiphruret - extinct Pareiasaur - extinct Procolophonoid - extinct The anapsids are a group of amniotes, characterized by skulls without openings near the temples. ... I am a Turtle ... The milleretids is an extinct group of anapsids that lived in South Africa during the Upper Permian. ... Protorothyrididae was a clade of small, lizard-like reptiles, possibly the ancestors of turtles and tortoises. ... Genera Bradysaurus Nochelesaurus Embrithosaurus Deltavjatia Velosauria Shihtienfenia Pareiasuchus Pareiasaurus Scutosaurus Elginia Nanopareia Anthodon The Pareiasaurs - family Pareiasauridae - are a group of medium-sized to very large (60 cm to 3 meters long), stocky, early, reptilian herbivores, that flourished during the Permian period. ... Living subgroups Class Synapsida    Class Mammalia (mammals) Class Sauropsida    Anapsida        Testudines (turtles)    Diapsida        Lepidosauria           Squamata (lizards & snakes)           Sphenodontida (tuatara)        Archosauria           Crocodilia (crocodiles)           Class Aves (birds) The amniotes are a taxon of tetrapod vertebrates that include the Synapsida (mammals) and Sauropsida (reptiles and dinosaurs, including birds). ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including milk producing sweat glands, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... The zygomatic bone (also known as the zygoma; Os Zygomaticum; Malar Bone) is a paired bone of the human skull. ... The Permian is a geologic period that extends from about 299. ...


However, it was recently suggested that the anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to reversion rather than to anapsid descent. More recent phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria.[8] All molecular studies have strongly upheld this new phylogeny, though some place turtles closer to Archosauria.[9] Re-analysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. As of 2003, the consensus is that Testudines diverged from other diapsids between 200 and 279 million years ago.[10] In theory, a conversion is an agreement such that one party takes ownership of a piece of property from another under the understanding that the ownership will revert to the second party when an agreed event occurs. ... A phylogeny (or phylogenesis) is the origin and evolution of a set of organisms, usually of a species. ... Groups See Text Diapsids (two arches) are a group of tetrapod animals that developed two holes (temporal fenestra) in each side of their skulls, about 300 million years ago during the late Carboniferous period. ... Suborders Lacertilia- Lizards Serpentes - Snakes Amphisbaenia - Worm lizards This article is about the Squamata order of reptiles. ... Groups Pterosauria Crocodylia (crocodiles) Dinosauria    Aves (birds) Archosaurs (Greek for ruling reptiles) are a group of diapsid reptiles that first appeared during the late Permian (roughly 250 million years ago). ... In science, a molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and properties. ... In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: phylon = tribe, race and genetikos = relative to birth, from genesis = birth) is the study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms (e. ... Greek clados = branch) or phylogenetic systematics is a branch of biology that determines the evolutionary relationships of living things based on derived similarities. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The earliest known turtle is proganochelys, though this species already had many advanced turtle traits, and thus probably had many millions of years of preceding "turtle" evolution and species in its ancestry. It did lack the ability to pull its head into its shell (and it had a long neck), and had a long, spiked tail ending in a club, implying an ancestry occupying a similar niche to the ankylosaurs (though, presumably, only parallel evolution). Proganochelys is the oldest turtle species discovered to date, known only from fossils found in Germany and Thailand in strata from the late Triassic, dating to approximately 210 million years ago. ... Binomial name Ankylosaurus magniventris Brown, 1908 Ankylosaurus (pronounced or , meaning stiffened lizard) is a genus of ankylosaurid dinosaur, containing one species, . Fossils of Ankylosaurus are found in geologic formations dating to the very end of the Cretaceous Period in western North America. ... Bee hovering in flight In evolutionary biology, parallel evolution refers to the independent evolution of similar traits in closely related lineages of species, while convergent evolution refers to the appearance of striking similarities among lineages of organisms only very distantly related. ...


Turtle, tortoise or terrapin?

Different animals are called turtles, tortoises, or terrapins in different varieties of English
Different animals are called turtles, tortoises, or terrapins in different varieties of English

Although the word "turtle" is widely used to describe all members of the order Testudines, it is also common to see certain members described as terrapins, tortoises or sea turtles as well. Precisely how these alternative names are used, if at all, depends on the type of English being used. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 456 pixelsFull resolution (1388 × 792 pixel, file size: 324 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A comparison of the different names for each type of chelonian. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 456 pixelsFull resolution (1388 × 792 pixel, file size: 324 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A comparison of the different names for each type of chelonian. ...

  • British English normally describes these reptiles as turtles if they live in the sea; terrapins if they live in fresh or brackish water; or tortoises if they live on land. However, there are exceptions to this where American or Australian common names are in wide use, as with the Fly River turtle.
  • American English tends to use the word turtle for all species regardless of habitat, although tortoise may be used as a more precise term for any land-dwelling species. Oceanic species may be more specifically referred to as sea turtles. The name "terrapin" is strictly reserved for the brackish water diamondback terrapin, Malaclemys terrapin; the word terrapin in this case being derived from the Algonquian word for this animal.[2]
  • Australian English uses turtle for both the marine and freshwater species but tortoise for the terrestrial species.

To avoid confusion, the word chelonian is popular among veterinarians, scientists, and conservationists working with these animals as a catch-all name for any member of the order Testudines. It is based on the Ancient Greek word χελώνη (chelone, modern Greek χελώνα), meaning tortoise. British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ... Brackish redirects here. ... Binomial name Carettochelys insculpta Ramsay, 1887 The Australasian Pig-nose Turtle, Carettochelys insculpta also known as the Pitted-shelled Turtle, Plateless Turtle or Fly River Turtle is a species of soft-shelled turtle native to freshwater streams, lagoons and rivers of the Northern Territory of Australia and of southern New... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Schoepf, 1793 Synonyms Emys Concentrica Testudo concentrata Testudo ocellata Testudo terrapin The Diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin) is a species of turtle native to the brackish coastal swamps of the eastern and southern United States, from as far north as Cape Cod, Massachusetts and as far south as Corpus... The Algonquian (also Algonkian) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (others are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ... Australian English (AuE, AusE, en-AU) is the form of the English language used in Australia. ... Beginning of Homers Odyssey The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage of the Greek language[1] as it existed during the Archaic (9th–6th centuries BC) and Classical (5th–4th centuries BC) periods in Ancient Greece. ...


Turtles as pets

Main article: Pet turtles

Turtles, particularly small terrestrial and freshwater turtles, are commonly kept as pets. Among the most popular are Russian Tortoises, Greek spur-thighed tortoises and red-ear sliders (or terrapin).[11] Turtles (commonly referred to as either tortoises or terrapins in British English depending on whether they are terrestrial or aquatic respectively)[1] have been quite widely kept as pets in many countries. ... Binomial name Testudo graeca Linnaeus, 1758 The Greek Tortoise or Spur-thighed Tortoise (Testudo graeca) is one of four European members of the Testudinidae family of tortoises. ... Category: ...


See also

Adwaita (meaning one and only in Sanskrit) was the name of a male Aldabra Giant Tortoise in the Alipore Zoological Garden of Kolkata, India. ... Map of Aldabra Atoll Aldabra and Assumption Island Aldabra Atoll Aldabra is a raised coral atoll in the Indian Ocean virtually untouched by humans, with distinctive island fauna, including the Aldabra Giant Tortoise. ... , “Calcutta” redirects here. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Araripemys arturi is an extinct testudinoid specimen, of which a fossil has been found in Brazil, supposed to be 120,000,000 years old. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Turtles (commonly referred to as either tortoises or terrapins in British English depending on whether they are terrestrial or aquatic respectively)[1] have been quite widely kept as pets in many countries. ... Trinomial name Trachemys scripta elegans (Wied-Neuwied, 1839) The Red-eared Slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) is a semi-aquatic turtle (terrapin) belonging to the family Emydidae. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Turtle racing is an old Asian sport, in which water turtles are lined up on a track and raced. ... Turtles and tortoises are depicted in Western culture as, snapping turtles aside, easygoing, patient and wise creatures. ...

Further reading

  • Iskandar, DT (2000). Turtles and Crocodiles of Insular Southeast Asia and New Guinea. ITB, Bandung.
  • Pritchard, Pether C H (1979). Encyclopedia of Turtles. T.F.H. Publications.

References

  1. ^ ARCHELON- Enchanted Learning Software
  2. ^ Reptile blood isn't necessarily cold, as reptiles sun themselves and take other measures to stay warm.
  3. ^ CTTC's Turtle Trivia
  4. ^ Marine Turtles
  5. ^ [1][dead link]
  6. ^ All but Ageless, Turtles Face Their Biggest Threat: Humans
  7. ^ Introduction to Procolophonoidea
  8. ^ Rieppel, O., and DeBraga, M. (1996). "Turtles as diapsid reptiles." Nature, 384: 453-455.
  9. ^ Zardoya, R., and Meyer, A. (1998). "Complete mitochondrial genome suggests diapsid affinities of turtles." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 95(24): 14226-14231.
  10. ^ Integrating Reptilian Herpesviruses into the Family Herpesviridae
  11. ^ David Alderton (1986). An Interpret Guide to Reptiles & Amphibians, Salamander Books Ltd., London & New York.

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Turtle - Terse RDF Triple Language (2159 words)
Turtle is an extension of N-Triples ([N-TRIPLES]) carefully taking the most useful and appropriate things added from Notation 3 ([NOTATION3]) while keeping it in the RDF model.
Turtle is mostly a subset of Notation 3 (N3) (see Turtle compared to Notation 3), and is generally usable in systems that support N3.
Syntax in Turtle that is not in Notation 3:
Turtle - MSN Encarta (1422 words)
Sea turtles, as well as a few other kinds of turtles, are considered members of the hidden-necked group even though they cannot fully withdraw their heads.
Some turtles, such as the hawksbill turtle, are killed for their decorative shells, which are the source of tortoiseshell used in jewelry.
An especially colorful turtle is the eastern painted turtle, which has a yellow plastron and a fl or olive shell with red markings around its rim.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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