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Encyclopedia > Turquoise
Turquoise

Turquoise pebble, one inch (2.5 cm) long. This pebble is greenish and therefore low grade
General
Category Mineral
Chemical formula CuAl6(PO4)4(OH)8·4H2O
Identification
Color Blue, blue-green, green
Crystal habit Massive, nodular
Crystal system Triclinic
Cleavage Good to perfect - usually N/A
Fracture Conchoidal
Mohs Scale hardness 5-6
Luster Waxy to subvitreous
Refractive index 1.61-1.65
Birefringence +0.040
Streak Bluish white
Specific gravity 2.6-2.9
Fusibility Fusible in heated HCl
Solubility Soluble in HCl
References [1][2][3]

Turquoise is an opaque, blue-to-green mineral that is a hydrous phosphate of copper and aluminium, with the chemical formula CuAl6(PO4)4(OH)8·4H2O. It is rare and valuable in finer grades and has been prized as a gem and ornamental stone for thousands of years owing to its unique hue. In recent times turquoise, like most other opaque gems, has been devalued by the introduction of treatments, imitations, and synthetics onto the market, some difficult to detect even by experts. Turquoise is a gemstone. ... Download high resolution version (700x774, 21 KB)Turquoise pebble, made by tumbling the rough rock in a rotating drum with abrasive. ... A mineral is a naturally occurring substance formed through geological processes that has a characteristic chemical composition, a highly ordered atomic structure and specific physical properties. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In mineralogy, shape and size give rise to descriptive terms applied to the typical appearance, or habit of crystals. ... A crystal system is a category of space groups, which characterize symmetry of structures in three dimensions with translational symmetry in three directions, having a discrete class of point groups. ... In crystallography, the triclinic crystal system is one of the 7 lattice point groups. ... Cleavage, in mineralogy, is the tendency of crystalline materials to split along definite planes, creating smooth surfaces, of which there are several named types: Basal cleavage: cleavage parallel to the base of a crystal, or to the plane of the lateral axes. ... For fractures in geologic formations, see Rock fracture. ... Mohs scale of mineral hardness characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer. ... Lustre (American English: luster) is a description of the way light interacts with the surface of a crystal, rock or mineral. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ... A calcite crystal laid upon a paper with some letters showing the double refraction Birefringence, or double refraction, is the decomposition of a ray of light into two rays (the ordinary ray and the extraordinary ray) when it passes through certain types of material, such as calcite crystals, depending on... The streak (also called powder color) of a mineral is the color of the powder produced when it is dragged across a unweathered surface. ... Relative density (also known as specific gravity) is a measure of the density of a material. ... Fusibility is the ease with which a material will melt. ... The chemical compound hydrochloric acid is the aqueous (water-based) solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... Solubility refers to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... A mineral is a naturally occurring substance formed through geological processes that has a characteristic chemical composition, a highly ordered atomic structure and specific physical properties. ... Hydrate is a term which means different things in inorganic chemistry and organic chemistry. ... Above is a ball-and-stick model of the inorganic hydrogenphosphate anion (HPO42−). Colour coding: P (orange); O (red); H (white). ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number aluminium, Al, 13 Chemical series poor metals Group, period, block 13, 3, p Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 26. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A selection of gemstone pebbles made by tumbling rough rock with abrasive grit, in a rotating drum. ... An ornamental stone is a stone used as a decoration. ...


The substance has been known by many names, but the word turquoise was derived around 16th century from the French language either from the word for Turkish (Turquois) or dark-blue stone (pierre turquin).[4] This may have arisen from a misconception: turquoise does not occur in Turkey but was traded at Turkish bazaars to Venetian merchants who brought it to Europe.[4] The colour, however, has been employed extensively in the decorative tiles adorning Turkish places of worship and homes for hundreds of years, beginning with the Seljuks, and the association quite possibly has caused the name to take root. French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... The Seljuqs (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuk, sometimes also Seljuq Turks; in Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian: á¹¢aljÅ«qÄ«yān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a Sunni Muslim dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ...

Contents

Properties of turquoise

Even the finest of turquoise is fracturable, reaching a maximum hardness of just under 6, or slightly more than window glass.[2] Characteristically a cryptocrystalline mineral, turquoise almost never forms single crystals and all of its properties are highly variable. Its crystal system is proven to be triclinic via X-ray diffraction testing. With lower hardness comes lower specific gravity (high 2.90, low 2.60) and greater porosity: These properties are dependent on grain size. The lustre of turquoise is typically waxy to subvitreous, and transparency is usually opaque, but may be semitranslucent in thin sections. Colour is as variable as the mineral's other properties, ranging from white to a powder blue to a sky blue, and from a blue-green to a yellowish green. The blue is attributed to idiochromatic copper while the green may be the result of either iron impurities (replacing aluminium) or dehydration. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A cryptocrystal is a rock whose texture is so finely crystalline—that is, made up of such minute crystals—that its crystalline nature is only vaguely revealed even in a thin section by transmitted polarized light. ... Quartz crystal Synthetic bismuth hopper crystal Insulin crystals Gallium, a metal that easily forms large single crystals A huge monocrystal of potassium dihydrogen phosphate grown from solution by Saint-Gobain for the megajoule laser of CEA. In chemistry and mineralogy, a crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms... A crystal system is a category of space groups, which characterize symmetry of structures in three dimensions with translational symmetry in three directions, having a discrete class of point groups. ... In crystallography, the triclinic crystal system is one of the 7 lattice point groups. ... X-ray crystallography is a technique in crystallography in which the pattern produced by the diffraction of x-rays through the closely spaced lattice of atoms in a crystal is recorded and then analyzed to reveal the nature of that lattice. ... Relative density (also known as specific gravity) is a measure of the density of a material. ... Porosity is a measure of the void spaces in a material, and is measured as a fraction, between 0–1, or as a percentage between 0–100%. The term porosity is used in multiple fields including manufacturing, earth sciences and construction. ... Lustre (American English: luster) is a description of the way light interacts with the surface of a crystal, rock or mineral. ... Transparent glass ball In optics, transparency is the property of allowing light to pass. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydro in ancient Greek) from an object. ...


The refractive index (as measured by sodium light, 589.3 nm) of turquoise is approximately 1.61 or 1.62; this is a mean value seen as a single reading on a gemmological refractometer, owing to the almost invariably polycrystalline nature of turquoise. A reading of 1.61–1.65 (birefringence 0.040, biaxial positive) has been taken from rare single crystals. An absorption spectrum may also be obtained with a hand-held spectroscope, revealing a line at 432 nanometres and a weak band at 460 nanometres (this is best seen with strong reflected light). Under longwave ultraviolet light, turquoise may occasionally fluoresce green, yellow or bright blue; it is inert under shortwave ultraviolet and X-rays. The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ... For sodium in the diet, see Edible salt. ... Gemology (gemmology outside the United States) is the science, art and profession of identifying and evaluating gemstones. ... A refractometer is an optical instrument that is used to determine the refractive index of a substance or some physical property of a substance that is directly related to its refractive index. ... A calcite crystal laid upon a paper with some letters showing the double refraction Birefringence, or double refraction, is the decomposition of a ray of light into two rays (the ordinary ray and the extraordinary ray) when it passes through certain types of material, such as calcite crystals, depending on... A materials absorption spectrum shows the fraction of incident electromagnetic radiation absorbed by the material over a range of frequencies. ... A spectroscope is a device which measures the spectrum of light. ... “UV” redirects here. ... Fluorescence induced by exposure to ultraviolet light in vials containing various sized Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz...


Turquoise is insoluble in all but heated hydrochloric acid. Its streak is a pale bluish white and its fracture is conchoidal, leaving a waxy lustre. Despite its low hardness relative to other gems, turquoise takes a good polish. Turquoise may also be peppered with flecks of pyrite or interspersed with dark, spidery limonite veining. The chemical compound hydrochloric acid is the aqueous (water-based) solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... A mineral is a naturally occurring substance formed through geological processes that has a characteristic chemical composition, a highly ordered atomic structure and specific physical properties. ... For fractures in geologic formations, see Rock fracture. ... Conchoidal fracture describes the way that brittle materials break when they do not follow any natural planes of separation. ... The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, is iron sulfide, FeS2. ... Limonite Limonite Limonite is a ferric hydrate of varying composition, the generic formula is frequently written as FeO(OH)·nH2O, although this is not entirely accurate as Limonite often contains a varying amount of oxide compared to hydroxide. ...


Formation

As a secondary mineral, turquoise apparently forms by the action of percolating acidic aqueous solutions during the weathering and oxidation of pre-existing minerals. For example, the copper may come from primary copper sulfides such as chalcopyrite or from the secondary carbonates malachite or azurite; the aluminium may derive from feldspar; and the phosphorus from apatite. Climate factors appear to play an important role as turquoise is typically found in arid regions, filling or encrusting cavities and fractures in typically highly altered volcanic rocks, often with associated limonite and other iron oxides. In the American southwest turquoise is almost invariably associated with the weathering products of copper sulfide deposits in or around potassium feldspar bearing porphyritic intrusives. In some occurrences alunite, potassium aluminium sulfate, is a prominent secondary mineral. Typically turquoise mineralization is restricted to a relatively shallow depth of less than 20 m, although it does occur along deeper fracture zones where secondary solutions have greater penetration or the depth to the water table is greater. A mineral is a naturally occurring substance formed through geological processes that has a characteristic chemical composition, a highly ordered atomic structure and specific physical properties. ... Weathering is the process of breaking down rocks, soils and their mineral through direct contact with the atmosphere. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ... Chalcopyrite (sometimes called peacock pyrite) is a copper iron sulfide mineral that crystallizes in the tetragonal system. ... This article is about the mineral. ... // Fresh, unweathered stalactitic azurite crystals showing the exceptionally deep blue of unaltered azurite. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals, usually referring to hydroxylapatite, fluorapatite, and chlorapatite, named for high concentrations of OH-, F-, or Cl- ions, respectively, in the crystal. ... In general terms, the climate of a locale or region is said to be arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or even preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life. ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ... Limonite Limonite Limonite is a ferric hydrate of varying composition, the generic formula is frequently written as FeO(OH)·nH2O, although this is not entirely accurate as Limonite often contains a varying amount of oxide compared to hydroxide. ... Pluton redirects here. ... Alunite, or alumstone, is a mineral that was first observed in the 15th century at Tolfa, near Rome, where it was mined for the manufacture of alum. ...


Although the features of turquoise occurrences are consistent with a secondary or supergene origin, some sources refer to a hypogene origin. The hypogene hypothesis, which holds that the aqueous solutions originate at significant depth, from hydrothermal processes. Initially at high temperature, these solutions rise upward to surface layers, interacting with and leaching essential elements from pre-existing minerals in the process. As the solutions cool, turquoise precipitates, lining cavities and fractures within the surrounding rock. This hypogene process is applicable to the original copper sulfide deposition; however, it is difficult to account for the many features of turquoise occurrences by a hypogene process. That said, there are reports of two phase fluid inclusions within turquoise grains that give elevated homogenization temperatures of 90 to 190 oC that require explanation. In ore deposit geology sugergene processes or enrichment occurs relatively near the surface. ... Hydrothermal circulation in the oceans is the passage of the water through mid-ocean Ridge (MOR) systems. ... Trapped in a time capsule the same size as the diameter of a human hair, the ore-forming liquid in this inclusion was so hot and contained so much dissolved solids that when it cooled, crystals of halite, sylvite, gypsum, and hematite formed. ...


Turquoise is nearly always cryptocrystalline and massive and assumes no definite external shape. Crystals, even at the microscopic scale, are exceedingly rare. Typically the form is vein or fracture filling, nodular, or botryoidal in habit. Stalactite forms have been reported. Turquoise may also pseudomorphously replace feldspar, apatite, other minerals, or even fossils. Odontolite is fossil bone or ivory that has been traditionally thought to have been altered by turquoise or similar phosphate minerals such as the iron phosphate vivianite. Intergrowth with other secondary copper minerals such as chrysocolla is also common. In mineralogy, shape and size give rise to descriptive terms applied to the typical appearance, or habit of crystals. ... Water droplet coming out of the central canal of a stalactite A stalactite (Greek stalaktites, (Σταλακτίτης), from the word for drip and meaning that which drips) is a type of speleothem(secondary mineral) that hangs from the ceiling or wall of limestone caves. ... In geology, a pseudomorph is a mineral compound resulting from a substitution process in which the appearance and dimensions remain constant, but the mineral which makes up the chief component of the compound is replaced by another. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... Odontolite, also called bone turquoise or fossil turquoise, is fossil bone or ivory that has been traditionally thought to have been altered by turquoise or similar phosphate minerals such as vivianite. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Vivianite Fe3(PO4)2·8(H2O), hydrated iron phosphate, is a secondary mineral found in a number of geological environments. ... Chrysocolla from Nevada, USA. Chrysocolla (hydrated copper silicate) is a mineral, CuSiO3·nH2O. It is of secondary origin and forms in the oxidation zones of copper ore bodies. ...


Occurrence

Massive turquoise in matrix with quartz from Mineral Park, Arizona.
Massive turquoise in matrix with quartz from Mineral Park, Arizona.

Turquoise was among the first gems to be mined, and while many historic sites have been depleted, some are still worked to this day. These are all small-scale, often seasonal operations, owing to the limited scope and remoteness of the deposits. Most are worked by hand with little or no mechanization. However, turquoise is often recovered as a byproduct of large-scale copper mining operations, especially in the United States. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (833x503, 233 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Turquoise User:Aramgutang/Gallery Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (833x503, 233 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Turquoise User:Aramgutang/Gallery Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Quartz (from German Quarz[1]) is the second most common mineral in the Earths continental crust. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ...


Iran

For at least 2,000 years, the region once known as Persia, has remained the most important source of turquoise, for it is here that fine material is most consistently recovered. This "perfect colour" deposit, which is blue naturally, turns green when heated because getting dehyrated is restricted to a mine-riddled in Neyshabur,[5][6][7] the 2,012-metre mountain peak of Ali-mersai, which is tens of kilometers from Mashhad, the capital of Khorasan province, Iran. A weathered and broken trachyte is host to the turquoise, which is found both in situ between layers of limonite and sandstone, and amongst the scree at the mountain's base. These workings, together with those of the Sinai Peninsula, are the oldest known. For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Free-blown, wheel-cut carafes. ... Mashhad (Persian: , literally the place of martyrdom) is the second largest city in Iran and one of the holiest cities in the Shiah world. ... Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan; Horasan in Turkish) is a region located in eastern Iran. ... A sample of trachyte Trachyte is an igneous, volcanic rock with an aphanitic to porphyritic texture. ... Scree or detritic cone is a term given to broken rock that appears at the bottom of crags, mountain cliffs or valley shoulders. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ...


Iranian turquoise is often found replacing feldspar. Although it is commonly marred by whitish patches, its colour and hardness are considered superior to the production of other localities. Iranian turquoise has been mined and traded abroad for centuries, and was probably the source of the first material to reach Europe.


Sinai

Since at least the First Dynasty (3000 BCE), and possibly before then, turquoise was used by the Egyptians and was mined by them in the Sinai Peninsula, called "Country of Turquoise" by the native Monitu. There are six mines in the region, all on the southwest coast of the peninsula, covering an area of some 650 km². The two most important of these mines, from a historic perspective, are Serabit el-Khadim and Wadi Maghareh, believed to be among the oldest of known mines. The former mine is situated about 4 kilometres from an ancient temple dedicated to Hathor. The First and second Dynasties of Ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title of the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt. ... “Era Vulgaris” redirects here. ... Chuquicamata, the second largest open pit copper mine in the world, Chile. ... Serabit el-Khadim (Arabic, also transliterated Serabit al-Khadim, Serabit el-Khadem) is a locality in the south-west Sinai Peninsula where turquoise was mined extensively in antiquity, mainly by the ancient Egyptians. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


The turquoise is found in sandstone that is, or was originally, overlain by basalt. Copper and iron workings are present in the area. Large-scale turquoise mining is not profitable today, but the deposits are sporadically quarried by Bedouin peoples using homemade gunpowder. In the rainy winter months, miners face a risk from flash flooding; even in the dry season, death from the collapse of the haphazardly exploited sandstone mine walls is not unheard of. The colour of Sinai material is typically greener than Iranian material, but is thought to be stable and fairly durable. Often referred to as Egyptian turquoise, Sinai material is typically the most translucent, and under magnification its surface structure is revealed to be peppered with dark blue discs not seen in material from other localities. Basalt Basalt (IPA: ) is a common gray to black extrusive volcanic rock. ... A Bedouin man on a hillside at Mount Sinai Bedouin, derived from the Arabic ( ), a name for a desert-dweller, is a term generally applied to Arab nomadic pastoralist groups, who are found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via the Western... Smokeless powder Gunpowder is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot gas which can be used as a propellant in firearms and fireworks. ... Flash flooding is rapid flooding of low-lying areas, rivers and creeks that is caused by the intense rainfall associated with a thunderstorm, or multiple training thunderstorms. ...


In proximity to nearby Eilat, Israel, an attractive intergrowth of turquoise, malachite, and chrysocolla is found. This rock is called Eilat stone and is often referred to as Israel's national stone: it is worked by local artisans for sale to tourists. Hebrew אילת Founded in 1951 Government City (from 1959) District South Population 55,000 (2006) Jurisdiction 80,000 dunams (80 km²) Mayor Meir Yitzhak Halevi North Beach, Eilat, from southwest. ... This balancing rock, Steamboat Rock stands in Garden of the Gods park in Colorado Springs, CO The rocky side of a mountain creek near Orosí, Costa Rica. ...


United States

A selection of Ancestral Puebloan (Anasazi) turquoise and orange argillite inlay pieces from Chaco Canyon (dated ca. 1020–1140 CE) show the typical colour range and mottling of American turquoise.
A selection of Ancestral Puebloan (Anasazi) turquoise and orange argillite inlay pieces from Chaco Canyon (dated ca. 1020–1140 CE) show the typical colour range and mottling of American turquoise.
Bisbee turquoise commonly has a hard chocolate brown coloured matrix, and is considered some of the finest in the world.
Bisbee turquoise commonly has a hard chocolate brown coloured matrix, and is considered some of the finest in the world.

The Southwest United States is a significant source of turquoise; Arizona, California (San Bernardino, Imperial, and Inyo counties), Colorado (Conejos, El Paso, Lake, and Saguache counties), New Mexico (Eddy, Grant, Otero, and Santa Fe counties) and Nevada (Clark, Elko, Esmerelda County, Eureka, Lander, Mineral County and Nye counties) are (or were) especially rich. The deposits of California and New Mexico were mined by pre-Columbian Native Americans using stone tools, some local and some from as far away as central Mexico. Cerrillos, New Mexico is thought to be the location of the oldest mines; prior to the 1920s, the state was the country's largest producer; it is more or less exhausted today. Only one mine in California, located at Apache Canyon, operates at a commercial capacity today. Ancestral Puebloan (Anasazi) turquoise and argillite (orange) inlay pieces, circa 1020-1140 CE. L 0. ... Ancestral Puebloan (Anasazi) turquoise and argillite (orange) inlay pieces, circa 1020-1140 CE. L 0. ... Cliff Palace, Mesa Verde National Park White House Ruins, Canyon de Chelly National Monument Ancient Pueblo People or Ancestral Puebloans were a prehistoric Native American culture centered around the present-day Four Corners area of the Southwest United States, noted for their distinctive pottery and dwelling construction styles. ... An argillite is a fine-grained sedimentary rock composed predominately of indurated clay particles. ... Chacoan corner doorway in Pueblo Bonito. ... No file by this name exists; you can upload it. ... No file by this name exists; you can upload it. ... The Southwest region of the United States is drier than the adjoining Midwest in weather; the population is less dense and, with strong Spanish-American and Native American components, more ethnically varied than neighboring areas. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... San Bernardino County is the largest county in the contiguous United States by area, containing more land than each of nine states. ... Imperial County is a county located in the Imperial Valley, in the far southeast of the U.S. state of California, and borders both Arizona and Mexico. ... Inyo County is a county located in east-central California, on the east side of the Sierra Nevada south of Yosemite National Park. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Conejos County is a county located in the U.S. state of Colorado. ... El Paso County is a county located in the U.S. state of Colorado. ... Lake County is a county located in the U.S. state of Colorado. ... Saguache County is a county located in the U.S. state of Colorado. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... Eddy County is a county located in the state of New Mexico. ... Grant County is a county located in the state of New Mexico. ... Otero County is a county located in the state of New Mexico. ... Santa Fe County is a county located in the state of New Mexico. ... Official language(s) English Capital Carson City Largest city Las Vegas Area  Ranked 7th  - Total 110,567 sq mi (286,367 km²)  - Width 322 miles (519 km)  - Length 490 miles (788 km)  - % water 0. ... // Clark is the name of several places in the [[United States Clark County, Arkansas Clark County, Indiana Clark County, Nevada Clark County, Washington Clark, Missouri Clark, New Jersey Clark, South Dakota Clark Township, Minnesota Clark Point is a point in eastern Virginia by the Chesapeake Bay. ... Elko is the name of several places in the United States of America. ... Esmeralda County is a county located in the state of Nevada. ... Eureka (or Heureka; Greek ) is a famous exclamation attributed to Archimedes, see: Eureka (word). ... This article is about the spacecraft type. ... Mineral County is the name of several counties in the United States: Mineral County, Colorado Mineral County, Montana Mineral County, Nevada Mineral County, West Virginia This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Nye can refer to: Bill Nye Nye County, Nevada Nye, Montana Nye Committee, Senate Munitions Investigating Committee (1934) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the Americas continent. ... Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska. ... Cerrillos (the little hills in Spanish) is a village in southern Santa Fe County, New Mexico. ...


The turquoise occurs as vein or seam fillings, and as compact nuggets; these are mostly small in size. While quite fine material—rivalling Iranian material in both colour and durability—is sometimes found, most American turquoise is of a low grade (called "chalk turquoise"); high iron levels mean greens and yellows predominate, and a typically friable consistency precludes use in jewelery in the turquoise's untreated state. Arizona is currently the most important producer of turquoise by value, with the vivid Bisbee Blue being a good example of the state's natural endowment; much of the Arizona material is recovered as a byproduct of copper mining. Jewellery (spelled jewelry in American English) consists of ornamental devices worn by persons, typically made with gems and precious metals. ... Bisbee Blue refers to the turquoise that comes from copper mines located in the vicinity of Bisbee, Arizona. ...


Nevada is the country's other major producer, with more than 120 mines which have yielded significant quantities of turquoise. Unlike elsewhere in the US, most Nevada mines have been worked primarily for their gem turquoise and very little has been recovered as a byproduct of other mining operations. Nevada turquoise is found as nuggets, fracture fillings and in breccias as the cement filling interstices between fragments. Because of the geology of the Nevada deposits, a majority of the material produced is hard and dense, being of sufficient quality that no treatment or enhancement is required. While nearly every county in the state has yielded some turquoise, the chief producers are in Lander and Esmerelda Counties. Most of the turquoise deposits in Nevada occur along a wide belt of tectonic activity that coincides with the state's zone of thrust faulting. It strikes about N15E and extends from the northern part of Elko County, southward down to the California border southwest of Tonopah. Nevada has produced a wide diversity of colours and mixes of different matrix patterns, with turquoise from Nevada coming in various shades of blue, blue-green, and green. Nevada produces some unique shades of bright mint to apple to neon yellow green. Some of this unusually coloured turquoise may contain significant zinc and iron, which is the cause of the beautiful bright green to yellow-green shades. Some of the green to green yellow shades may actually be Variscite or Faustite, which are secondary phosphate minerals similar in appearance to turquoise. A significant portion of the Nevada material is also noted for its often attractive brown or black limonite veining, producing what is called "spiderweb matrix". While a number of the Nevada deposits were first worked by Native Americans, the total Nevada turquoise production since the 1870s has been an estimated at more than 600 tons, including nearly 400 tons from the Carico Lake mine. In spite of increased costs, small scale mining operations continue at a number of turquoise properties in Nevada, including the Godber, Orvil Jack and Carico Lake Mines in Lander County, the Pilot Mountain Mine in Mineral County, and several properties in the Royston and Candelaria areas of Esmerelda County.[8] ... Variscite AlPO4·2H2O, hydrated aluminium phosphate, is a relatively rare phosphate mineral. ...

Untreated turquoise, Nevada USA. Rough nuggets from the McGuinness Mine, Austin; Blue and green cabochons showing spiderweb, Bunker Hill Mine, Royston
Untreated turquoise, Nevada USA. Rough nuggets from the McGuinness Mine, Austin; Blue and green cabochons showing spiderweb, Bunker Hill Mine, Royston

In 1912, the first deposit of distinct, single-crystal turquoise was discovered in Lynch Station, Campbell County, Virginia. The crystals, forming a druse over the mother rock, are very small; 1 mm (0.04 inches) is considered large. Until the 1980s Virginia was widely thought to be the only source of distinct crystals; there are now at least 27 other localities.[9] The specimens are highly valued by collectors. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 588 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 809 pixel, file size: 232 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 588 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 809 pixel, file size: 232 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Campbell County is a county located in the state of Virginia. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


In an attempt to recoup profits and meet demand, some American turquoise is treated or enhanced to a certain degree. These treatments include innocuous waxing and more controversial procedures, such as dyeing and impregnation (see Treatments). There are however, some American mines which produce materials of high enough quality that no treatment or alterations are required. Any such treatments which have been performed should be disclosed to the buyer on sale of the material.


Other sources

China has been a minor source of turquoise for 3,000 years or more. Gem-quality material, in the form of compact nodules, is found in the fractured, silicified limestone of Yunxian and Zhushan, Hubei province. Additionally, Marco Polo reported turquoise found in present-day Sichuan. Most Chinese material is exported, but a few carvings worked in a manner similar to jade exist. In Tibet, where green turquoise has long been appreciated, gem-quality deposits purportedly exist in the mountains of Derge and Nagari-Khorsum in the east and west of the region respectively[10]. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Hubei (Chinese: 湖北; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hu-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hupeh) is a central province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Marco Polo (September 15, 1254 – January 8, 1324) was a Venetian trader and explorer who gained fame for his worldwide travels, recorded in the book Il Milione (The Million or The Travels of Marco Polo). ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: SzÅ­4-chuan1; Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in the central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... A selection of antique, hand-crafted Chinese jade (jadeite) buttons Unworked Jade Jade is used as an ornamental stone, the term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different silicate minerals. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...


Other notable localities include: Afghanistan; Australia (Victoria and Queensland); northern Chile (Chuquicamata); Cornwall; Saxony; Silesia; and Turkestan. “VIC” redirects here. ... Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Peter Beattie (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd)  - Product per capita  $40,170/person (6th) Population (End of November 2006)  - Population  4,164,590 (3rd)  - Density  2. ... One of the larger pits in the base of the open cast mine Chuquicamata copper mine in 1984 Chuquicamata, or Chuqui, as it is commonly called, is the second largest open pit copper mine in the world. ... For other uses, see Cornwall (disambiguation). ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... Silesia (English pronunciation [], Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlůnsk) is a historical region in central Europe, located along the upper and middle Oder River, upper Vistula River, and along the Sudetes, Carpathian (Silesian Beskids) mountain range. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


History of use

Trade in turquoise crafts, such as this freeform pendant dating from 1000–1040 CE, is believed to have brought the Ancestral Puebloans of the Chaco Canyon great wealth.
Trade in turquoise crafts, such as this freeform pendant dating from 1000–1040 CE, is believed to have brought the Ancestral Puebloans of the Chaco Canyon great wealth.

The pastel shades of turquoise have endeared it to many great cultures of antiquity: it has adorned the rulers of Ancient Egypt, the Aztecs (and possibly other Pre-Columbian Mesoamericans), Persia, Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, and to some extent in ancient China since at least the Shang Dynasty.[11] Despite being one of the oldest gems, probably first introduced to Europe (through Turkey) with other Silk Road novelties, turquoise did not become important as an ornamental stone in the West until the 14th century, following a decline in the Roman Catholic Church's influence which allowed the use of turquoise in secular jewellery. It was apparently unknown in India until the Mughal period, and unknown in Japan until the 18th century. A common belief shared by many of these civilizations held that turquoise possessed certain prophylactic qualities; it was thought to change colour with the wearer's health and protect him or her from untoward forces. Ancestral Puebloan (Anasazi) freeform turquoise pendant, circa 1000-1040 CE. L 1. ... Ancestral Puebloan (Anasazi) freeform turquoise pendant, circa 1000-1040 CE. L 1. ... Dionysius Exiguus invented Anno Domini years to date Easter. ... Ancient Egypt was a long-standing civilization in northeastern Africa. ... It has been suggested that Mexica be merged into this article or section. ... Location of Mesoamerica in the Americas. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... For other uses, see Mesopotamia (disambiguation). ... The // (c. ... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Silk Road Silk Route redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic... Flag Mughal Empire at its greatest extent in 1700 Capital Agra, Delhi Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy List of Mughal emperors  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707...


The Aztecs inlaid turquoise, together with gold, quartz, malachite, jet, jade, coral, and shells, into provocative (and presumably ceremonial) mosaic objects such as masks (some with a human skull as their base), knives, and shields. Natural resins, bitumen and wax were used to bond the turquoise to the objects' base material; this was usually wood, but bone and shell were also used. Like the Aztecs, the Pueblo, Navajo and Apache tribes cherished turquoise for its amuletic use; the latter tribe believe the stone to afford the archer dead aim. Among these peoples turquoise was used in mosaic inlay, in sculptural works, and was fashioned into toroidal beads and freeform pendants. The Ancestral Puebloans (Anasazi) of the Chaco Canyon and surrounding region are believed to have prospered greatly from their production and trading of turquoise objects. The distinctive silver jewelry produced by the Navajo and other Southwestern Native American tribes today is a rather modern development, thought to date from circa 1880 as a result of European influences. GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... Quartz (from German Quarz[1]) is the second most common mineral in the Earths continental crust. ... This article is about the mineral. ... A sample of jet Jet is a geological material that is not considered a mineral in the true sense of the word, but rather, a mineraloid derived from decaying wood under extreme pressure, thus organic in origin. ... A selection of antique, hand-crafted Chinese jade (jadeite) buttons Unworked Jade Jade is used as an ornamental stone, the term jade is applied to two different rocks that are made up of different silicate minerals. ... Precious coral or red coral is the common name given to Corallium rubrum and several related species of marine coral. ... Various seashells Danielle A shell is the hard, rigid outer covering, or integument, allanimals. ... Mosaic is the art of decoration with small pieces of colored glass, stone or other material. ... Papierkrattler masks at the Narrensprung 2005 Carnival parade, Ravensburg Germany A mask is an artefact normally worn on the face, typically for protection, concealment, performance, or amusement. ... It has been suggested that temporal fenestra be merged into this article or section. ... A knife is a sharp-edged (single or double edged) instrument consisting of a thin blade used for cutting and fitted with a handle. ... A shield is a protective device, meant to intercept attacks. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ewer from Iran, dated 1180-1210CE. Composed of brass worked in repoussé and inlaid with silver and bitumen. ... candle wax This page is about the substance. ... Trunks A tree trunk as found at the Veluwe, The Netherlands Wood is a solid material derived from woody plants, notably trees but also shrubs. ... Grays Anatomy illustration of a human femur. ... It has been suggested that Pueblo be merged into this article or section. ... Map of the Navajo Nation The Navajo Nation (Dineé in Navajo language) is a Native American sovereignty. ... This article is about the Native American tribe, for other uses of the word see Apache (disambiguation). ... Archery is the practice of using a bow to shoot arrows. ... Mosaic is the art of decoration with small pieces of colored glass, stone or other material. ... Cliff Palace, Mesa Verde National Park White House Ruins, Canyon de Chelly National Monument Ancient Pueblo People or Ancestral Puebloans were a prehistoric Native American culture centered around the present-day Four Corners area of the Southwest United States, noted for their distinctive pottery and dwelling construction styles. ... Chacoan corner doorway in Pueblo Bonito. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Standard atomic weight 107. ...


In Persia, turquoise was the de facto national stone for millennia, extensively used to decorate objects (from turbans to bridles), mosques, and other important buildings both inside and out, such as the Medresseh-I Shah Husein Mosque of Isfahan. The Persian style and use of turquoise was later brought to India following the establishment of the Mughal Empire there, its influence seen in high purity gold jewellery (together with ruby and diamond) and in such buildings as the Taj Mahal. Persian turquoise was often engraved with devotional words in Arabic script which was then inlaid with gold. A Sikh man wearing a turban The turban (from the Persian , dulband via the Turkish ) is a headdress consisting of a long scarf-like single piece of cloth wound round the head or an inner hat. ... A bridle is a piece of equipment used to control a horse. ... A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the gemstone. ... Taj Mahal Location of the Taj Mahal within India The Taj Mahal (Devanagari: ताज महल, Nastaliq: تاج محل) is a mausoleum located in Agra, India. ... Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ...

The iconic gold burial mask of Tutankhamun, inlaid with turquoise, lapis lazuli, carnelian and coloured glass.
The iconic gold burial mask of Tutankhamun, inlaid with turquoise, lapis lazuli, carnelian and coloured glass.

Cabochons of imported turquoise, along with coral, was (and still is) used extensively in the silver and gold jewellery of Tibet and Mongolia, where a greener hue is said to be preferred. Most of the pieces made today, with turquoise usually roughly polished into irregular cabochons set simply in silver, are meant for inexpensive export to Western markets and are probably not accurate representations of the original style. King Tuts mask released into the Public Domain by the Christian Theological Seminary. ... King Tuts mask released into the Public Domain by the Christian Theological Seminary. ... Nebkheperure Lord of the forms of Re Nomen Tutankhaten Living Image of the Aten Tutankhamun Hekaiunushema Living Image of Amun, ruler of Upper Heliopolis Horus name Kanakht Tutmesut The strong bull, pleasing of birth Nebty name Neferhepusegerehtawy One of perfect laws, who pacifies the two lands[1] Wer-Ah-Amun... A block of lapis lazuli Lapis lazuli is one of the oldest of all gems, with a history of use stretching back 7,000 years. ... Imprint of a carnelian seal with Brahmi inscription Kusumadasasya (Flowers servant). 4-5th century CE, probably Punjab. ... Glass can be made transparent and flat, or into other shapes and colors as shown in this sphere from the Verrerie of Brehat in Brittany. ... A cabochon or cabouchon is a gemstone which has been shaped and polished as opposed to facetted. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ...


The Egyptian use of turquoise stretches back as far as the First Dynasty and possibly earlier; however, probably the most well-known pieces incorporating the gem are those recovered from Tutankhamun's tomb, most notably the Pharaoh's iconic burial mask which was liberally inlaid with the stone. It also adorned rings and great sweeping necklaces called pectorals. Set in gold, the gem was fashioned into beads, used as inlay, and often carved in a scarab motif, accompanied by carnelian, lapis lazuli, and in later pieces, coloured glass. Turquoise, associated with the goddess Hathor, was so liked by the Ancient Egyptians that it became (arguably) the first gemstone to be imitated, the fair semblance created by an artificial glazed ceramic product known as faience. (A similar blue ceramic has been recovered from Bronze Age burial sites in the British Isles.) The First and second Dynasties of Ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title of the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt. ... Nebkheperure Lord of the forms of Re Nomen Tutankhaten Living Image of the Aten Tutankhamun Hekaiunushema Living Image of Amun, ruler of Upper Heliopolis Horus name Kanakht Tutmesut The strong bull, pleasing of birth Nebty name Neferhepusegerehtawy One of perfect laws, who pacifies the two lands[1] Wer-Ah-Amun... Pharaoh was the ancient Egyptian name for the office of kingship. ... A finger ring is a metal band worn as an ornament around a finger; it is the most common current meaning of the word ring. ... A necklace is an article of clothing or jewelry; which is worn around the neck. ... Location The clavicular head of the pectoralis major takes its origin from the anterior surface of the medial half of the clavicle. ... A scarab or scarab beetle may refer to: A beetle which belong to the family Scarabaeidae, or A dung beetle, especially the Scarabaeus sacer worshipped by the ancient Egyptians (an amulet made by that people in the shape of the species is also called a scarab). ... Imprint of a carnelian seal with Brahmi inscription Kusumadasasya (Flowers servant). 4-5th century CE, probably Punjab. ... A block of lapis lazuli Lapis lazuli is one of the oldest of all gems, with a history of use stretching back 7,000 years. ... Glass can be made transparent and flat, or into other shapes and colors as shown in this sphere from the Verrerie of Brehat in Brittany. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Fixed Partial Denture, or Bridge The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός (keramikos). ... Faience or faïence is the conventional name in English for fine tin-glazed earthenware on a delicate pale buff body. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... This article describes the archipelago in north-Western Europe. ...


The French conducted archaeological excavations of Egypt from the mid-19th century through the early 20th. These excavations, including that of Tutankhamun's tomb, created great public interest in the western world, subsequently influencing jewellery, architecture, and art of the time. Turquoise, already favoured for its pastel shades since c. 1810, was a staple of Egyptian Revival pieces. In contemporary Western use, turquoise is most often encountered cut en cabochon in silver rings, bracelets, often in the Native American style, or as tumbled or roughly hewn beads in chunky necklaces. Lesser material may be carved into fetishes, such as those crafted by the Zuni. While strong sky blues remain superior in value, mottled green and yellowish material is popular with artisans. In Western culture, turquoise is also the traditional birthstone for those born in the month of December. This July 2007 does not cite any references or sources. ... Section of the dome of Florence Cathedral. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... Egyptian Revial mausoleum of Maj. ... A fetish (from French fétiche; from Portuguese feitiço; from Latin facticius, artificial and facere, to make) is an object believed to have supernatural powers, or in particular a man-made object that has power over others. ... The Zuni (also spelled Zuñi) or Ashiwi are a Native American tribe, one of the Pueblo peoples, most of whom live in the Pueblo of Zuñi on the Zuni River, a tributary of the Little Colorado River, in western New Mexico. ... An artisan, also called a craftsman,[1] is a skilled manual worker who uses tools and machinery in a particular craft. ... A birthstone is a gemstone or other semi-precious stone which is associated with a month of the Gregorian Calendar. ...


In Judeo-Christian scripture

Turquoise may have significance in Judeo-Christian scripture: In the Book of Exodus, the construction of a "breastplate of judgment" is described as part of the priestly vestments of Aaron (Exodus 28:15–30). Attached to the ephod, the breastplate (Hoshen) was adorned with twelve gemstones set in gold and arranged in four rows, each stone engraved with the name of one of the Twelve Tribes of Israel. Of the four stones in the third row, the first and second have been translated to be turquoise by various scholars and English bible versions (usually not having both as turquoise at the same time); many others disagree, however.[12]. Judeo-Christian (or Judaeo-Christian) is a term used to describe the body of concepts and values which are thought to be held in common by Judaism and Christianity, and typically considered (sometimes along with classical Greco-Roman civilization) a fundamental basis for Western legal codes and moral values. ... This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... The Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin Aaron (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ), or Aaron the Levite (flourished about 1200 B.C.), was, according to biblical accounts, one of two brothers who play a unique part in the history of the Hebrew people. ... The ephod (pronounced either ē´fod or ef´od) was one of eight ritual garments worn by the Israelite and later the Jewish High Priest while serving in the Jewish Temple in Jerusalem. ... The Hoshen (Khosen) was the breastplate of Judgment worn by the High Priest in the book of Exodus in the Bible, covered by 12 stones that represented the 12 tribes of Israel. ... A selection of gemstone pebbles made by tumbling rough rock with abrasive grit, in a rotating drum. ... “The Twelve Tribes” redirects here. ...


In regard to the first of these stones, the translation is based on the Septuagint rendering the identity of the stone as chrysolithos (the masoretic text calls it tarshish, which just refers to Tarshish, a place, and gives no clue to the gem in question); at the time it was written chrysolithos did not mean Chrysolite specifically, but only golden stone (chryso-lithos). Chrysolithos is considered by scholars to possibly mean Topaz, Chrysolite, yellow Jasper, yellow Serpentine, or Turquoise - the last of these on the basis that Turquoise contains golden flecks, and that targums identified the stone as being sea coloured. Scholars favour stones which are mostly yellow as being the more likely solution, and opaque stones (Jasper or Serpentine) as more likely than translucent ones, on the consideration of nearby stones in the Hoshen. The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... The Masoretic Text (MT) is the Hebrew text of the Tanakh approved for general use in Judaism. ... Tarshish occurs in the Hebrew Bible with these meanings: One of the sons of Javan. ... Olivine The mineral olivine is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 in which the ratio of magnesium and iron varies between the two endmembers of the series: forsterite (Mg-rich) and fayalite (Fe-rich). ... Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F,OH)2. ... Polished jasper pebble, one inch (2. ... For other uses, see Serpentine (disambiguation). ... A targum (plural: targumim) is an Aramaic translation of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) written or compiled in the Land of Israel or in Babylonia from the Second Temple period until the early Middle Ages (late first millennium). ...


In regard to the second of these stones, the masoretic text calls it shoham, and the Septuagint calls it Beryllios (Beryl), though elsewhere it translates shoham as onychion (Onyx), or as smaragdos (green stone). Shoham is of uncertain meaning. Following the Septuagint, some people think the stone should be an onyx (and many more traditional English versions of the Bible take this translation), but scholars think that the stone is actually Malachite (because it is green like beryl and smaragdos, cloudy as beryl can be, and in bands like onyx). Three varieties of beryl: Morganite, Aquamarine, and Heliodor The mineral beryl is a beryllium aluminium cyclosilicate with the chemical formula Be3Al2(SiO3)6. ... Onyx is a cryptocrystalline form of quartz. ... This article is about the mineral. ...


Scholars also disagree as to which tribes of the Israelites each stone is meant to represent; traditional sources are in just as much disagreement. An Israelite is a member of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of the Biblical patriarch Jacob who was renamed Israel by God in the book of Genesis, 32:28 The Israelites were a group of Hebrews, as described in the Bible. ...


Imitations

The Egyptians were the first to produce an artificial imitation of turquoise, in the glazed earthenware product faience. Later glass and enamel were also used, and in modern times more sophisticated ceramics, porcelain, plastics, and various assembled, pressed, bonded, and sintered products (composed of various copper and aluminium compounds) have been developed: examples of the latter include "Viennese turquoise", made from precipitated aluminium phosphate coloured by copper oleate; and "neolith", a mixture of bayerite and copper phosphate. Most of these products differ markedly from natural turquoise in both physical and chemical properties, but in 1972 Pierre Gilson introduced one fairly close to a true synthetic (it does differ in chemical composition owing to a binder used, meaning it is best described as a simulant rather than a synthetic). Gilson turquoise is made in both a uniform colour and with black "spiderweb matrix" veining not unlike the natural Nevada material. Faience or faïence is the conventional name in English for fine tin-glazed earthenware on a delicate pale buff body. ... In a discussion of art technology, enamel (or vitreous enamel, or porcelain enamel in American English) is the colorful result of fusion of powdered glass to a substrate through the process of firing, usually between 750 and 850 degrees Celsius. ... “Fine China” redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Sintering is a method for making objects from powder, increasing the adhesion between particles as they are heated. ... Aluminium phopshate (AlPO4) is a chemical compound. ... Gibbsite, Al(OH)3, is an important ore of aluminium and is one of three minerals that make up the rock bauxite. ... Synthesis (from the ancient Greek σύν (with) and θεσις (placing), is commonly understood to be an integration of two or more pre-existing elements which results in a new creation. ...

Some natural blue to blue-green materials, such as this botryoidal chrysocolla with quartz drusy, are occasionally confused with, or used to imitate turquoise.
Some natural blue to blue-green materials, such as this botryoidal chrysocolla with quartz drusy, are occasionally confused with, or used to imitate turquoise.

The most common imitation of turquoise encountered today is dyed howlite and magnesite, both white in their natural states, and the former also having natural (and convincing) black veining similar to that of turquoise. Dyed chalcedony, jasper, and marble is less common, and much less convincing. Other natural materials occasionally confused with or used in lieu of turquoise include: variscite and faustite[13]; chrysocolla (especially when impregnating quartz); lazulite; smithsonite; hemimorphite; wardite; and a fossil bone or tooth called odontolite or "bone turquoise", coloured blue naturally by the mineral vivianite. While rarely encountered today, odontolite was once mined in large quantities—specifically for its use as a substitute for turquoise—in southern France. Commons:Image:Chrysocolla USA.jpg File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Chrysocolla from Nevada, USA. Chrysocolla (hydrated copper silicate) is a mineral, CuSiO3·nH2O. It is of secondary origin and forms in the oxidation zones of copper ore bodies. ... Magnesite is magnesium carbonate, MgCO3. ... Chalcedony knife, AD 1000-1200 Bloodstone redirects here. ... Polished jasper pebble, one inch (2. ... Venus de Milo, front. ... Variscite AlPO4·2H2O, hydrated aluminium phosphate, is a relatively rare phosphate mineral. ... Chrysocolla from Nevada, USA. Chrysocolla (hydrated copper silicate) is a mineral, CuSiO3·nH2O. It is of secondary origin and forms in the oxidation zones of copper ore bodies. ... Quartz (from German Quarz[1]) is the second most common mineral in the Earths continental crust. ... Lazulite is a blue mineral, a hydrated magnesium aluminium phosphate. ... Smithsonite (Zinc Carbonate) Smithsonite, or zinc spar, is zinc carbonate ZnCO3, a mineral ore of zinc. ... Hemimorphite, is a sorosilicate mineral which has been mined from days of old from the upper parts of zinc and lead ores, chiefly associated with smithsonite. ... Wardite is one of the least known precious stones. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... A humans visible teeth. ... Odontolite, also called bone turquoise or fossil turquoise, is fossil bone or ivory that has been traditionally thought to have been altered by turquoise or similar phosphate minerals such as vivianite. ... Vivianite Fe3(PO4)2·8(H2O), hydrated iron phosphate, is a secondary mineral found in a number of geological environments. ...


These fakes are detected by gemmologists using a number of tests, relying primarily on non-destructive, close examination of surface structure under magnification; a featureless, pale blue background peppered by flecks or spots of whitish material is the typical surface appearance of natural turquoise, while manufactured imitations will appear radically different in both colour (usually a uniform dark blue) and texture (usually granular or sugary). Glass and plastic will have a much greater translucency, with bubbles or flow lines often visible just below the surface. Staining between grain boundaries may be visible in dyed imitations. Gemology (gemmology outside the United States) is the science, art and profession of identifying and evaluating gemstones. ...


Some destructive tests may, however, be necessary; for example, the application of diluted hydrochloric acid will cause the carbonates odontolite and magnesite to effervesce and howlite to turn green, while a heated probe may give rise to the acrid smell so indicative of plastic. Differences in specific gravity, refractive index, light absorption (as evident in a material's absorption spectrum), and other physical and optical properties are also considered as means of separation. Imitation turquoise is so prevalent that it likely outnumbers real turquoise by a wide margin. Even material used in authentic Native American and Tibetan jewellery is often fake or, at best, heavily treated. In organic chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid. ... Effervesence from soda. ... Relative density (also known as specific gravity) is a measure of the density of a material. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ... A materials absorption spectrum shows the fraction of incident electromagnetic radiation absorbed by the material over a range of frequencies. ...


Treatments

Turquoise is treated to enhance both its colour and durability (i.e., increased hardness and decreased porosity). Historically, light waxing and oiling were the first treatments used in ancient times, providing a wetting effect, thereby enhancing the colour and lustre. This treatment is more or less acceptable by tradition, especially because treated turquoise is usually of a higher grade to begin with. Conversely, the later development of pressure impregnation of otherwise unsaleable chalky American material by epoxy and plastics (such as polystyrene) and water glass, also producing a wetting effect in addition to improving durability, are rejected by some as too radical an alteration[14]. Plastic and water glass are technologically superior to oil and wax in that the former treatment is far more permanent and stable, and can be applied to material too chemically or physically unstable for oil or wax to provide sufficient improvement. Material treated with Plastic or water glass is termed "bonded" or "stabilized" turquoise. The epoxy binding technique was first developed in the 1950s and has been attributed to Colbaugh Processing of Arizona, a company that still operates today. The majority of American material is now treated in this manner although it is a costly process requiring many months to complete. Without such impregnation, most American mining operations would be unprofitable. Look up hardness in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Porosity is a measure of the void spaces in a material, and is measured as a fraction, between 0–1, or as a percentage between 0–100%. The term porosity is used in multiple fields including manufacturing, earth sciences and construction. ... In chemistry, epoxy or polyepoxide is a thermosetting epoxide polymer that cures (polymerizes and crosslinks) when mixed with a catalyzing agent or hardener. Most common epoxy resins are produced from a reaction between epichlorohydrin and bisphenol-A. The first commercial attempts to prepare resins from epichlorohydrin occurred in 1927 in... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Polystyrene (IPA: ) is a polymer made from the monomer styrene, a liquid hydrocarbon that is commercially manufactured from petroleum by the chemical industry. ... Sodium silicate, also known as water glass, is a compound used in cements and textile processing. ...


Oiled and waxed stones are prone to "sweating" under even gentle heat or if exposed to too much sun, and they may develop a white surface film or bloom over time. (With some skill, oil and wax treatments can be restored.) Likewise, the use of Prussian blue and other dyes, often in conjunction with bonding treatments, to enhance (that is, make uniform or completely change) colour is regarded as fraudulent by some purists[14], especially since some dyes may fade or rub off on the wearer. Dyes have also been used to darken the veins of turquoise. Perhaps the most radical of treatments is "reconstitution", wherein fragments of fine turquoise material, too small to be used individually, are powdered and then bonded to form a solid mass. Much, if not all, of this "reconstituted" material is likely artificial with no natural components, or may have foreign filler material added to it (see Imitations section). Another treatment—the details of which remain undisclosed—is the so-called Zachery Process[15], named after its developer, electrical engineer and turquoise trader James E. Zachery. This process claims to use only medium grade material at a minimum, leaving the turquoise harder and with a better colour and lustre. A sample of Prussian blue Prussian blue (German: Preußischblau or Berliner Blau, in English Berlin blue) is a dark blue pigment used in paints and formerly in blueprints. ... Electrical Engineers design power systems… … and complex electronic circuits. ...


Since finer turquoise is often found as thin seams, it may be glued to a base of stronger foreign material as a means of reinforcement. These stones are termed "Backed" and it is standard practice that all turquoise cut in the Southwestern United States is backed. Native indigenous peoples of this region, because of their considerable use and wearing of turquoise, found that backing increased the durability of the turquoise. They observed that if the stone was not backed it would, for the most part, end up cracking. Early backing materials were the casings of old model T batteries and progressed to old phonograph records and most recently to the use of epoxy steel resins. This is a very helpful way of determining the age of older Native American jewelry. Backing of turquoise is not known outside of the Native American and Southwestern United States jewelry trade. All turquoise cut for this trade is backed and any stones that are not backed are considered to have been prepared by the inexperienced or cut overseas. Valuated treated turquoise of the highest quality is not discounted because it is backed and indeed the process is expected for most American commercial gemstones.[citation needed] “Glue” redirects here. ... Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska. ... Native Americans redirects here. ...


As is so often the case with any precious stones, full disclosure is frequently not given. It is therefore left to gemologists to detect these treatments in suspect stones using a variety of testing methods—some of which are necessarily destructive. For example, the use of a heated probe applied to an inconspicuous spot will reveal oil, wax, or plastic treatment with certainty. Gemology (gemmology outside the United States) is the science, art and profession of identifying and evaluating gemstones. ...


Valuation and care

Slab of turquoise in matrix showing a large variety of different colouration
Slab of turquoise in matrix showing a large variety of different colouration

Richness of colour is the chief determiner of value in turquoise; generally speaking, the most desirable is a strong sky to "robin's egg" blue (in reference to the eggs of the American Robin); value decreases with the increase of green hue, lightening of colour, and mottling. In Tibet, however, a greener blue is said to be preferred. Whatever the colour, turquoise should not be excessively soft or chalky; even if treated, such lesser material (to which most turquoise belongs) is liable to fade or discolour over time and will not hold up to normal use in jewellery. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1149x2076, 1442 KB) Slab of turquoise (2 x 3. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1149x2076, 1442 KB) Slab of turquoise (2 x 3. ... Binomial name Turdus migratorius Linnaeus, 1766 The American Robin (Turdus migratorius) is a migratory songbird of the thrush family. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ...


The mother rock or matrix in which turquoise is found can often be seen as splotches or a network of brown or black veins running through the stone in a netted pattern; this veining may add value to the stone if the result is complimentary, but such a result is uncommon. Such material is sometimes described as "spiderweb matrix"; it is most valued in the Southwest United States and Far East, but is not highly appreciated in the Near East where unblemished and vein-free material is ideal (regardless of how complimentary the veining may be). Uniformity of colour is desired, and in finished pieces the quality of workmanship is also a factor; this includes the quality of the polish and the symmetry of the stone. Calibrated stones—that is, stones adhering to standard jewellery setting measurements—may also be more sought after. Like coral and other opaque gems, turquoise is commonly sold at a price according to its physical size in millimetres rather than weight. The Southwest region of the United States is drier than the adjoining Midwest in weather; the population is less dense and, with strong Spanish-American and Native American components, more ethnically varied than neighboring areas. ... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ... The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists, geographers and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing Anatolia (the Asian portion of modern Turkey), the Levant (modern Israel/Palestine, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Georgia, Armenia, and... Precious coral or red coral is the common name given to Corallium rubrum and several related species of marine coral. ...


Turquoise is treated in many different ways, some more permanent and radical than others. Controversy exists as to whether some of these treatments should be acceptable, but one can be more or less forgiven universally: This is the light waxing or oiling applied to most gem turquoise to improve its colour and lustre; if the material is of high quality to begin with, very little of the wax or oil is absorbed and the turquoise therefore does not "rely" on this impermanent treatment for its beauty. All other factors being equal, untreated turquoise will always command a higher price. Bonded and "reconstituted" material is worth considerably less. candle wax This page is about the substance. ... Synthetic motor oil An oil is any substance that is in a viscous liquid state (oily) at ambient temperatures or slightly warmer, and is both hydrophobic (immiscible with water, literally water fearing) and lipophilic (miscible with other oils, literally fat loving). This general definition includes compound classes with otherwise unrelated...


Being a phosphate mineral, turquoise is inherently fragile and sensitive to solvents; perfume and other cosmetics will attack the finish and may alter the colour of turquoise gems, as will skin oils, as will most commercial jewelry cleaning fluids. Prolonged exposure to direct sunlight may also discolour or dehydrate turquoise. Care should therefore be taken when wearing such jewels: cosmetics, including sunscreen and hairspray, should be applied before putting on turquoise jewellery, and they should not be worn to a beach or other sun-bathed environment. After use, turquoise should be gently cleaned with a soft cloth to avoid a build up of residue, and should be stored in its own container to avoid scratching by harder gems. Turquoise can also be adversely affected if stored in an airtight container. Above is a ball-and-stick model of the inorganic hydrogenphosphate anion (HPO42−). Colour coding: P (orange); O (red); H (white). ... Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils and aroma compounds, fixatives, and solvents used to give the human body, objects, and living spaces a pleasant smell. ... For other uses, see Cosmetic. ... Sunscreen (also known as sunblock, suntan lotion) is a lotion, spray or other topical product that helps protect the skin from the suns ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and which reduces sunburn and other skin damage, with the goal lowering your risk of skin cancer. ... This article is about Hairspray, the musical that started performances on Broadway in 2002. ...


See also

Gemology and Jewelry Portal
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Turquoise (mineral)

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Gem animals. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Hurlbut, Cornelius S.; Klein, Cornelis, 1985, Manual of Mineralogy, 20th ed., John Wiley and Sons, New York ISBN 0-471-80580-7
  2. ^ a b Turquoise:turquoise mineral information and data. mindat.org. Retrieved on 04 October 2006.
  3. ^ http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/turquoise.pdf Handbook of Mineralogy
  4. ^ a b King, R. J. (2002). "Turquoise". Geology Today 18 (3): 110-111. Retrieved on 24 November 2004. 
  5. ^ Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2007. © 1993-2006 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
  6. ^ Answer of Answers.com site from Columbia university press encyclopedia
  7. ^ Persian turquoise
  8. ^ Minerals of Nevada - Nevada Bureau of Mines Special Pub. 31 Pages 78-81; 443-445
  9. ^ Turquoise Crystal Localities. Element 51. Retrieved on 23 September 2006.
  10. ^ "Turquoise – The Gemstone of Tibet ", Article by Gemmologist Martin Watson. Retrieved on 1 June 2007.
  11. ^ China Exhibition. National Gallery of Art (1999). Retrieved on 23 September 2006.
  12. ^ Navigating the Bible. Retrieved on 23 September 2006.
  13. ^ U.S. Geological Survey article on Turquoise. Retrieved on 1 June 2007.
  14. ^ a b "Turquoise", Article by Journalist Joseph A. Harriss. Retrieved on 1 June 2007.
  15. ^ "Semi-Precious Gemstones - Turquoise", Kevin Hulsey Illustration, Inc.. Retrieved on 1 June 2007.

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References

  • British Museum (2000). Aztec turquoise mosaics. Retrieved November 15, 2004 from www.thebritishmuseum.ac.uk
  • Dietrich, R. V. (2004). Turquoise. Retrieved November 20, 2004 from www.cst.cmich.edu/users/dietr1rv/turquoise.htm
  • Hurlbut, Cornelius S.; Klein, Cornelis, 1985, Manual of Mineralogy, 20th ed., John Wiley and Sons, New York ISBN 0-471-80580-7
  • King, R. J. (2002) Turquoise. Geology Today 18 (3), pp. 110-114. Retrieved November 24, 2004, from: www.blackwell-synergy.com/links/doi/10.1046/j.1365-2451.2002.00345.x/full/
  • Pogue, J. E. (1915). The turquoise: a study of its history, mineralogy, geology, ethnology, archaeology, mythology, folklore, and technology. National Academy of Sciences, The Rio Grande Press, Glorieta, New Mexico. ISBN 0-87380-056-7
  • Schadt, H. (1996). Goldsmith's art: 5000 years of jewelry and hollowware. Arnoldsche Art Publisher, Stuttgard, New York. ISBN 3-925369-54-6
  • Schumann, W. (2000). Gemstones of the world, revised edition. Sterling Publishing. ISBN 0-8069-9461-4
  • USGS (2002). Turquoise. An overview of production of specific U.S. gemstones. U.S. Bureau of Mines Special Publication 14-19. Retrieved November 15, 2004 from http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/gemstones/sp14-95/turquoise.html
  • Webster, R. (2000). Gems: Their sources, descriptions and identification (5th ed.), pp. 254-263. Butterworth-Heinemann, Great Britain. ISBN 0-7506-1674-1



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