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Encyclopedia > Turoyo language
Tûrôyo
ܛܘܪܝܐ Ṭuroyo, ܨܘܪܝܬ Ṣurayt, ܣܘܪܝܝܐ Sëryoyo 
Pronunciation: /tˤurˈɔjɔ/, /sˤuˈrajt/, /sərˈjɔjɔ/
Spoken in: Turkey, Syria; also in Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Germany, Iraq, Lebanon, Netherlands, Sweden, USA 
Region: Mardin Province of southeastern Turkey; Al Hasakah and Qamishli in northeastern Syria
Total speakers: 84,000 approx. [1]
Language family: Afro-Asiatic
 Semitic
  West Semitic
   Central Semitic
    Northwest Semitic
     Aramaic
      Eastern Aramaic
       Northern Neo-Aramaic
        Central Neo-Aramaic
         Tûrôyo 
Writing system: Syriac abjad (Serto variant), Latin alphabet has been modified for writing Turoyo in Sweden
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: syr
ISO 639-3: tru

Turoyo is a Modern West Syriac language, a dialect of Aramaic. It is traditionally spoken in eastern Turkey and north-eastern Syria by members of the Syriac Orthodox Church. From the word ṭuro, meaning 'mountain', Ṭuroyo is the mountain tongue of the Tur Abdin in southeastern Turkey. A far older name for the language is Ṣurayt,[2] and it is used by a number of speakers of the language in preference to Ṭuroyo. The etymology of this name is difficult, but is probably linked to the word 'Syriac'. However, especially in the diaspora, the language is frequently called Sëryoyo (or Sŭryoyo or Saryoyo depending on dialect), also meaning 'Syriac', seemingly imported from Classical Syriac. Most speakers use Classical Syriac, or Kthobonoyo, for literature and worship. Turoyo speakers are all traditionally members of the Syriac Orthodox Church. There is increasing interest in reviving Kthobonoyo, the classical language, as a spoken language. This is most acute among non-Turoyo-speaking Syriac Orthodox, whose first language may be Arabic, German, Swedish, English, Malayalam or another language. This, and the church's preference for Kthobonoyo, has had some impact on Turoyo. Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Map showing the location of Mardin Province of Turkey Mardin Province is a province of Turkey with a population of 835,173 (2000)[1]. The capital of the Mardin Province is Mardin. ... Al Hasakah is a governorate in the far north-east corner of Syria that has the Euphrates river running through it. ... Qamishli ܩܡܫܠܝ (or Al Qamishli or Kamishli, sometimes transcribed with accents) is a city in northeast Syria on the border with Turkey and close to Iraq (Ancient Assyria). ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... The Afro-Asiatic languages constitute a language family (Languages of Africa) with about 375 languages (SIL estimate) and more than 300 million speakers spread throughout North Africa, East Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, and Southwest Asia (including some 200 million speakers of Arabic). ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... The West Semitic languages are a proposed major sub-grouping of Semitic languages. ... 12th century Hebrew Bible script The Semitic languages are a family of languages spoken by more than 250 million people across much of the Middle East, where they originated, and North and East Africa. ... The Northwest Semitic languages form a medium-level division of the Semitic language family. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... Neo-Aramaic, or Modern Aramaic, languages are varieties of Aramaic that are spoken as a mother tongue in the modern era. ... Central Neo-Aramaic is a term used differently by different semiticists. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... 11th century book in Syriac Serto. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Syriac ( Suryāyā) is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world. ... An old church in Midyat Tur Abdin is a hilly region of south east Turkey incorporating the eastern half of Mardin Province, and Sirnak Province west of the Tigris, on the border with Syria. ... Etymologies redirects here. ... For other uses, see Diaspora (disambiguation). ... Syriac ( Suryāyā) is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Malayalam (മലയാളം ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ...


Until recently, Turoyo was a spoken vernacular and was never written down: Kthobonoyo was the written language. In the 1880s, various attempts were made, with the encouragement of western missionaries, to write Turoyo in the Syriac alphabet, in the Serto script used for West-Syriac Kthobonoyo. However, with upheaval in their homeland through the twentieth century, many Turoyo speakers have emigrated around the world (particularly to Syria, the Lebanon, Sweden and Germany). The Swedish government's education policy, that every child be educated in his or her mother tongue, led to the commissioning of teaching materials in Turoyo. Yusuf Ishaq, thus, developed a written language for Turoyo that uses the Latin alphabet. The series of reading books and workbooks that use Ishaq's written Turoyo are called Toxu Qorena!, or "Come Let's Read!" This project has also produced a Swedish-Turoyo dictionary of 4500 entries: the Svensk-turabdinskt Lexikon: Leksiqon Swedoyo-Suryoyo. // Development and commercial production of electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered automobile by Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and Maybach First commercial production and sales of phonographs and phonograph recordings. ... 11th century book in Syriac Serto. ... First language (native language, mother tongue, or vernacular) is the language a person learns first. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ...


Turoyo has borrowed many words from Arabic, Kurdish and Turkish. The main dialect of Turoyo is that of Midyat (Mëḏyoyo), in the east of Turkey's Mardin Province. The four villages of Midin, Kfarze, `Iwardo and Anhil, and the Raite (a cluster of seven small villages) all have distinctive Turoyo dialects (Midwoyo, Kfarzoyo, `Iwarnoyo, Nihloyo and Raityoyo respectively). All Turoyo dialects are mutually intelligible with each other. Many Turoyo speakers who have left their villages now speak a mixed dialect of their village dialect with the Midyat dialect. This mixture of dialects was used by Ishaq as the basis of his system of written Turoyo. For example, Ishaq's reading book uses the word qorena in its title instead of the Mëḏyoyo qurena or the village-dialect qorina. All speakers are bilingual in another local language. Church schools in Syria and the Lebanon teach Kthobonoyo rather than Turoyo, and encourage the replacement of non-Syriac loanwords with authentic Syriac ones. Some church leaders have tried to discourage the use and writing of Turoyo, seeing it as an impure form of Syriac. Arabic redirects here. ... The Kurdish language (Kurdish: Kurdî or کوردی) is the language spoken by Kurds. ... Midyat is a district of Mardin Province of Turkey. ... Map showing the location of Mardin Province of Turkey Mardin Province is a province of Turkey with a population of 835,173 (2000)[1]. The capital of the Mardin Province is Mardin. ...


Phonetically, Turoyo is very similar to Classical Syriac. The additional phonemes /ʤ/ (as in judge), /ʧ/ (as in church) /ʒ/ (as in azure) and /ðˤ/ (the Arabic ẓāʼ) mostly only appear in loanwords from other languages. The most distinctive feature of Turoyo phonolgy is its use of reduced vowels in closed syllables. The phonetic value of these reduced vowels differs depending both on the value of original vowel and the dialect spoken. The Mëḏyoyo dialect also reduces vowels in pre-stress open syllables. This has the effect of producing a syllabic schwa in most dialects (in Classical Syriac the schwa is not syllabic). In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ... ( ) is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being , , , , ). It represents a pharyngealized voiced dental fricative or voiced alveolar fricative (IPA: or ). In name and shape, it is a variant of . ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... For the computer operating system, see Syllable (operating system). ... The IPA symbol for the Schwa In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa can mean: An unstressed and toneless neutral vowel sound in any language, often but not necessarily a mid-central vowel. ...


The verbal system of Turoyo is similar to that used in other Neo-Aramaic languages. In Classical Syriac, the ancient perfect and imperfect tenses had started to become preterite and future tenses respectively, and other tenses were formed by using the participles with pronominal clitics or shortened forms of the verb hwā ('to be'). Most modern Aramaic languages have completely abandoned the old tenses and form all tenses from stems based around the old participles. The classical clitics have become incorporated fully into the verb form, and can be considered more like inflections. Neo-Aramaic, or Modern Aramaic, languages are varieties of Aramaic that are spoken as a mother tongue in the modern era. ... In linguistics, a participle is a non-finite verb form that can be used in compound tenses or voices, or it can be used as a modifier. ... In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a pro-form that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase with or without a determiner, such as you and they in English. ... In linguistics, a clitic is an element that has some of the properties of an independent word and some more typical of a bound morpheme. ...


Turoyo has also developed the use of the demonstrative pronouns much further than any other Aramaic language. In Turoyo, they have become definite articles. Thus: A demonstrative pronoun in grammar and syntax is a pronoun that shows the place of something. ... Definite Article is the title of British comedian Eddie Izzards 1996 performance released on video and CD. The video/DVD and CD performances were both recorded on different nights at the Shaftesbury Theatre in London, England. ...

  • masculine singular: u-malko (the king)
  • feminine singular: i-malëkṯo (the queen)
  • plural common: am-malke (the kings), am-malëkōṯo (village dialects: am-malëkōṯe; the queens).

The Modern Western Syriac dialect of Mlahsô and `Ansha villages in Diyarbakır Province is quite different from Turoyo. It is virtually extinct; its last few speakers live in Qamishli in northeastern Syria. Turoyo is also more closely related to other neo-Syriac dialects than the Western Neo-Aramaic dialect of Ma'loula.[3] Mlahsô is a Modern West Syriac language, a dialect of Aramaic. ... shows the Location of the Province Diyarbakır Diyarbakır is a province in eastern Turkey. ... Qamishli ܩܡܫܠܝ (or Al Qamishli or Kamishli, sometimes transcribed with accents) is a city in northeast Syria on the border with Turkey and close to Iraq (Ancient Assyria). ... Western Neo-Aramaic is a Modern Aramaic language. ...

Contents

Appendices

Notes

  1. ^ Turoyo (English). ethnologue.com. Retrieved on 2008-01-05.
  2. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=uobw_kBXx74C&printsec=frontcover#PPA36,M1
  3. ^ Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 31, No. 3 (1968), pp. 605-610

2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Heinrichs, Wolfhart (ed.) (1990). Studies in Neo-Aramaic. Scholars Press: Atlanta, Georgia. ISBN 1-55540-430-8.
  • Jastrow, Otto (1985). Laut- und Formenlehre des neuaramäischen Dialekts von Mīdin im Ṭur cAbdīn. Otto Harrowitz Verlag: Wiesbaden.
  • Jastrow, Otto (1992). Lehrbuch der Ṭuroyo-Sprache. Otto Harrowitz Verlag: Wiesbaden. ISBN 3-447-03213-8.
  • Tezel, Aziz (2003). Comparative Etymological Studies in the Western Neo-Syriac (Ṭūrōyo) Lexicon: with special reference to homonyms, related words and borrowings with cultural signification. Uppsala Universitet. ISBN 91-554-5555-7.

See also

Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... Mlahsô is a Modern West Syriac language, a dialect of Aramaic. ... 11th century book in Syriac Serto. ... Syriac ( Suryāyā) is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... An old church in Midyat Tur Abdin is a hilly region of south east Turkey incorporating the eastern half of Mardin Province, and Sirnak Province west of the Tigris, on the border with Syria. ...

External links

  • Ethnologue report for Turoyo.
  • Semitisches Tonarchiv: Dokumentgruppe "Aramäisch/Turoyo" (text in German).
  • Yauno: The Syriac Community — Wie erkenne ich nicht-aramäische Wörter in Turoyo? (How do I recognise non-Aramaic words in Turoyo?)
  • The Turoyo language today
Neo-Aramaic, or Modern Aramaic, languages are varieties of Aramaic that are spoken as a mother tongue in the modern era. ... Lishanid Noshan is a modern Jewish Aramaic language, often called Neo-Aramaic or Judeo-Aramaic. ... Barzani Jewish Neo-Aramaic is a modern Jewish Aramaic language, often called Neo-Aramaic or Judeo-Aramaic. ... Hulaulá is a modern Jewish Aramaic language, often called Neo-Aramaic or Judeo-Aramaic. ... Lishana Deni is a modern Jewish Aramaic language, often called Neo-Aramaic or Judeo-Aramaic. ... Lishán Didán is a modern Jewish Aramaic language, often called Neo-Aramaic or Judeo-Aramaic. ... Assyrian Neo-Aramaic is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... Bohtan Neo-Aramaic is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... Chaldean Neo-Aramaic is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... The Hértevin language is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... Koy Sanjaq Surat is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... Mlahsô is a Modern West Syriac language, a dialect of Aramaic. ... The Senaya language is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... Western Neo-Aramaic is a Modern Aramaic language. ... The Mandaic language is the liturgical language of the Mandaean religion; a vernacular form is still spoken by a small community in Iran around Ahwaz. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Syriac Christianity is a culturally and... The West Syrian Rite is the rite used by the Jacobite sect in Syria, the Orthodox church of India, and by the Catholic Syrians is in its origin simply the old rite of Antioch in the Syriac language. ... Maronites (Arabic: , transliteration: , Syriac: ܡܪܘܢܝܐ,Latin: Ecclesia Maronitarum) are members of one of the Eastern Catholic Churches, with a heritage reaching back to Maroun in the early 5th century. ... The Syriac Catholic Church or Syrian Catholic Church is a Christian church in the Levant having practices and rites in common with the Syriac Orthodox Church. ... The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world. ... Image File history File links Icon of the Virgin Mary, 16th century. ... The East Syrian Rite is also known as the Chaldean Rite, Assyrian Rite, or Persian Rite. ... The Ancient Church of the East is an offshoot of the Assyrian Church of the East; it was formed in resistance to certain reforms and separated due to the question of hereditary succession of bishops and calendar changes in 1964. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Assyrian Church of the East... The Assyrian Evangelical Church is a Presbyterian denomination in the Middle East. ... These are the only peoples in this region that were fully and originally Semitic. ... Chaldean Syrian Church is the name used for the Assyrian Church of the East in India. ... The Malabar Independent Syrian Church (Thozhiyur Sabha) is a Church of Syriac Orthodox tradition in South India. ... The Indian Orthodox Church (also known as the Malankara Orthodox Church, Orthodox Church of the East, Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, Orthodox Syrian Church of the East), is a prominent member of the Oriental Orthodox Church family. ... On the south western coast of India, lies a small state known as Kerala. ... Syro-Malabar Church Official website The Syro-Malabar Catholic Church is a Major Archiepiscopal Church in communion with the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Syro-Malankara Catholic Church is a Major Archepiscopal sui iuris Eastern Rite Roman Catholic Church in communion with the Roman Catholic Church, with historical links to the Syrian Catholic Church. ... The various communities of adherents of Syriac Christianity and speakers of Neo-Aramaic languages advocate different terms for ethnic self-designation: Assyrians, after the ancient Assyrian Empire, advocated by the Assyrian Church of the East (Eastern Assyrians),[1] and other Aramaic-speaking Christians from the other Syriac Churches Aramaeans, after... Language(s) Aramaic Religion(s) Syriac Christianity Related ethnic groups Other Semitic peoples, and other ethnic groups from the Fertile Crescent. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Assyrian Neo-Aramaic is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... Bohtan Neo-Aramaic is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... Chaldean Neo-Aramaic is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... Garshuni, also Karshuni, is a term referring to writings in the Arabic language written in the Syriac alphabet. ... The Hértevin language is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... Koy Sanjaq Surat is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ... Syriac ( Suryāyā) is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... Mlahsô is a Modern West Syriac language, a dialect of Aramaic. ... The Senaya language is a modern Eastern Aramaic or Syriac language. ...

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