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Encyclopedia > Turntablism
DJ Mixer.
DJ Mixer.

Turntablism is the art of manipulating sounds and creating music using phonograph turntables and a DJ mixer. The term was created in 1994 by DJ Supreme to describe the difference between a DJ who just plays records, and one who actually performs, by touching and moving the records to manipulate sound. The word was never meant to be the actual title of the art form. It was regularly stated as an example, while explaining the need for a new word to describe a newly emerging and totally unique instrumental artform. The intention was for the original creators of the artform to confer, and decide on a title. While the idea of the need for a new word spread, some DJs just began to use the example word "turntablist" before the originators had a chance to proclaim an actual title. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 613 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1390 × 1360 pixel, file size: 280 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Behringer DX626 DJ mixer. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 613 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1390 × 1360 pixel, file size: 280 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Behringer DX626 DJ mixer. ... This article is about audible acoustic waves. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Tonearm redirects here. ... A DJ mixer is a type of audio mixing console used by disc jockeys. ...


DJ Babu has defined a turntablist as "One who has the ability to improvise on a phonograph turntable. One who uses the turntable in the spirit of a musical instrument;" while the Battlesounds documentary film suggests a definition of :"A musician, a hip-hop disc jockey who in a live/spontaneous situation can manipulate or restructure an existing phonograph recording (in combination with an audio mixer) to produce or express a new composition that is unrecognisable from its original ingredients." John Oswald described it similarly, "A phonograph in the hands of a "HipHip/scratch" artist who plays a record like an electronic washboard with a phonographic needle as a plectrum, produces sounds which are unique and not reproduced--therecord player becomes a musical instrument."[1] DJ Babu (born Chris Oroc) is a Filipino-American DJ and is a member of the Beat Junkies, a crew of DJs which includes others such as Melo-D, Rhettmatic, and J-Rocc. ...


Hip-hop Turntablist DJs use turntable techniques like beat mixing/matching, scratching, and beat juggling. Turntablism is generally focused more on turntable technique and less on mixing. Some turntablists seek to have themselves recognized as legitimate musicians capable of interacting and improvising with other performers. DJ or dj may stand for Disc jockey, dinner jacket The DeadJournal website, or Djibouti. ... Scratching is a DJ or turntablist technique used to produce sounds for some types of music. ... Beat juggling is the act of manipulating two or more identical samples (e. ... Improvisation is the practice of acting and reacting, of making and creating, in the moment and in response to the stimulus of ones immediate environment. ...

Contents

History: Evolution of the art form

Disc Jockey (DJ): Evolution of the artist

The history of the turntable being used as a musical instrument has its roots dating back to the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s when musique concrète and other experimental composers (such as John Cage and Pierre Schaeffer), used them in a manner similar to that of today's producers and DJs, by essentially sampling and creating music that was entirely produced by the turntable. Cage's "Imaginary Landscape No. 1" (1939) is composed for 2 variable speed turntables, frequency recordings, muted piano & cymbal. The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... Musique concrète (French; literally, concrete music), is a style of avant-garde music that relies on natural environmental sounds and other non-musical noises to create music. ... For the Mortal Kombat character, see Johnny Cage. ... Pierre Henri Marie Schaeffer (August 14, 1910–August 19, 1995) was a French composer, noted as the inventor of musique concrète. ... This article is about reusing existing sound recordings in creating new works. ...


Even earlier, Edgard Varèse experimented with turntables in 1930, though he never formally produced any works using them. This school of thought and practice is not directly linked to the current definition of hip hop-related turntablism, though it has had an influence on modern experimental sound artists such as Christian Marclay, Otomo Yoshihide, Philip Jeck and Janek Schaefer. These artists are the direct descendants of people like John Cage and Pierre Schaeffer and are often credited as a variant to the modern turntablist DJ and producer. Edgard Victor Achille Charles Varèse (December 22, 1883 – November 6, 1965) was a French-born composer. ... Hip hop is a cultural movement that began amongst urban African American youth in New York and has since spread around the world. ... Christian Marclay (born 1955) is a visual artist and musical composer based in New York, who is exploring the pattern languages connecting sound, photography, video, and film. ... Otomo Yoshihide (大友 良英) (born August 1, 1959) is a Japanese experimental musician. ... Philip Jeck (b. ... Janek Schaefer is a Sound Artist and was born in England to Polish and Canadian parents in 1970. ...


Turntablism: Second evolution of the art form

This is the history of turntablism, a term most often used for contemporary DJs. The passages on their old school hip hop predecessors only focus on the relevant artistic contributions. For the complete history go to history of Hip Hop. Old school hip hop is a term used to describe the very earliest hip hop music to come out of the block parties of New York City in the 1970s and 1980s. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Turntablism as a modern art form and musical practice has its roots within hip hop and Hip Hop culture of the early 1970s. It stems from one of the culture's "four pillars" - DJing (see "four elements," Hip Hop Culture). Scratching was already widely spread within Hip Hop by DJs and producers by the time turntablists started to appear. Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Hip hop is a subculture, which is said to have begun with the work of DJ Kool Herc, Grandmaster Flash & the Furious Five, and Afrika Bambaattaa. ...


Kool DJ Herc, Afrika Bambaataa and Grandmaster Flash are widely credited for having cemented the now established role of DJ as Hip Hop's foremost instrumentalist (and historically the genre's only instrumentalist). Kool Herc's invention of break-beat DJing is generally regarded as the foundational development in Hip Hop history, as it gave rise to all other elements of the genre. His influence on the concept of "DJ as turntablist" is equally profound. To understand the significance of this achievement, it is important to first define the "break." Briefly, the "break" of a song is a musical fragment only seconds in length, which typically takes the form of an "interlude" in which all or most of the music stops except for the percussion. The break is roughly equivalent to the song's "climax," as it is meant to be the most exciting part of a song before returning once more to its finale (usually a return to the main chorus). In addition to raising the audience's adrenaline level, the percussion-heavy nature of the break makes it the most danceable as well, if only for seconds at a time. Kool Herc introduces the break-beat technique as a way of extending the break indefinitely. This is done by buying two of the same record and switching from one to the other on the DJ mixer: e.g., as record A plays, the DJ quickly backtracks to the same break on record B, which will again take the place of A at a specific moment in which the audience will not notice that the DJ has switched records. DJ Kool Herc was the originator of break-beat DJing, where the breaks of funk songs—being the most danceable part, often featuring percussion—were isolated and repeated for the purpose of all-night dance parties (AMG [1]). Later DJs such as Grandmaster Flash refined and developed the use of... Afrika Bambaataa is a DJ and community leader from the South Bronx, who was instrumental in the early development of hip hop throughout the 1970s. ... Joseph Biggie Grand Saddler (born January 1, 1958 in Bridgetown, Barbados), better known as Grandmaster Flash, is a American hip hop musician and DJ; one of the pioneers of hip-hop DJing, cutting, and mixing. ... A musician is a person who plays or composes music. ... A break is an instrumental or percussion section or interlude during a song derived from or related to stop_time being a break from the main parts of the song. ...


Kool Herc's revolutionary technique set the course for the development of turntablism as an art form in significant ways. Most important, however, he develops a new form of DJing that does not consist of playing and mixing records one after the other (incidentally, the type of DJ that specializes in mixing is well-respected for his own set of unique skills, but this is still DJing in the traditional sense). Rather, Kool Herc originates the idea of creating a sequence for his own purposes, introducing the idea of the DJ as the "feature" of parties, whose performance on any given night would be examined critically by the crowd.


However it was Grand Wizard Theodore, an apprentice of Flash, who accidentally isolated the most recognizable technique of turntablism: scratching. He put his hand on a record one day, to silence the music on the turntable while his mother was calling out to him and thus accidentally discovered the sound of scratching by moving the record back and forth under the stylus. Though Theodore discovered scratching, it was Flash who helped push the early concept and showcase it to the public, in his live shows and on recordings. Grand Wizard Theodore (left). ... For the online music and film magazine, see Stylus Magazine. ...


DJ Grand Mixer DXT is also credited with furthering the concept of scratching by practicing the rhythmic scratching of a record on one or more (usually two) turntables, using different velocities to alter the pitch of the note or sound on the recording (Alberts 2002). DXT appeared (as DST) on Herbie Hancock's hit song "Rockit." DJ Grand Mixer DXT (formerly Grand Mixer D.St as in Delancey Street, born Derek Howells) is credited with inventing turntablism, the rhythmic scratching of a record on a turntable, then using different velocities to alter the pitch of the note or sound on the recording, making the turntable a... Herbert Jeffrey Hancock (born April 12, 1940) is an Academy Award and multiple Grammy Award-winning jazz pianist and composer from Chicago, Illinois, U.S. Hancock is one of jazz musics most important and influential pianists and composers. ... Rockit was a single from Herbie Hancocks 1983 album Future Shock. ...


These early pioneers cemented the fundamental practice that would later become one of the pillars of the emerging turntablist artform. Scratching would during the 1980s become a staple of hip hop music, being used by producers and DJs on records and in live shows. By the end of the 1980s it was very common to hear scratching on a record, generally as part of the chorus of a track or within its production. On stage the DJ would provide the music for the MCs to rhyme to, scratching records during the performance and showcasing his skills alongside the verbal skills of the MC. The most well known example of this 'equation' of MCs and DJ is probably Run DMC who were composed of two MCs and one DJ. The DJ, the late Jam Master Jay, was an integral part of the group and his turntablism an integral part of their productions and performances. The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Run-DMC is a hip hop crew founded by Jason Jam Master Jay Mizell that included Joseph Run Simmons and Darryl DMC McDaniels. ... Jason Mizell (January 21, 1965 – October 30, 2002), known as Jam Master Jay, was the founder and DJ of Run-DMC, a highly influential hip-hop group, based in the Queens borough of New York City. ...


While Flash and Bambaataa were using the Turntable to explore repetition, alter rhythm and create the instrumental stabs and punch phrasing that would come to characterize the sound of hip-hop, Grandmaster D.ST was busy cutting "real" musicians on their own turf. His scratching on Herbie Hancock's 1983 single, "Rockit", makes it perhaps the most influential DJ track of them all - even more than (Grandmaster Flash's) "Wheels of Steel", it established the DJ as the star of the record, even if he wasn't the frontman. Compared to "Rockit", West Street Mob's "Break Dancin' - Electric Boogie" (1983) was punk negation. Only DJ Code Money's brutalist record mangling of Schooly D's early records can match the cheese-grater note-shredding of "Break Dancin'". As great as Break Dancin' was, though, it highlighted the limited tonal range of scratching, which was in danger of becoming a short-lived fad like human beat-boxing until the emergence of Code Money's DJ Brethern from Philadelphia in the mid-'80s.


Despite New York's continued pre-eminence in the hip-hop world, scratch DJing was modernized 90 miles down the road in Philadelphia. Denizens of the City of Brotherly Love were creating the climate for the return of the DJ by inventing Transformer scratching. Developed by DJs Spinbad, DJ Cash money and DJ Jazzy Jeff, transforming was basically clicking the fader on and off while moving a block of sound (a riff or a short verbal phrase) across the stylus. Expanding the tonal as well as rhythmic possibilities of scratching, the transformer scratch epitomized the chopped-up aesthetic of hip-hop culture. The only problem with the Philly DJs was their timing. Hip-Hop was starting to become big money and the cult of personality started to take over. Hip-Hop became very much at the service of the rapper and Cash Money and DJ Jazzy Jeff were saddled with B-list rappers like Marvelous and the Fresh Prince and were accorded maybe one track on an album to get busy (check tracks like DJ Jazzy Jeff's "A Touch of Jazz" (1987) and "Jazzy's in the House" (1988) and Cash Money's "The Music Maker" (1988). Other crucial DJ tracks from this period include Tuff Crew's DJ Too Tuff's "Behold the Detonator" and "Soul Food" (both 1989)." For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... DJ Jazzy Jeff (born Jeffrey A. Townes on January 22, 1965 in Philadelphia) is an African American hip hop/R&B record producer and turntablist. ... DJ Jazzy Jeff (born Jeffrey A. Townes on January 22, 1965 in Philadelphia) is an African American hip hop/R&B record producer and turntablist. ... The Tuff Crew, composed of LA Kid, Ice Dog, Tone Love, Monty G, and DJ Too Tuff, is a hip hop group from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, dubbed Phillys first Rap Supergroup by Wax Poetics Magazine. ...


The appearance of turntablists and the birth of Turntablism was prompted by one major factor - the disappearance of the DJ in hip hop groups, on records and in live shows at the turn of the 1990s. This disappearance has been widely documented in books and documentaries (such as Black Noise and Scratch The Movie), and was linked to the increased use of DAT tapes and other studio techniques that would ultimately push the DJ further away from the original hip hop equation of the MC as the vocalist and the DJ as the music provider alongside the producer. This push and disappearance of the DJ meant that the practices of the DJ, such as scratching, went back underground and were cultivated and built upon by a generation of people who grew up with hip hop, DJs and scratching. By the mid-90s the disappearance of the DJ in hip hop had created a sub-culture which would come to be known as Turntablism and which focused entirely on the DJ utilising his turntables and a mixer to manipulate sounds and create music. By pushing the practice of DJing away, hip hop created the grounds for this sub-culture to be birthed and evolve. For the band, see 1990s (band). ...


The origin of the terms Turntablist and Turntablism are widely contested and argued about, though over the years some facts have been established by various documentaries (Battlesounds, Doug Pray's Scratch), books (DJ Culture), conferences (Skratchcon 2000) and interviews in online and printed magazines. These facts are that the origins of the words most likely lay with practitioners on the US West Coast, centered around the San Francisco Bay Area. Some claim that DJ Disk, a member of the Invisibl Skratch Piklz, was the first to coin the term, others claim that DJ Babu, a member of the Beat Junkies, was responsible for coining and spreading the term Turntablist after inscribing it on his mixtapes and passing them around. Additional claims credit DJ Supreme, a UK DJ and producer for the group Hijack, though the claims that the terms were birthed in the Bay Area are the most widely acknowledged and established ones. The truth most likely lies somewhere in between all these facts. Scratch is a 2001 documentary film, directed by Doug Pray, that examines cultural and historical perspectives on the birth and evolution of hip-hop disc jockeys (DJs), scratching and turntablism and includes interviews with some of hip-hops most famous and respected DJs. ... DJ Disk is a San Francisco Bay Area turntablist of Panamanian and Nicaraguan descent. ... Invisibl Scratch Piklz The Invisibl Skratch Piklz were a group of Filipino-American turntablists. ... DJ Babu (born Chris Oroc) is a Filipino-American DJ and is a member of the Beat Junkies, a crew of DJs which includes others such as Melo-D, Rhettmatic, and J-Rocc. ... The (World Famous) Beat Junkies is a crew of 7 hip-hop DJs. ... Hijack were a hip hop group from Brixton in London, featuring Kamanchi Sly, DJ Supreme, DJ Undercover, Ulysses, Agent Fritz and Agent Clueso. ...


In an interview with the Spin Science online resource in 2005, DJ Babu added the following comments about the birth and spread of the term:

"It was around 95, I was heavily into the whole battling thing, working on the tables constantly, mastering new techniques and scratches, and all the while working in a gas station and spending my spare time concentrating on all these things. One day I made this mixtape called 'Comprehension', and on there was a track called 'Turntablism' which featured Melo-D and D-Styles. And this is part of where this whole thing about turntablist came from. This was a time where all these new techniques were coming out, like flares and stuff, and there were probably 20 people or so, in around California between Frisco and LA, who knew about these. So we worked on them, talked about it and kicked about the ideas that these techniques and new ways of scratching gave us. And what I would do is write 'Babu the Turntablist' on tapes I was making at the time, and somehow it got out a bit, the media got hold of it and it blew into this whole thing we now know. But it was really nothing to start with. We'd all talk about these new scratches and how they really started to allow us to use the turntable in a more musical way, how it allowed us to do more musical compositions, tracks, etc. and then we'd think about how people who play the piano are pianists, and so we thought "we're turntablists in a way, because we play the turntable like these people do the piano or any other instrument". Beyond that, it was just me writing 'Babu the Turntablist', because it was something I did to make my tapes stand out. I'd just get my marker pen out and write it on there."

So by the mid to late 1990s the terms Turntablism and Turntablist had become established and accepted to define the practice and practitioner of using turntables and a mixer to create or manipulate sounds and music. This could be done by scratching a record or manipulating the rhythms on the record either by drumming, looping or beat juggling. Turntable is a means of gouging quick, semi-identifiable traces of music from the grooves of a record and transmuting these electronically transmitted traces into furred and splintered drum noise. D-Styles (born July, 1972 in the Philippines) is generally regarded as the most skilled scratch DJ in the world. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ...


The decade of the 1990s is also important in shaping the Turntablist artform and culture as it saw the emergence of pioneering artists (D-Styles, DJ Q-Bert, A-Trak, Ricci Rucker, Mike Boo, Prime Cuts) and crews (Invisibl Skratch Piklz, Beat Junkies, The Allies, X-Ecutioners), record labels (Asphodel), DJ Battles (DMC, ITF) and the evolution of scratching and other turntablism practices. For the band, see 1990s (band). ... D-Styles (born July, 1972 in the Philippines) is generally regarded as the most skilled scratch DJ in the world. ... DJ Q-Bert Q-Bert (born 1969) is the performing name of Richard Quitevis, a Filipino-American DJ and music-writer. ... Alain Macklovitch (Born March 30, 1982) is a Montreal-based DJ and turntablist. ... Band: Suicidal Tendencies CD: Prime Cuts Parental Advisory: Yes In-Print: Yes Released Year: 1997 Number Of Discs: 1 Genre: Punk, Heavy Metal, and thrash Recorded Between: 1983-1995 Tracks You Cant Bring Me Down Join The New Army Lovely Institutionalized Gotta Kill Captain Stupid Berserk! I Saw Your... Invisibl Scratch Piklz The Invisibl Skratch Piklz were a group of Filipino-American turntablists. ... The (World Famous) Beat Junkies is a crew of 7 hip-hop DJs. ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... The X-Ecutioners are a group of hip hop DJs/turntablists from New York. ... Flower and fruits The Asphodel (Asphodelus ramosus, family Asphodelaceae in APG II, formerly in Liliaceae) is the flower said to fill the plains of Hades, the mythological Greek underworld. ... Disco Mixing Club (DMC) is a worldwide name to all professional and amateur disc jockeys, especially those involved in the avant-garde music genre known as turntablism. ...


More sophisticated methods of scratching were developed during that decade, with crews and individual DJs concentrating on the manipulation of the record in time with the manipulation of the cross fader on the mixer to create new rhythms and sonic artefacts with a variety of sounds. The evolution of scratching from a fairly simple sound and simple rhythmic cadences to more complicated sounds and more intricate rhythmical patterns allowed the practitioners to further evolve what could be done with scratching musically. These new ways of scratching were all given names, from flare to crab or orbit, and spread as DJs taught each other, practiced together or just showed off their new techniques to other DJs. Flare is a type of scratch used by turntablists. ... A crab is a type of scratch used by turntablists. ... An orbit is a type of scratch used by turntablists. ...


Alongside the evolution of scratching, which deserves an article in itself, other practices such as drumming (or scratch drumming) and beat juggling were also evolved significantly during the 1990s. Beat juggling is the act of manipulating two or more identical samples (e. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ...


Beat Juggling was invented, or discovered if you will, by Steve Dee, a member of the X-Men (later renamed X-Ecutioners) crew. Beat Juggling essentially involves the manipulation of two identical or different drum patterns on two different turntables via the mixer to create a new pattern. A simple example would be for example to use two copies of the same drum pattern to evolve the pattern by doubling the snares, syncopating the drum kick, adding rhythm and variation to the existing pattern. From this concept, which Steve Dee showcased in the early 90s at DJ battles, Beat Juggling evolved throughout the decade to the point where by the end of it, it had become an intricate technique to create entirely new 'beats' and rhythms out of existing, pre-recorded ones. These were now not just limited to using drum patterns, but could also consist of other sounds - the ultimate aim being to create a new rhythm out of the pre-recorded existing ones. While Beat Juggling is not as popular as scratching due to the more demanding rhythmical knowledge it requires, it has proved popular within DJ Battles and in certain compositional situations. The X-Ecutioners are a group of hip hop DJs/turntablists from New York. ...


One of the earliest academic studies of the turntablism (White 1996) argued for its designation as a legitimate electronic musical instrument -- a manual analog sampler -- and described turntable techniques such as backspinning, cutting, scratching and blending as integral skills of the hip hop DJ. White demonstrated that the proficient hip hop DJ must possess many of the same skills required by trained musicians, including a keen sense of timing, sharply-developed hand-eye coordination, technical competence and creativity with his material.


By the year 2000 Turntablism and turntablists had become widely publicised and accepted in the mainstream and within hip hop as valid artists. Through this recognition came further evolution.


This evolution took many shapes and forms: some continued to concentrate on the foundations of the artform and its original links to Hip Hop culture, some became producers utilising the skills they'd learnt as turntablists and incorporating those into their productions, some concentrated more on the DJing aspect of the artform by combining turntablist skills with the trademark skills of club DJs, while others explored alternative routes in utilising the turntable as an instrument or production tool solely for the purpose of making music - either by using solely the turntable or by incorporating it into the production process alongside tools such as drum machines, samplers, computer software, and so on.


Turntablist (DJ/Turntablist): Second evolution of the artist

In the 1990s, turntablism achieved new levels of attention. Dedicated DJs had gradually refined the practice, and it expanded on its own, apart from the MCs who had largely neglected DJing as rap developed. For the band, see 1990s (band). ...


New DJs, turntablists and crews owe a distinct debt to old-school DJs like Kool DJ Herc, Grand Wizard Theodore, Grandmaster Flash, DJ Jazzy Jeff, Afrika Bambaataa and other DJs of the golden age of hip hop, who originally developed many of the concepts and techniques that evolved into modern turntablism. Old school, variously spelled old skool, oldschool or oldskool, is a slang term referring to an older school of thinking or acting and to old objects in general, within the context of newer, more modern times. ... DJ Kool Herc was the originator of break-beat DJing, where the breaks of funk songs—being the most danceable part, often featuring percussion—were isolated and repeated for the purpose of all-night dance parties (AMG [1]). Later DJs such as Grandmaster Flash refined and developed the use of... Grand Wizard Theodore (left). ... Joseph Biggie Grand Saddler (born January 1, 1958 in Bridgetown, Barbados), better known as Grandmaster Flash, is a American hip hop musician and DJ; one of the pioneers of hip-hop DJing, cutting, and mixing. ... DJ Jazzy Jeff (born Jeffrey A. Townes on January 22, 1965 in Philadelphia) is an African American hip hop/R&B record producer and turntablist. ... Afrika Bambaataa is a DJ and community leader from the South Bronx, who was instrumental in the early development of hip hop throughout the 1970s. ... The golden age of hip hop, derivative of old school hip hop, began with the popularity of Run-DMCs album Raising Hell in 1986 and ended with the popularity of G-Funk around 1993. ...


Within the realm of hip hop, notable modern turntablists are the cinematic DJ Shadow, who influenced Diplo and RJD2, among others, and the experimental DJ Spooky, whose Optometry albums showed that the turntablist can perfectly fit within a jazz setting. Mix Master Mike was a founding member of the influential turntablist group Invisibl Skratch Piklz and currently DJs for the Beastie Boys. Cut Chemist and DJ Nu-Mark are also known as virtuosi of the turntables. DJ Shadow (born Josh Davis in 1972)[1] is an American DJ, turntablist, music producer and songwriter. ... For the British international monthly publication see Diplo magazine. ... RJD2 (born Ramble John RJ Krohn on May 27, 1976) is an American hip hop producer, singer and musician. ... DJ Spooky, That Subliminal Kid (born Paul D. Miller, 1970), is a Washington DC-born electronic and experimental hip hop musician whose work is often called illbient or trip hop. He is a turntablist and producer. ... Mix Master Mike (born April 4, 1970 [1]) is an American turntablist and contributing member of the Beastie Boys. ... Invisibl Scratch Piklz The Invisibl Skratch Piklz were a group of Filipino-American turntablists. ... The Beastie Boys are a hip hop musical group from New York City consisting of Michael Mike D Diamond, Adam MCA Yauch, Adam Ad-Rock Horovitz. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... DJ Nu-Mark (born Mark Potsic) is an Iranian-American hip-hop DJ mostly known for his membership of Jurassic 5, an American five-piece hip-hop crew with one DJ. and four MCs. ... A virtuoso (from the Latin virtus meaning: skill, manliness, excellence) is an individual who possesses outstanding mechanical ability at operating a musical instrument. ...


Visual Turntablism (aka Video Turntablism): Third evolution of the art form

Visual Turntablism evolved as digital vinyl turntablist technology (which can be used in conjunction with, but can also replace analog music vinyl records with digital timecode vinyl records in the dominant 12 inch diameter form factor) converged with traditional turntablist equipment; turntable[s] and audio mixer[s]. At the turn of the 20th century, the emergence of Vinyl Emulation Software prompted digital vinyl turntablists to become increasingly prominent by the first half of the first decade of the new millennium. By 2005 various turntablists, of note DJ Yasa and DJ HI-C (Osaka, Japan) who had teamed up the year prior, began performing as a duo under the name Kireek and incorporating random visuals such as pictures, video, and computer generated effects into their live performances utilizing a separate video mixer in combination with their traditional turntablist equipment. Various others such as solo turntablist Mike Relm (Daly City, USA) have similar live performance styles and can be described as "...a series of audio mashups paired with video images, manipulated in real-time with a turntable-like device (e.g. Pioneer DVJ1000)." This does not cite any references or sources. ... Mike Relm is an Chinese American DJ, turntablist, and VJ from San Francisco, California. ...


Sporadically used in its infancy before the technology matured and became capable of providing a more complete traditional turntablist experience in 2007, Visual Turntablism arose through the innovation of companies such as Atomix Productions and whose unique software Virtual DJ lends turntablists the ability to simultaneously manipulate audio with random visuals and/or audio with its associated and synchronized visual imagery (e.g. music video) using the same digital timecode 12 inch vinyl records that had been used for years prior to access digital information residing on a computer hard drive and/or various other forms of digital media.


Now combined with the complete set of traditional turntablist equipment (turntable[s], audio mixer[s], and vinyl records that can simultaneously manipulate audio with or without its associated and synchronized visual imagery), true visual turntablism now becomes a completed art form and lays way for its artists, the visual turntablist (VT).


Video Example: Here


Visual Turntablist / "VT" (aka Video Turntablist): Third evolution of the artist

The visual turntablist (VT) evolved with true visual turntablism, now able to utilize the complete set of traditional turntablist equipment including; turntable[s], audio mixer[s], and vinyl records - analog or timecode, timecode allowing simultaneous manipulation of audio with or without its associated and synchronized visual imagery. VTs could also now use audio as well as synchronized and/or un-synchronized visual imagery, including visual clips & breaks for various visual turntablist purposes (including traditional audio manipulation as well as entirely new and/or hybrid purposes that the introduction of visual imagery to a traditionally audio only art form now allows) including;

Visual juggling 
Visuals with or without directly associated and synchronized audio
Visual beat juggling 
Visuals with or without associated and synchronized audio (e.g. music videos)
Visual scratching 
Visuals with or without associated and synchronized audio
Visual drop mixes 
Visual lead-ins with or without directly associated and synchronized introductory audio prior to the playback of the main audio track, and other turntablist purposes.

The title and prefix "VT" (Visual Turntablist) in lieu of the decades old "DJ" (disc jockey) accurately reflects the current climate of digital turntablist technology. In order to further advance the art of visual turntablism and visual turntablists alike, as well as to appropriately differentiate (NOT segregate or isolate from other dj's) turntablists (regardless of their varying levels of expertise) who use traditional turntablist equipment from DJs who do not use said equipment (e.g. cd or non turntable deck dj's, software only dj's, etc.), in early 2007 VT ConQuest (Fabio Rodriguez - Irvine, California) is first to publicly set the new naming precedent for broad adoption and sheds the decades old DJ prefix, followed soon after by VT Jimnastyc (Jim Nuezca - Costa Mesa, California) and VT J-Solo (James Salva - Carson, California). This new title prefix is initially supported by DJ Icy Ice (Isaiah Dacio - Carson/Fontana, California) of the world famous turntablist crew "The Beat Junkies" / http://www.Stacksvinyl.com and DJ Debonair (Eric Stein - Burbank, California) who together with VT ConQuest establish a "Videos & Visuals" section for their premiere online record pool http://www.ExclusiveGrooves.com in order to accommodate the needs of VT's by providing video and visual elements to manipulate with digital timecode vinyl. This new naming precedent is also acknowledged by DJ Curse (Ray Belling - Cerritos, California) also of Beat Junkies and international touring turntablist fame and DJ Kilmore (Chris Kilmore - Beverly Hills, California) of the multi-platinum selling "Incubus (band)" in order to reflect the evolving art of visual turntablism and its artists, the Visual Turntablist (VT). The (World Famous) Beat Junkies is a crew of 7 hip-hop DJs. ... Chris Kilmore (born 21 January 1973) is the turntablist of the rock band Incubus. ... Incubus is a five-piece American alternative rock band based out of Calabasas, California. ...


VT Jimnastyc video demo: Here


Turntablist contests

Like many other musical instrumentalists, turntablists compete to see who can develop the fastest, most innovative and most creative approaches to their instrument. The selection of a champion comes from the culmination of battles between turntablists.


Battling involves each turntablist performing a routine (A combination of various technical scratches, beat juggles, and other elements, including body tricks) within a limited time period, after which the routine is judged by a panel of experts. The winner is selected based upon score. These organized competitions evolved from actual old school "battles" where DJs challenged each other at parties, and the "judge" was usually the audience, who would indicate their collective will by cheering louder for the DJ they thought performed better. Often, the winner kept the loser's equipment and/or records.


One of the biggest and most prestigious DJ battles in the world is the DMC World Championships. Hosted for 22 years, the title of World Champion is the crown for any team or DJ, which are the two championship divisions. With such famous turntablists as Rock Raida, Cutmaster Swift, Craze and the Scratch Perverts on their list of Champions, the DMC battles are one of the major yearly events that keep turntablism competitive. They also maintain a turntablism hall of fame with members such as Jam Master Jay, Jazzy Joyce, Afrika Islam, and Kool DJ Red Alert. ". [2]


See also

Tonearm redirects here. ... This is an alphabetical list of turntablists and their most influential recordings. ... Beatmatching is a disc jockey technique of pitch shifting or timestretching a track to match its tempo to that of the currently playing track. ... Battle records are vinyl records made up of brief samples from songs, film dialogue, sound effects, and drum loops for use by a DJ. The samples and drum loops are used for scratching and performances by turntablists. ... A screenshot from the website, showing some notation Turntablist Transcription Methodology, or TTM, is a notation system for scratching and turntablism designed by John Carluccio (a Brooklyn-based artist best known for the Battlesounds documentary film on turntablism), by Ethan Imboden, and by Raymond Pirtle. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...

Bibliography

  • Eshun, Kodwo More Brilliant than the Sun. Adventures in Sonic Fiction. London: Quartet Books 1998. ISBN 0-7043-8025-0
  • Poschardt, Ulf: DJ Culture. London: Quartet Books 1998. ISBN 0-7043-8098-6
  • Scratch - A documentary about the History and Culture of Turntablism
  • Katz, Mark. "The Turntable as Weapon: Understand the DJ Battle." In Capturing Sound: How Technology has Changed Music (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004), 114-36. ISBN 0-520-24380-3
  • Toop, David. "Hip Hop: Iron Needles of Death And A Piece of Wax." Modulations,Ch. 6.

Scratch is a 2001 documentary film, directed by Doug Pray, that examines cultural and historical perspectives on the birth and evolution of hip-hop disc jockeys (DJs), scratching and turntablism and includes interviews with some of hip-hops most famous and respected DJs. ...

References

  1. ^ Cox, Christopher and Warner, Daniel (2004). Audio Culture: Readings in Modern Music. The Continuum International Publishing Group Inc. ISBN 0826416152. 
  2. ^ Template:Cite references

External links


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