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Encyclopedia > Turnpike trust
The Hyde Park Toll Gate, London. Start of the Bath Road turnpike.
The Hyde Park Toll Gate, London. Start of the Bath Road turnpike.

Turnpike trusts were bodies set up in eighteenth century Britain to maintain principal roads and pay for this service by the extraction of tolls from users. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... A toll road, tollway, turnpike, pike or tollpike is a road on which a toll authority collects a toll (i. ...


Up until the seventeenth century the maintenance of roads was the responsibility of individual parishes, a system which resulted in neglect and a piecemeal approach. The state of the roads was a continuing national problem made worse by increasing use made by heavy carts and carriages as trade increased. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ...


Around 1650 a group of businessmen near Cambridge had the idea of extracting a toll from road users and using this to maintain a road and possibly return a profit as well. The first Act of Parliament to establish such a system applied to a section of the Roman Ermine Street at Wadesmill , Hertfordshire in 1663. [1] Geography Status City (1951) Region East of England Admin. ... A toll road, tollway, turnpike, pike or tollpike is a road on which a toll authority collects a toll (i. ... In Westminster System parliaments, an Act of Parliament is a part of the law passed by the Parliament. ... Roman Britain, with Ermine Street highlighted Ermine Street should not be confused with Ermin Street, the road from Silchester to Gloucester. ... Hertfordshire (pronounced Hartfordshire and abbreviated as Herts) is an inland county in the United Kingdom and part of the East of England Government Office region. ... // Events Prix de Rome scholarship established for students of the arts. ...


The first scheme as a turnpike trust was established by Parliament through a Turnpike Act in 1706, placing a section of the London-Coventry-Chester road in the hands of a group of trustees. This initiated a boom in turnpike creation along the principal routes of Britain. Each trust required a separate act of Parliament to establish it. The turnpike trusts were initially set up along the thirteen main roads from London, a process that lasted until 1750. From 1751 until 1772 there was a flurry of interest in turnpike trusts and a further 390 were established. By 1825 over 1,000 trusts controlled 25,000 miles of road in England and Wales. Each trust had a life of 21 years after which it had to renew its permission to manage the road. Only the busiest and most important roads were ever turnpiked, 80% of Britain’s roads were left untouched.


The trustees could erect gates as they saw fit, demand statute labour or a cash equivalent, and appoint surveyors and collectors, in return they repaired the road and put up mileposts. Initially trusts were established for limited periods of twenty one years. The expectation was that the trust would borrow the money to repair the road and repay that debt over time with the road then reverting to the local authorities. In reality the initial debt was rarely paid off and the trusts were renewed as needed.


The rise of railways in the 19th century put an end to turnpike road building. The Local Government Act 1888 gave responsibillity for maintaining roads to county councils. The Local Government Act 1888 (51 & 52 Vict. ... In the British Isles, a county council is a council that governs a county. ...


The name originated from the military practise of placing a pikestaff across a road to block and control passage, this would be "turned" to one side to allow travellers through. The term bar was also used. Turnpike was originally the barrier used to extract tolls , but came to mean the road itself. A modern recreation of a mid-17th century company of pikemen. ...


References

This is bestimmt for MB

  1. ^ The World's First Turnpike Hertfordshire County Council Heritage page 2000, Accessed 2006
  • http://www.hertsheritage.org.uk/transport/turnpike.htm

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turnpike trust: Information from Answers.com (502 words)
Turnpike trusts were bodies set up in eighteenth century Britain to maintain principal roads and pay for this service by the extraction of tolls from users.
The first scheme as a turnpike trust was established by Parliament through a Turnpike Act in 1706, placing a section of the London-Coventry-Chester road in the hands of a group of trustees.
Turnpike was originally the barrier used to extract tolls, but came to mean the road itself.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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