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Encyclopedia > Turnip
Turnip
Small turnip root
Small turnip root
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Brassicales
Family: Brassicaceae
Genus: Brassica
Species: B. rapa
Subspecies: B. r. rapa
Trinomial name
Brassica rapa rapa
L.
For similar vegetables also called "turnip", see Turnip (disambiguation).

The turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa) is a root vegetable commonly grown in temperate climates worldwide for its white, bulbous taproot. Small, tender, varieties are grown for human consumption, while larger varieties are grown as feed for livestock. Download high resolution version (937x561, 34 KB)This is a small washed turnip. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Orders See text. ... Families See text. ... Genera See text. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Brassica rapa L. Brassica rapa is a plant widely cultivated as a leaf vegetable, a root vegetable, and an oilseed. ... Trinomial nomenclature is a taxonomic naming system that extends the standard system of binomial nomenclature by adding a third taxon. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Turnip can refer to three vegetables, which are described under the articles Turnip, Rutabaga, and Jicama. ... Binomial name Brassica rapa L. Brassica rapa is a plant widely cultivated as a leaf vegetable, a root vegetable, and an oilseed. ... Root vegetables are underground plant parts used as vegetables. ... In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ... This article is about the plant root system. ... The word feed has a number of uses: Feeding is supplying food. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ...

Contents

Description

The most common type of turnip is mostly white-skinned apart from the upper 1–6 centimeters, which protrude above the ground and are purple, red, or greenish wherever sunlight has fallen. This above-ground part develops from stem tissue, but is fused with the root. The interior flesh is entirely white. The entire root is roughly conical, but occasionally squircle in shape, about 5–20 centimeters in diameter, and lacks side roots. The taproot (the normal root below the swollen storage root) is thin and 10 centimeters or more in length; it is trimmed off before marketing. The leaves grow directly from the above-ground shoulder of the root, with little or no visible crown or neck (as found in rutabagas). Turnip leaves are sometimes eaten, and resemble mustard greens; varieties specifically grown for the leaves resemble mustard greens more than those grown for the roots, with small or no storage roots. Varieties of B. rapa that have been developed only for use as leaves are called Chinese cabbage. Both leaves and root have a pungent flavor similar to raw cabbage or radishes that becomes mild after cooking. A squircle A squircle is a mathematical shape with properties between those of a square and those of a circle. ... This article is about the plant root system. ... Binomial name Brassica napobrassica Mill. ... Spring greens are a form of kale (Brassica oleracea Acephala Group) in which the central leaves do not form a head or only a very loose one. ... Binomial name Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. ... Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa, chinensis group) is a Chinese leaf vegetable related to the Western cabbage. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... bunch of radishes The radish (Raphanus sativus) is a root vegetable of the Cruciferae family. ...

Turnip

Turnip roots weigh up to about 1 kilogram, although they can be harvested when smaller. Size is partly a function of variety and partly a function of the length of time that the turnip has grown. Most very small turnips (also called baby turnips) are speciality varieties. These are only available when freshly harvested and do not keep well. Most baby turnips can be eaten whole, including their leaves. Baby turnips come in yellow-, orange-, and red-fleshed varieties as well as white-fleshed. Their flavor is mild, so they can be eaten raw in salads like radishes. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1366, 432 KB) Source: flickr. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1366, 432 KB) Source: flickr. ... Salad Platter Cold Meat Salad Decorated green salad Salad is a mixture of foods, usually including vegetables or fruits, often with a dressing or sauce, occasionally nuts or croutons and sometimes with the addition of meat, fish, pasta or cheese. ... bunch of radishes The radish (Raphanus sativus) is a root vegetable of the Cruciferae family. ...


Nutrition

Turnips are high in Dietary Fiber, Vitamin C, Vitamin B6, Folate, Calcium, Potassium and Copper. The turnip is a vital source of vitamins and this is why they are valued greatly in Northern China.[citation needed]


Origin

Although the turnip is a well-established crop in Hellenistic and Roman times, which leads to the assumption that it was brought into cultivation at a previous time, Zohary and Hopf note that "there are almost no archeological records available" to help determine its earlier history and domestication. Wild forms of the turnip and its relatives the mustards and radish can be found over west Asia and Europe, suggesting that their domestication took place somewhere in that area. However Zohary and Hopf conclude, "Suggestions as to the origins of these plants are necessarily based on linguistic considerations."[1] The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Species See text. ...

Turnip (flower)
Turnip (flower)

Image File history File links Brosen_flower_nn1. ... Image File history File links Brosen_flower_nn1. ...

Cultivation

The 1881 Household Cyclopedia gives these instructions for field cultivation of turnips: Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Household Cyclopedia was an 1881 guide to housekeeping. ...

The leaves of turnips are also eaten as "turnip greens"
The leaves of turnips are also eaten as "turnip greens"

The benefits derived from turnip husbandry are of great magnitude; light soils are cultivated with profit and facility; abundance of food is provided for man and beast; the earth is turned to the uses for which it is physically calculated, and by being suitably cleaned with this preparatory crop, a bed is provided for grass seeds, wherein they flourish and prosper with greater vigor than after any other preparation. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


The first ploughing is given immediately after harvest, or as soon as the wheat seed is finished, either in length or across the field, as circumstances may seem to require. In this state the ground remains till the oat seed is finished, when a second ploughing is given to it, usually in a contrary direction to the first. It is then repeatedly harrowed, often rolled between the harrowings and every particle of root-weeds carefully picked off with the hand; a third ploughing is then bestowed, and the other operations are repeated. In this stage, if the ground has not been very foul, the seed process.


The next part of the process is the sowing of the seed; this may be performed by drilling machines of different sizes and constructions, through all acting on the same principle. A machine drawn by a horse in a pair of shafts, sows two drills at a time and answers extremely well, where the ground is flat, and the drills properly made up. The weight of the machine ensures a regularity of sowing hardly to be gained by those of a different size and construction. From two to three pounds of seed are sown upon the acre (2 to 3 kg/hectare), though the smallest of these quantities will give many more plants in ordinary seasons than are necessary; but as the seed is not an expensive article the greater part of farmers incline to sow thick, which both provides against the danger of part of the seed perishing, and gives the young plants an advantage at the outset.


Turnips are sown from the beginning to the end of June, but the second and third weeks of the month are, by judicious farmers, accounted the most proper time. Some people have sown as early as May, and with advantage, but these early fields are apt to run to seed before winter, especially if the autumn be favorable to vegetation. As a general rule it may be laid down that the earliest sowings should be on the latest soils; plants on such soils are often long before they make any great progress, and, in the end, may be far behind those in other situations, which were much later sown. The turnip plant, indeed, does not thrive rapidly till its roots reach the dung, and the previous nourishment afforded them is often so scanty as to stunt them altogether before they get so far.


The first thing to be done in this process is to run a horse-hoe, called a scraper, along the intervals, keeping at such a distance from the young plants that they shall not be injured; this operation destroys all the annual weeds which have sprung up, and leaves the plants standing in regular stripes or rows. The hand hoeing then commences, by which the turnips are all singled out at a distance of from 8-12 inches, and the redundant ones drawn into the spaces between the rows. The singling out of the young plants is an operation of great importance, for an error committed in this process can hardly be afterwards rectified. Boys and girls are always employed as hoers; but a steady and trusty man-servant is usually set over them to see that the work is properly executed.


In eight or ten days, or such a length of time as circumstances may require, a horse-hoe of a different construction from the scraper is used. This, in fact, is generally a small plough, of the same kind with that commonly wrought, but of smaller dimensions. By this implement, the earth is pared away from the sides of the drills, and a sort of new ridge formed in the middle of the former interval. The hand-hoers are again set to work, and every weed and superfluous turnip is cut up; afterwards the horse-hoe is employed to separate the earth, which it formerly threw into the furrows, and lay it back to the sides of the drills. On dry lands this is done by the scraper, but where the least tendency to moisture prevails, the small plough is used, in order that the furrows may be perfectly cleaned out. This latter mode, indeed, is very generally practiced.


Human use

Carrot and Turnip output in 2005
Carrot and Turnip output in 2005

Pliny the Elder writes that he considered the turnip one of the most important vegetables of his day, rating it "directly after cereals or at all events after the bean, since its utility surpasses that of any other plant." Pliny praises it as a source of fodder for farm animals, and this vegetable is not particular about the type of soil it grows in and it can be left in the ground until the next harvest, it "prevents the effects of famine" for humans (N.H. 18.34). Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 60 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of carrot and turnip output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (China - 8,395,500 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 60 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of carrot and turnip output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (China - 8,395,500 tonnes). ... This article is about the cultivated vegetable. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Green beans Bean is a common name for large plant seeds of several genera of Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae) used for food or feed. ... Fodder growing from barley In agriculture, fodder or animal feed is any foodstuff that is used specifically to feed domesticated livestock, including cattle, goats, sheep, horses, chickens and pigs. ... Naturalis Historia, 1669 edition, title page. ...


In Turkey, particularly in the area near Adana, turnips are used to flavor şalgam, a juice made from purple carrots and spices served ice cold. Adana (Turkish: }) (the ancient Antioch in Cilicia or Antioch on the Sarus)) is the capital of Adana Province in Turkey. ... Turnip juice is a popular beverage of southern Turkey, originating from Adana. ...

Macomber turnip historic marker
Macomber turnip historic marker

The Macomber turnip is featured in one of the very few historic markers for a vegetable, on Main Road in Westport, Massachusetts. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (960 × 1280 pixel, file size: 237 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo by Steven Lubar 2006 I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (960 × 1280 pixel, file size: 237 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo by Steven Lubar 2006 I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Westport is a town in Bristol County, Massachusetts, United States. ...


Turnip lanterns are an old tradition, see Jack o' Lantern for their association with Halloween. Laurie Lee, in "The Edge of Day", an autobiography of a childhood in the Cotswolds, mentions the Parochial Church Tea and Annual Entertainment, which took place around Twelfth night. "We...saw his red face lit like a turnip lamp as he crouched to stoke up the flames." For other uses, see Jack-o-lantern (disambiguation). ... Laurence Edward Alan Laurie Lee, MBE (June 26, 1914 – May 13, 1997) was an English poet, novelist, and screenwriter, raised in the village of Slad, Gloucestershire. ...


Heraldry

The turnip is an old vegetable charge in heraldry. It was used by Leonhard von Keutschach, prince-archbishop of Salzburg. The turnip is still the heart shield in the arms of Keutschach am See Leonhard von Keutschach (born around 1442, probably in Viktring, Austria; died 8th June 1519 in Salzburg, Austria), prince-archbishop of Salzburg (1495-1519), the last to rule the city in the feudal style. ... Keutschach am See (Slovenian: Hodiše ob jezeru) is a town in the district of Klagenfurt-Land in Carinthia in Austria. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf, Domestication of plants in the Old World, third edition (Oxford: University Press, 2000), p. 139

See also

Binomial name Brassica napobrassica Mill. ... This article is about the vegetable. ... Binomial name Raphanus sativus L. Daikon (Japanese: , literally large root; Traditional Chinese: , literally white carrot; Korean: mu, literally radish), is a mild-flavored East Asian giant white radish. ... The Turnip Prize is a spoof UK prize that satirises the Tate Gallerys Turner Prize by exhibiting deliberately badly made art created with minimal effort. ...

External links

  • Multilingual taxonomic information from the University of Melbourne
  • Alternative Field Crop Manual: Turnip
  • Nutritional Facts
Wikibooks
Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on
Turnip
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Brassica rapa

  Results from FactBites:
 
Watch Your Garden Grow - Turnip / Rutabaga (968 words)
Rutabagas are a cross between cabbage and turnip.
For summer use, turnips should be planted as early in the spring as possible.
Turnips and rutabagas are of best quality (mild and tender) when they are of medium size (turnips should be 2 to 3 inches in diameter and rutabagas 3 to 5 inches in diameter) and have grown quickly and without interruption.
Agriculture, Fisheries and Aquaculture: Turnips & Rutabagas Introduction (766 words)
Turnips and rutabagas are well adapted to cool and humid growing conditions.
Turnips may be grown throughout the growing season (especially with the aid of irrigation) from July 1st to the end of October.
Turnips and rutabagas are important crops in the Atlantic area for domestic markets and for export.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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