FACTOID # 11: Oklahoma has the highest rate of women in State or Federal correctional facilities.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Turmeric" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Turmeric
Turmeric
Curcuma longa
Curcuma longa
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Liliopsida
Subclass: Zingiberidae
Order: Zingiberales
Family: Zingiberaceae
Genus: Curcuma
Species: C. longa
Binomial name
Curcuma longa
Linnaeus

Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae which is native to tropical South Asia. It needs temperatures between 20 and 30 deg. C. and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive. Plants are gathered annually for their rhizomes, and re-seeded from some of those rhizomes in the following season. Image File history File links Koeh-199. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Liliopsida is the botanical name for a class. ... Families Cannaceae Costaceae Heliconiaceae Lowiaceae Marantaceae Musaceae Strelitziaceae Zingiberaceae The Zingiberales are an order of monocots, including familiar plants like bananas and ginger. ... Families see text The Zingiberales are an order of flowering plants that includes many familiar plants like ginger, cardamom, turmeric, myoga, and also banana and arrowroot. ... Subdivisions Subfamily Siphonochiloideae  Tribe Siphonochileae   Siphonochilus Subfamily Tamijioideae  Tribe Tamijieae   Tamijia Subfamily Alpinioideae  Tribe Alpinieae   Aframomum   Alpinia - galangal   Amomum   Aulotandra   Cyphostigma   Elettaria - cardamom  Elettariopsis   Etlingera   Geocharis   Geostachys   Hornstedtia   Leptosolena   Paramomum   Plagiostachys   Renealmia   Siliquamomum (Incertae Sedis)   Vanoverberghia  Tribe Riedelieae   Burbidgea   Pleuranthodium   Riedelia   Siamanthus Subfamily Zingiberoideae  Tribe Zingibereae   Boesenbergia   Camptandra   Caulokaempferia (Incertae... Species See text Curcuma is a genus of about 80 accepted species in the plant family Zingiberaceae that contains such species as turmeric and Siam Tulip. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Species See text Curcuma is a genus of about 80 accepted species in the plant family Zingiberaceae that contains such species as turmeric and Siam Tulip. ... In botany, a rhizome is a horizontal, usually underground stem of a plant that often sends out roots and shoots from its nodes. ... This article is about the plants used in cooking and medicine. ... Red Valerian, a perennial plant. ... For other uses, see Ginger (disambiguation). ... Subdivisions Subfamily Siphonochiloideae  Tribe Siphonochileae   Siphonochilus Subfamily Tamijioideae  Tribe Tamijieae   Tamijia Subfamily Alpinioideae  Tribe Alpinieae   Aframomum   Alpinia - galangal   Amomum   Aulotandra   Cyphostigma   Elettaria - cardamom  Elettariopsis   Etlingera   Geocharis   Geostachys   Hornstedtia   Leptosolena   Paramomum   Plagiostachys   Renealmia   Siliquamomum (Incertae Sedis)   Vanoverberghia  Tribe Riedelieae   Burbidgea   Pleuranthodium   Riedelia   Siamanthus Subfamily Zingiberoideae  Tribe Zingibereae   Boesenbergia   Camptandra   Caulokaempferia (Incertae... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ...


It is also often misspelled (or pronounced) as tumeric. It sometimes also known as kunyit or haldi in some Asian countries[1].


Its rhizomes are boiled for several hours and then dried in hot ovens, after which they are ground into a deep orange-yellow powder commonly used as a spice in curries and other South Asian cuisine, for dyeing, and to impart color to mustard condiments. Its active ingredient is curcumin and it has an earthy, bitter, peppery flavor and has a mustardy smell. In botany, a rhizome is a horizontal, usually underground stem of a plant that often sends out roots and shoots from its nodes. ... A yellow Tulip. ... For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ... This article is about the dish. ... South Asian cuisine includes the cuisines of the South Asia. ... Look up Mustard in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Salt, sugar and pepper are the most essential condiments in Western cuisine. ... Curcumin is the active ingredient of the Indian curry spice turmeric. ... Binomial name L. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ...


Sangli, a town in the southern part of the Indian state of Maharashtra, is the largest and most important trading centre for turmeric in Asia or perhaps in the entire world[2]. The twin cities of Sangli and Miraj are located in the Indian state of Maharashtra, nearly 400 kilometers southeast of Mumbai. ... , Maharashtra (Marathi: महाराष्ट्र , IPA  , translation: Great Nation) is Indias third largest state in area and second largest in population after Uttar Pradesh. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Uses

Food

Turmeric powder is used extensively in Indian cuisine.
Turmeric powder is used extensively in Indian cuisine.
Commercially packaged turmeric powder
Commercially packaged turmeric powder

Turmeric has found application in canned beverages, baked products, dairy products, ice cream, yogurt, yellow cakes, biscuits, popcorn-color, sweets, cake icings, cereals, sauces, gelatins, etc. It is a significant ingredient in most commercial curry powders. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1365 pixel, file size: 352 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1365 pixel, file size: 352 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,816 × 2,112 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,816 × 2,112 pixels, file size: 2. ... The word drink is primarily a verb, meaning to ingest liquids, see Drinking. ... A dairy farm near Oxford, New York in the United States. ... Missing image Ice cream is often served on a stick Boxes of ice cream are often found in stores in a display freezer. ... Yoghurt Yoghurt or yogurt, less commonly yoghourt or yogourt, is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. ... For other uses, see Cake (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Biscuit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Popcorn (disambiguation). ... Grain redirects here. ... For the art collective, see Gelitin. ... Curry powder in a jar Curry powder is a mixture of spices of widely varying composition developed by the British during their colonial rule of India. ...


Turmeric (coded as E100 when used as a food additive) is used to protect food products from sunlight. The oleoresin is used for oil-containing products. The curcumin/polysorbate solution or curcumin powder dissolved in alcohol is used for water containing products. Over-coloring, such as in pickles, relishes and mustard, is sometimes used to compensate for fading. For the mathematical constant see: E (mathematical constant). ... Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or improve its taste and appearance. ... Insect trapped in resin. ... Polysorbate is an oily liquid. ...


In combination with annatto (E160b), turmeric has been used to color cheeses, yogurt, dry mixes, salad dressings, winter butter and margarine. Turmeric is also used to give a yellow color to some prepared mustards, canned chicken broths and other foods (often as a much cheaper replacement for saffron). Bixin, the major apocarotinoid of annatto Annatto, sometimes called Roucou, is a derivative of the achiote trees of tropical regions of the Americas, used to produce a red food coloring. ... Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... Yoghurt Yoghurt or yogurt, less commonly yoghourt or yogourt, is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. ... —Cleopatra, in Shakespeares Antony and Cleopatra, 1606 A salad is a food item generally served either prior to or after the main dish as a separate course, as a main course in itself, or as a side dish accompanying the main dish. ... For other uses, see Butter (disambiguation). ... Margarine in a tub Margarine (pronunciation: ), as a generic term, can indicate any of a wide range of butter substitutes. ... Mustard on bread. ... Broth is a liquid in which bones, meat, fish, cereal grains, or vegetables have been simmered and strained out. ... Binomial name Crocus sativus L. Saffron (IPA: ) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron crocus (Crocus sativus), a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. ...


Turmeric is widely used as a spice in Indian and other South Asian cooking. Momos (Nepali meat dumplings), a traditional dish in South Asia, are spiced with turmeric.


Medicine

Turmeric plant
Turmeric plant

In the Ayurvedic medicine, turmeric is thought to have many medicinal properties and many in India use it as a readily available antiseptic for cuts and burns. Whenever there is a cut or a bruise, the home remedy is to reach for turmeric powder. Ayurvedic doctors say it has fluoride which is thought to be essential for teeth. It is also used as an antibacterial agent. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,576 × 1,932 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,576 × 1,932 pixels, file size: 1. ... Ayurveda (आयुर्वेद Sanskrit: ayu—life; veda—knowledge of) or ayurvedic medicine is a more than 2,000 year old comprehensive system of medicine based on a holistic approach rooted in Vedic culture. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Many plants have traditional medical uses. ... An antiseptic solution of Povidone-iodine applied to an abrasion Antiseptics (Greek αντί, against, and σηπτικός, putrefactive) are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. ... A bruise, also called a contusion or ecchymosis, is a kind of injury to biological tissue in which the capillaries are damaged, allowing blood to seep into the surrounding tissue. ... Fluoride is the ionic form of fluorine. ... An antiseptic is a substance that kills or prevents the growth of bacteria on the external surfaces of the body. ...


It is taken in some Asian countries as a dietary supplement, which allegedly helps with stomach problems and other ailments. It is popular as a tea in Okinawa, Japan. It is currently being investigated for possible benefits in Alzheimer's disease, cancer and liver disorders. For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... This article is about the prefecture. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... For the bird, see Liver bird. ...


Turmeric, under the name Avea, is becoming popular to treat depression.


It is only in recent years that Western scientists have increasingly recognised the medicinal properties of turmeric. According to a 2005 article in the Wall Street Journal titled, "Common Indian Spice Stirs Hope," research activity into curcumin, the active ingredient in turmeric, is exploding. Two hundred and fifty-six curcumin papers were published in the past year according to a search of the U.S. National Library of Medicine. Supplement sales have increased 35% from 2004, and the U.S. National Institutes of Health has four clinical trials underway to study curcumin treatment for pancreatic cancer, multiple myeloma, Alzheimer's, and colorectal cancer. Many plants have traditional medical uses. ... Curcumin is the active ingredient of the Indian curry spice turmeric. ... National Institutes of Health Building 50 at NIH Clinical Center - Building 10 The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical research. ...


A 2004 UCLA-Veterans Affairs study involving genetically altered mice suggests that curcumin, the active ingredient in turmeric, might inhibit the accumulation of destructive beta amyloids in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients and also break up existing plaques. "Curcumin has been used for thousands of years as a safe anti-inflammatory in a variety of ailments as part of Indian traditional medicine," Gregory Cole, Professor of medicine and neurology at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA said. Shirodhara, one of the techniques of Ayurveda Ayurveda (Devanagari: ) or Ayurvedic medicine is an ancient system of health care that is native to the Indian subcontinent. ... UCLA School of Medicine or David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA is an accredited allopathic medical school located in Los Angeles, California, United States. ... Binomial name Ucla xenogrammus Holleman, 1993 The largemouth triplefin, Ucla xenogrammus, is a fish of the family Tripterygiidae and only member of the genus Ucla, found in the Pacific Ocean from Viet Nam, the Philippines, Palau and the Caroline Islands to Papua New Guinea, Australia (including Christmas Island), and the...


Another 2004 study conducted at Yale University involved oral administration of curcumin to mice homozygous for the most common allele implicated in cystic fibrosis. Treatment with curcumin restored physiologically-relevant levels of protein function. [1] Yale redirects here. ...


Anti-tumoral effects against melanoma cells have been demonstrated [2]. Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes which are found predominantly in skin but also in the bowel and the eye (see uveal melanoma). ...


Curry Pharmaceuticals, based in North Carolina, is studying the use of a curcumin cream for psoriasis treatment. Another company is already selling a cream based on curcumin called "Psoria-Gold," which shows anecdotal promise of treating the disease.


A recent study involving mice has shown that turmeric slows the spread of breast cancer into lungs and other body parts. Turmeric also enhances the effect of taxol in reducing metastasis of breast cancer [3]. Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ... Paclitaxel is a drug used in the treatment of cancer. ...


Curcumin is thought to be a powerful antinociceptive (pain-relieving) agent. In the November 2006 issue of Arthritis & Rheumatism, a study was published that showed the effectiveness of turmeric in the reduction of joint inflammation, and recommended clinical trials as a possible treatment for the alleviation of arthritis symptoms.[4] It is thought to work as a natural inhibitor of the cox-2 enzyme, and has been shown effective in animal models for neuropathic pain secondary to diabetes, among others.[3] Cyclooxygenase (COX) is an enzyme that is responsible for formation of important biological mediators called prostanoids (including prostaglandins, prostacyclin and thromboxane). ...


Cosmetics

Turmeric is currently used in the formulation of some sunscreens. Turmeric paste is used by some Indian women to keep them free of superfluous hair. Turmeric paste is applied to bride and groom before marriage in some places of India and Pakistan, where it is believed turmeric gives glow to skin and keeps some harmful bacteria away from the body. It also acts as an excellent anti-scarring agent when mixed with milk and applied on skin[citation needed].


The Government of Thailand is funding a project to extract and isolate tetrahydrocurcuminoids (THC) from turmeric. THCs (not to be confused with tetrahydrocannabinol, also known as THC) are colorless compounds that might have antioxidant and skin lightening properties and might be used to treat skin inflammations, making these compounds useful in cosmetics formulations. “THC” redirects here. ...


Dye

Turmeric makes a poor fabric dye as it is not very lightfast (the degree to which a dye resists fading due to light exposure). Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Gardening

Turmeric can also be used to deter ants. The exact reasons why turmeric repels ants is unknown, but anecdotal evidence suggests it works. [5]


Chemistry

Turmeric contains up to 5% essential oils and up to 3% curcumin, a polyphenol. It is the active substance of turmeric and it is also known as C.I. 75300, or Natural Yellow 3. The systematic chemical name is (1E,6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione. It can exist at least in two tautomeric forms, keto and enol. The keto form is preferred in solid phase and the enol form in solution. Curcumin is the active ingredient of the Indian curry spice turmeric. ... Polyphenols are a group of chemical substances found in plants, characterized by the presence of more than one phenol group per molecule. ... Tautomers are organic compounds that are interconvertible by a chemical reaction called tautomerization. ...

Curcumin Keto form
Curcumin Keto form
Curcumin Enol form
Curcumin Enol form

Curcumin structure. ... Enol form of curcumin. ...

See also

Dilao/Dilaw in Tagalog ...


Notes

  1. ^ Turmeric is known by different names in different languages. Some examples include:
    • "Arishina" in Kannada
    • "हळद" (Halad) in Marathi
    • "Haldi" in Hindi, Gujarati and Urdu.
    • "ਹਲਦੀ" (Haldi) in Punjabi.
    • "Haruut" in Somali
    • "Holdi" or "Holood" in Bengali.
    • "আন্দি" (Andi) in Bishnupriya Manipuri
    • "மஞ்சள்" (manjal "literally:Yellow") in Tamil.
    • "పసుపు" (pasupu) in Telugu.
    • "姜黄" (jiang huang) in Chinese.
    • "Nghệ" in Vietnamese.
    • "Lmeat" in Khmer.
    • زردچوبه (Zardchubeh) in Persian.
    • "‘Ōlena" in Hawaiian
    • "Gelbwurz" (literally: Yellow Root) or "Kurkuma" in German.
    • "Kurkuma" or "Japonský šafrán" (Japanese Safron) in Czech.
    • "Kunyit" in Malay and Indonesian.
    • "كركم" or "Kurkum" in Arabic.
    • "כורכום" or "Kurkum" in Hebrew.
    • "Palillo" in Spanish (South America).
    • "മഞ്ഞള്‍" (manjal) in Malayalam.
  2. ^ SANGLI...The Turmeric City of India n home of brights
  3. ^ Sharma S, Kulkarni SK, Agrewala JN, Chopra K. "Curcumin attenuates thermal hyperalgesia in a diabetic mouse model of neuropathic pain." Eur J Pharmacol. 2006 May 1; 536(3): 256-61

Kannada - aptly described as sirigannada (known to few as Kanarese) is one of the oldest Dravidian languages and is spoken in its various dialects by roughly 45 million people. ... Marathi is one of the widely spoken languages of India, and has a long literary history. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken mainly in North and Central India. ... Gujarati (ગુજરાતી Gujǎrātī; also known as Gujerati, Gujarathi, Guzratee, and Guujaratee[3]) is an Indo-Aryan language descending from Sanskrit, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. ... The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla written in Urdu Urdu () is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family that developed under Persian, Turkish, Arabic, Hindi, and Sanskrit influence in South Asia during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800). ... Punjabi redirects here. ... Bangla redirects here. ... The Bishnupriya Manipuri language (BPM) (ইমার ঠার/বিষ্ণুপ্রিয়া মণিপুরী) is an Indo-Aryan language. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... “Telugu” redirects here. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Farsi redirects here. ... The Hawaiian language is an Austronesian language that takes its name from Hawaiʻi, the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed. ... Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... The word Hebrew most likely means to cross over, referring to the Semitic people crossing over the Euphrates River. ... Malayalam ( ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Turmeric (1825 words)
Turmeric (Curcuma longa), a flowering plant in the ginger family, is widely used as a food coloring and is one of the principal ingredients in curry powder.
While turmeric has a long history of use by herbalists, most studies to date have been conducted in the laboratory or in animals and it is not clear that these results apply to people.
A mixture of the volatile oils of turmeric, citronella, and hairy basil, with the addition of vanillin (an extract of vanilla bean that is generally used for flavoring or perfumes), may be an alternative to D.E.E.T., one of the most common chemical repellents commercially available.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m