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Encyclopedia > Turku
City of Turku
Turun kaupunki – Åbo stad
Aura river at hot summer night.
Aura river at hot summer night.
Flag of City of Turku
Flag
Coat of arms of City of Turku
Coat of arms
Location of Turku in Northern Europe
City of Turku (Finland)
City of Turku
Location of Turku in Northern Europe
Coordinates: 60°27′N 22°16′E / 60.45, 22.267
Country Finland
Province Western Finland
Region Finland Proper
Sub-region Turku sub-region
Government
 - Mayor Mikko Pukkinen
Area
 - City 306.42 km² (118.3 sq mi)
 - Land 245.67 km² (94.9 sq mi)
 - Urban 402.8 km² (155.5 sq mi)
 - Metro 2,331.1 km² (900 sq mi)
Population (2007)
 - City 175 286
 - Density 722/km² (1,870/sq mi)
 - Urban 236,226
 - Urban Density 586/km² (1,517.7/sq mi)
 - Metro 303,492
 - Metro Density 130.19/km² (337.2/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+2)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+3)
Official languages Finnish, Swedish
Website: www.turku.fi


Turku, in Swedish Åbo (pronounced [ˈturku] , ['o:bu] ) is the oldest and fifth largest city in Finland, with a population of 175 286 (31.12.2007). Located (60.27° N 22.16° ECoordinates: 60.27° N 22.16° E)[1] at the mouth of the Aura river in the south west of the country, it is the capital city of both the region of Finland Proper and the province of Western Finland, as well as being the centre of the country's third largest urban area, with around 300,000 inhabitants. Turku has one of the largest Finland-Swedish populations in the country. Due to its location, the Port of Turku is one of the busiest seaports in Finland with around 3.7 million passengers per year[1]. Türkü is a name given to songs in Turkish folk music. ... The Aura river (Finnish Aurajoki) is a river in south-western Finland. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 479 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1518 × 1898 pixel, file size: 504 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Hoc est vexillum civitatis Aboae, photographium supercumulatore in MMDCCLVIII ab urbe condita. ... Image File history File links Turku. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Red_pog. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... Finland consists of 6 provinces (Finnish: läänit, Swedish: län). ... The Province of Western Finland is a province of Finland. ... Finland is divided into 20 regions (maakunta/landskap in Finnish/Swedish). ... Finland Proper (Varsinais-Suomi in Finnish, Egentliga Finland in Swedish) is a region in south-western Finland. ... In 2005 Finland is divided into 77 sub-regions (seutukunta in Finnish, ekonomisk region in Swedish). ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Eastern European Time Central Africa Time Israel Standard Time South Africa Standard Time Central European Summer Time West Africa Summer Time Category: ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... The two official languages of Finland are Finnish and Swedish. ... Image File history File links Fi-Turku. ... Image File history File links Sv-Ã…bo. ... This is a list of towns in Finland. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... The Aura river (Finnish Aurajoki) is a river in south-western Finland. ... Capital City is a 60-minute television show produced by Euston Films that ran for 13 episodes in 1989 on ITV. This drama focused on the lives of investment bankers in London living and working on the corporate trading floor for the fictional international bank Shane-Longman. ... Finland Proper (Varsinais-Suomi in Finnish, Egentliga Finland in Swedish) is a region in south-western Finland. ... The Province of Western Finland is a province of Finland. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... ... The Port of Turku is the oldest port in Finland, and it is mentioned in the Arab geographer Muhammad al-Idrisis 1154 book Kitab Rudjar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Port. ...


Turku has a cultural identity as Finland's historical centre, as it was the largest city in the country for a very long time and has served as the second city of the Swedish Empire when Finland was under its rule. After being informally the capital of Finland for hundreds of years, Turku was also the capital of the Grand Duchy of Finland from 1809 to 1812 after which time Helsinki was made the capital, because Helsinki was considered being more loyal and closer to the Russian Empire than Turku. For the North American comedy troupe, see The Second City. ... Sweden between the years 1611 and 1718 is known as the Swedish Empire. ... The Grand Duchy of Finland was a state that existed 1809–1917 as part of the Russian Empire. ... Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - Mayor Jussi Pajunen Area  - Total 187. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ...


Turku also hosted the country's first university, The Royal Academy of Turku until it was transferred to the new capital after the Great Fire of Turku, 1827. Its belongings are still in the possession of the University of Helsinki, excluding the material of its library, that burnt along with the Great Fire. The Royal Academy of Turku (Fi: Turun akatemia), (Sv: Ã…bo Kungliga Akademi), was the name of the University of Helsinki until 1809, when it was renamed the Imperial Academy of Turku. ... The Cathedral and the Academy building after the fire The Great Fire of Turku almost completely destroyed the city of Turku in 1827. ... Year 1827 (MDCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... University of Helsinki is not to be confused with Helsinki University of Technology. ...


Turku is one of the leading cities of Finnish Biotechnology[2] and Information and Communications Technology[3]. A majority of Finnish medicine manufacturers and researchers operate in Turku. Insulin crystals Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... Information technology (IT) or information and communication technology (ICT) is the technology required for information processing. ...


Turku has been designated by the European Union to be the European Capital of Culture for the year 2011, together with Tallinn, the capital of Estonia. The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union for a period of one year during which it is given a chance to showcase its cultural life and cultural development. ... County Area 159. ...

Contents

History

Turku has a long history as Finland's largest city and administrative centre, but has, over the last two centuries, given up both titles to Helsinki. To this day, the city's identity stems from its status as the oldest city in Finland and the country's former capital. Originally, the word "Finland" referred only to the area around Turku (hence the title, "Finland Proper" for the region). Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - Mayor Jussi Pajunen Area  - Total 187. ... Finland Proper (Varsinais-Suomi in Finnish, Egentliga Finland in Swedish) is a region in south-western Finland. ...


Although archaeological findings in the date back to the Stone Age, Turku in its current location was born no earlier than the late 13th century.[4] Its name originated from an Old East Slavic word, tǔrgǔ, meaning "market place". The Cathedral of Turku was consecrated in 1300, and together with Turku Castle and the Dominican monastery (founded in 1249), the city became the most important location in medieval Finland. Stone Age fishing hook. ... Old East Slavic, traditionally known as Old Russian (Russian: древнерусский), is a name for a vernacular literary language used between the 10th and 14th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus and other states formed by that ethnic group. ... The Cathedral of Turku The Cathedral of Turku is a Evangelical Lutheran cathedral in Turku, Finland. ... To consecrate an inanimate object is to dedicate it in a ritual to a special purpose, usually religious. ... The Medieval keep of Turku Castle viewed from west Exterior of Castle Bailey, viewed from south The Turku Castle, (Finnish: Turun linna, Swedish: Ã…bo slott) dating from the 1280s, is a monument of Finnish history. ... This article concerns the buildings occupied by monastics. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ...


During the Middle Ages, Turku was the seat of the Bishop of Turku (a title later upgraded to Archbishop of Turku), covering the then eastern Sweden (most of the present-day Finland) until the 17th century, and the only city in Finland to trade with the Hanseatic League. Even if Turku had no official capital status, both the Dukes and Governors-General of Finland usually had their Finnish residences there. In 1640, the first university in Finland, The Royal Academy of Turku, was founded in Turku. Turku was also the meeting place for the States of Finland in 1676. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ... Duke of Finland (in Finnish Suomen herttua; Swedish hertig av Finland) was an occasional medieval title granted as a tertiogeniture to the relatives of the King of Sweden between the 13th and 16th centuries. ... A Governor-General, or Generalguvernör, was appointed by the Swedish monarch as a form of viceroy, with both civil and military jurisdiction, over parts of the Swedish Realm, from the 17th century to the early 19th century, when constitutional changes made the office obsolete. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... The Royal Academy of Turku (Fi: Turun akatemia), (Sv: Ã…bo Kungliga Akademi), was the name of the University of Helsinki until 1809, when it was renamed the Imperial Academy of Turku. ... The Porvoo Diet is opened by Alexander I The Diet of Finland (Finnish Suomen maapäivät, later valtiopäivät; Swedish Finlands Landtdagar), was the legislative assembly of the Grand Duchy of Finland from 1809 to 1906 and the heir of the powers of the Swedish Riksdag of the...


After the Finnish War, which ended when Sweden ceded Finland to Imperial Russia at the Treaty of Hamina in 1809, Turku became briefly the official capital, but soon lost the status to Helsinki, as Emperor Alexander I felt that Turku was too far from Russia and too aligned with Sweden to serve as the capital of the Grand Duchy. The change officially took place in 1812. The government offices that remained in Turku were finally moved to the new capital after the Great Fire of Turku, which almost completely destroyed the city in 1827. After the fire, a new and safer city plan was drawn up by German architect Carl Ludvig Engel, who had also designed the new capital, Helsinki. Turku remained the largest city in Finland for another twenty years. Combatants Russia Sweden Commanders Fyodor Buxhoeveden Boris Knorring Barclay de Tolly Wilhelm Mauritz Klingspor Carl Johan Adlercreutz Georg Carl von Döbeln The Finnish War was fought between Sweden and Russia from February 1808 to September 1809. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... The Treaty of Fredrikshamn (Freden i Fredrikshamn in Swedish and Haminan rauha in Finnish ) was a peace treaty concluded between Sweden and Russia on September 17, 1809. ... An emperorrefers to Nick Herringshaw, a title, empress may only indicate the wife of an emperor (empress consort. ... Alexander I of Russia (Russian: Александр I Павлович / Aleksandr I Pavlovich) (December 23, 1777 – December 1?, 1825) served as Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801 to 1 December 1825 and Ruler of Poland from 1815 to 1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. ... The Grand Duchy of Finland was a state that existed 1809–1917 as part of the Russian Empire. ... The Cathedral and the Academy building after the fire The Great Fire of Turku almost completely destroyed the city of Turku in 1827. ... For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ... The main building of the University of Helsinki. ...


In 1918, a new university, the Åbo Akademi – the only Swedish-language university in Finland – was founded in Turku. Two years later, the Finnish-language University of Turku was founded alongside it. These two universities are the second and third to be founded in Finland. The Ã…bo Akademi University is a Swedish language university, founded in 1918 in Turku (Ã…bo in Swedish), Finland. ... Swedish ( ) is a North Germanic language, spoken predominantly in Sweden, parts of Finland, especially along the coast, on the Ã…land islands, by more than nine million people. ... Finnish ( , or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland (92% as of 2006[3]) and by ethnic Finns outside of Finland. ... The University of Turku (Finnish Turun yliopisto, Swedish Ã…bo universitet), located in Turku in southwestern Finland, is the second largest university in the country as measured by student enrolment. ...

Cathedral of Turku, Finland, 1814
Cathedral of Turku, Finland, 1814

20th century Turku has been called "Finland's gateway to the West" by historians such as Jarmo Virmavirta. The city enjoyed good connections with other Western European countries and cities, especially since the 1940s with Stockholm across the Gulf of Bothnia. In the 1960s, Turku became the first Western city to sign a twinning agreement with Leningrad in the Soviet Union, leading to greater inter-cultural exchange and providing a new meaning to the city's 'gateway' function. After the fall of Communism in Russia, many prominent Soviets came to Turku to study Western business practices, among them Vladimir Putin, then Leningrad's deputy mayor. A current understanding of Western Europe. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Bothnia (Fin. ... Sign denoting twin towns of Neckarsulm, Germany Town twinning is a concept whereby towns or cities in geographically and politically distinct areas are paired with the goal of fostering human contact and cultural links. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Russian: Russian pronunciation: ) (born October 7, 1952, in Leningrad, U.S.S.R., now Saint Petersburg, Russia) is a Russian politician who was the 2nd President of the Russian Federation from 2000 to 2008. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ...


In the 1960s and 1970s, Turku displayed unprecedented rates of growth, resulting in the construction of many new densely-inhabited suburbs such as Varissuo and Runosmäki, and the annexation of many neighbouring municipalities (e.g. Maaria and Paattinen). Many old quarters were completely destroyed in the process, replacing them with more efficient and faster-built concrete buildings. The city's growth has led to problems with unemployment in the new populous suburbs on the one hand, and with the provision of public services (such as education) in more remote parts on the other. Illustration of the backyards of a surburban neighbourhood Suburbs are inhabited districts located either on the outer rim of a city or outside the official limits of a city (the term varies from country to country), or the outer elements of a conurbation. ... Varissuo is the largest suburb of the city of Turku, in Finland. ... Runosmäki on a map of Turku. ... Maaria (S:t Marie in Swedish) is a former municipality of Finland and a current district in the northern part of the city of Turku. ... Paattinen (Finnish; Patis in Swedish) is a village in south-west Finland and a district of the city of Turku. ... CIA figures for world unemployment rates, 2006 Unemployment is the state in which a person is without work, available to work, and is currently seeking work. ...


Geography

Overview to the eastern city centre from Samppalinna hill.

Located at the mouth of the Aura river in the southwestern corner of Finland, Turku covers an area of 245 km² (94 sq mi) of land, spread over both sides of the river. The eastern side, where the Cathedral of Turku is located, is popularly referred to as täl pual jokke ("this side of the river"), while the western side is referred to as tois pual jokke ("the other side of the river"). The city centre is located close to the river mouth, on both sides of the river, though development has recently been expanding westward. The Aura river (Finnish Aurajoki) is a river in south-western Finland. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ...


There are nine bridges over the Aura river in Turku. The first bridge in the city area, known as Pennisilta, was built in 1414, and has since been demolished. The oldest of the current bridges is Auransilta, which was constructed in 1904. The newest bridge is Teatterisilta ('theatre bridge'), a pedestrian-only bridge built in 1997. One of the best-known landmarks of Turku is the Föri, a small ferry that transports pedestrians and bicycles across the river without payment. Look up Pedestrian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The ferryboat Dongan Hills, filled with commuters, about to dock at a New York City pier, circa 1945. ... For other uses, see Bicycle (disambiguation). ...


With a population of approximately 300,000, the Turku Region (LAU 1) is the third largest urban region in Finland, after Greater Helsinki and the area around Tampere. The region includes, in addition to the city itself the following municipalities: Askainen, Kaarina, Lemu, Lieto, Masku, Merimasku, Mynämäki, Naantali, Nousiainen, Paimio, Piikkiö, Raisio, Rusko, Rymättylä, Sauvo, Vahto, and Velkua. Generally, a local administrative unit (LAU) is an area of governmental administration below a province, region, state or other major national subdivision. ... Map of the Metropolitan Area (Light Green) and the Capital Region (Dark Green). ... Tampere ( , IPA: ; Swedish: Tammerfors ) is a city in southern Finland located between two lakes, Näsijärvi and Pyhäjärvi. ... Askainen (Villnäs in Swedish) is a municipality of Finland. ... Location of Kaarina in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Finland Province Western Finland Region Finland Proper Sub-region Turku Government  - City manager Harri Virta Area  - City 60. ... Lemu is a municipality of Finland. ... Lieto (IPA: ), or Lundo in Swedish, is a municipality of Finland. ... Masku is a municipality of Finland. ... Merimasku is a municipality of Finland. ... Mynämäki (IPA: ) is a municipality of Finland. ... Naantali (Swedish Nådendal, Latin Vallis Gratiae - valley of grace), city in south-western Finland, known as the probably most important tourist centre of the country. ... Province Western Finland Region Finland Proper District Turku City manager Hannu Rämö Official languages Finnish Area  - total  - land ranked 331st 198. ... Paimio (Pemar in Swedish) is a municipality of Finland. ... Piikkiö (IPA: ), or Pikis in Swedish, is a municipality of Finland. ... Province Western Finland Region Finland Proper Sub-region Turku City manager Kari Karjalainen Official languages Finnish Area  - total  - land ranked 419th 49. ... Rusko is a municipality of Finland. ... Rymättylä (IPA: ), or Rimito in Swedish, is a municipality of Finland. ... Sauvo (Sagu in Swedish) is a municipality of Finland. ... Vahto is a municipality of Finland. ... Velkua is a municipality of Finland. ...


A more exclusive definition for the urban area is the city region of Turku with a population around 235,000 consisting of four major municipalities Kaarina, Raisio, Naantali and Turku. The city region is the most urbanised in the Turku Region and it is complete when compared with the rest of the Turku region where urbanisation is concentrated in spots.


Subdivisions

Main article: Subdivisions of Turku
View over the City Centre from Martti
View over the City Centre from Martti

The city is divided into 78 districts and nine wards that do not function as local government units. There are, however, some projects that are based on the district divisions, particularly in the eastern part of the city, where unemployment is rife in certain areas. The largest populated districts are Varissuo and Runosmäki. By area, however, Kakskerta and Paattinen, formed from former municipalities that were annexed to the city proper in the mid-20th century, constitute the largest districts. The wards of Turku. ... Local government areas called districts are used, or have been used, in several countries. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into ward (politics). ... Kakskerta is an island south of the city of Turku, Finland. ... Paattinen (Finnish; Patis in Swedish) is a village in south-west Finland and a district of the city of Turku. ...


As many of the small neighbouring municipalities from the north and south of the city were annexed during the mid-20th century, Turku is today shaped like an elongated pear. The city centre and most of the suburban areas lie in the middle, separated from the less densely populated northern rural areas by the Turku bypass, that forms part of European route E18. Islands such as Ruissalo, Hirvensalo and Kakskerta, forming the southern part of the city, are also sparsely populated and mostly contain summer residences, with the exception of some districts in Hirvensalo which are currently growing into upper-middle-class suburbs. The municipalities (kunta in Finnish, kommun in Swedish) represent the local level of administration in Finland and act as the fundamental administrative units of the country. ... Species About 30 species; see text For other uses, see Pear (disambiguation). ... A bypass is a road or highway that avoids (bypasses) a built-up area, town, or village, to let through traffic flow without interference from local traffic, to reduce congestion in the built-up area, and to improve road safety. ... European route E18 begins at Ireland, then through the United Kingdom, Norway, Sweden, and Finland to end at Russia. ... Ruissalo on a map of Turku. ... Hirvensalo is an island in the Archipelago Sea, belonging to the city of Turku, Finland. ... Vacations to destinations such as Hawaii, shown above, may be seen as a hallmark of the upper-middle class. ... “Suburbia” redirects here. ...


Climate

Situated by the Baltic Sea and sheltered by the islands of the Archipelago Sea, Turku has a hemiboreal climate. Like much of southern Finland, the city experiences warm summers, with temperatures ranging up to 30 °C (86 °F), and relatively cold winters with frequent snowfall. The warmest month of the year is July, with an average temperature of 17 °C (62 °F), while the coldest is February. The average year-round temperature is 5 °C (41 °F). Winter usually starts in early December, and spring in late March. For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... Hiittinen, 25 km west of Hanko Archipelago Sea (Finnish Saaristomeri, Swedish SkärgÃ¥rdshavet) is a part of the Baltic Sea between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, within Finnish territorial waters. ... Hemiboreal means halfway between the temperate and subarctic (or boreal) zones. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Snow (disambiguation). ...


Precipitation in Turku averages 633 mm (25 inches) a year. The rainiest month of the year is August, when the city receives on average 85 mm (3.4 inches) of rainfall. In March, the driest month of the year, the figure is only 29 mm (1.1 inches). The average air pressure at sea level is 1012 millibars, with little variance throughout the year. A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Air pressure can refer to: Atmospheric pressure, the pressure of air environmentally Pressure of air in a system Category: ... A millibar (mbar, also mb) is 1/1000th of a bar, a unit for measurement of pressure. ...


Operational since 1955, the city's weather station is located at an altitude of 47 metres (154 feet) at Turku Airport. A technician examines a weather stations anemometer. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Turku Airport, (IATA: TKU, ICAO: EFTU), is located some 8 kilometers from Turku, Finland. ...


Climate in Turku in 2007: Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

Weather averages for Turku
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 8.4 (47) 11 (52) 15.8 (60) 24.5 (76) 30.0 (86) 33 (91) 35.9 (97) 33 (91) 28 (82) 18.9 (66) 11.3 (52) 10.0 (50) 35.9 (97)
Average high °C (°F) 1.3 (34) -4.4 (24) 6.9 (44) 9.7 (49) 15.3 (60) 21.7 (71) 21.0 (70) 22.3 (72) 15.0 (59) 9.8 (50) 3.3 (38) 4.0 (39) 10.5 (51)
Average low °C (°F) -6.4 (20) -13.0 (9) -1.6 (29) -1.0 (30) 4.9 (41) 8.0 (46) 12.2 (54) 11.7 (53) 6.0 (43) 4.0 (39) -2.5 (28) -1.1 (30) 1.8 (35)
Record low °C (°F) -35.5 (-32) -35.2 (-31) -35.5 (-32)
Source: {{{source}}} {{{accessdate}}}

Government and politics

Being both a regional and provincial capital, Turku is an important administrative centre, hosting the seat of the Archbishop of Finland and a Court of Appeal. Mikko Pukkinen, the former city manager of Seinäjoki, has been the city manager of Turku since 2006. Finland is divided into 20 regions (maakunta/landskap in Finnish/Swedish). ... Finland consists of 6 provinces (Finnish: läänit, Swedish: län). ... Court of Appeal, Court of Appeals, and Appellate Division redirect here; for a list of specific courts using those titles, see Court of Appeal (disambiguation), Court of Appeals (disambiguation), and Appellate Division (disambiguation). ... Founded 1868 Country Finland Province Western Finland Region Southern Ostrobothnia Sub-region Seinäjoki Area 603 km² Population - Density 36,419 (Dec 31, 2005) 60 inh. ... The council-manager government is one of 2 main variations of representative municipal government (for contrast, also see Mayor-Council government). ...


The city council and city board have long been dominated by the Social Democratic Party (SDP) and the National Coalition Party (Kokoomus), with approximately equal representation. Currently, the council has 67 members, with 19 from Kokoomus and 18 from SDP. The other major parties in the council are the Left Alliance (10 seats) and the Green League (9). The current chair of the city board is Pekka Ruola from Kokoomus. A city council is the most common style of legislative government in a city or town. ... The Social Democratic Party of Finland (SDP) is one of the most influential political parties in Finland, along with the Centre Party and the Coalition Party. ... The National Coalition Party (Kansallinen Kokoomus or Samlingspartiet) is a political party in Finland. ... The Left Alliance (in Finnish: Vasemmistoliitto, ; in Swedish: Vänsterförbundet) is a political party in Finland. ... This article refers to the political party, for the university environmental performance table, see Green League 2007 The Green League (in Finnish: Vihreä liitto, ; in Swedish: Gröna förbundet), is a green political party in Finland. ...


Olavi Mäenpää, chairman of the far-right organisation Suomen Kansan Sinivalkoiset (SKS) and a prominent figure in Turku's municipal politics, has provoked some controversy in the local media. In the last municipal elections in 2004, he received more votes than any other candidate in Turku, probably in large part due to protest votes. SKS is, however, a marginal force in the city's administration, having only one seat in the council. Olavi Mäenpää is a Finnish politician and chairman of Suomen Kansan Sinivalkoiset, a far-right political party. ... Far right, extreme right, ultra-right, or radical right are terms used to discuss the qualitative or quantitive position a group or person occupies within a political spectrum. ... Suomen Kansan Sinivalkoiset (Finnish; Finlands Folkets BlÃ¥vita in Swedish, literally the blue-whites of the Finnish people) is a Finnish political party with a far-right nationalist agenda, led by the controvesial political figure Olavi Mäenpää. The party was founded in 1993, but it didnt become a... Demonstrators march in the street while protesting the World Bank and International Monetary Fund on April 16, 2005. ...


Transportation

Satakunnantie leads to the city centre. One of the most significant main routes in Turku.

For a city of its size, Turku has a moderate public transportation network of bus routes though it's not covering nothing but actual area inside city borders when actual city region lacks light rail or similar more efficient connections and is now heavily based on people using their own cars. the Bus network is managed and supervised by the City of Turku Public Transport Office, and is operated mainly by private companies. All the major districts are served by buses every ten to fifteen minutes during the day, some even more frequently. Regional buses are operated by private companies, most importantly TLO, with very frequent services especially to the neighbouring cities of Naantali, Raisio, and Kaarina. A taxi serving as a bus Public transport comprises all transport systems in which the passengers do not travel in their own vehicles. ... Autobus redirects here. ... This article is about light rail systems in general. ... TLO, or Turun linja-autoilijain osakeyhtiö (Finnish for Turku Bus Operators Ltd) is a group of bus companies and the main operator of the regional public transport in the region of Turku, Finland. ...


Rail traffic to and from Turku is handled by the Finnish national carrier, VR. As with most other Finnish cities, railways were an important method of transportation in the first half of the 20th century, but have since seen a sharp fall in popularity. As a result, the number of services has fallen and only the railways towards Tampere and Helsinki are now in use. The railway stations currently used for passenger traffic are the Turku Central railway station in Pohjola, and two smaller stations in Kupittaa and the Port of Turku. For other uses of the word VR, see VR (disambiguation). ... The Turku Central railway station is a railway station in the VII District of Turku, Finland. ... Pohjola on a map of Turku. ... Kupittaa is a district in Turku, Finland. ... The Port of Turku is the oldest port in Finland, and it is mentioned in the Arab geographer Muhammad al-Idrisis 1154 book Kitab Rudjar. ...

Koulukatu, one of main routes that jams on every afternoon and morning due to inadequate public transport.

There is no local rail traffic at the moment, as the city's popular tram services were discontinued in 1972, and the various local railway lines to neighbouring towns and municipalities were all abolished during the late 20th century. However, there are plans for a light rail line in the Turku region in the near future. This system would more ably serve major suburbs of the city such as Varissuo and Runosmäki, as well as the neighbouring cities. This article refers to public transport vehicles running on rails. ... This article is about light rail systems in general. ...


Bus network used today has become highly uneconomical and the ticket prices has been raised repeatedly. Growing expenses and worsening traffic problems are main issues that have put trams back under consideration as well as more privileged bus lines. State of Finland has announced to support Espoo with 30 % of full expenses on new metro rail, Turku is going to use this as an example in case it's going to build new light rail network. Founded 1972 Province Southern Finland Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Area - Of which land - Rank 528 km² 312 km² ranked 279th Population - Density - Change - Rank 229,443 (2005) 729 inh. ...

Turku long distance bus station which is built-up in 1938.

The Turku Bus Station and the Turku Central Railway Station are currently located in different places. City of Turku is planning to combine those two in new greater station complex in near future. This new travel center will consist a hotel and several shopping estates. This center will connect all public transports from commuter train to long distance buses. The Turku Central railway station is a railway station in the VII District of Turku, Finland. ...


Turku Airport is located eight kilometres to the north of the city centre, partly in the neighbouring municipality of Rusko. From there are daily connections to Stockholm, Copenhagen, Gdansk, Mariehamn, Helsinki and Oulu. Turku Airport, (IATA: TKU, ICAO: EFTU), is located some 8 kilometers from Turku, Finland. ... Rusko is a municipality of Finland. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... For alternative meanings of Gdańsk and Danzig, see Gdansk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) Motto: Nec temere, nec timide (Neither rashly nor timidly) Voivodship Pomeranian Municipal government Rada miasta Gdańska Mayor Paweł Adamowicz Area 262 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 461 400 (2003) Ranked 6th 1 035 000 1761/km² Founded... Founded 1861 Province Ã…land Region Ã…land Sub-region Mariehamn Area - Of which land - Rank 11. ... Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - Mayor Jussi Pajunen Area  - Total 187. ... Location of Oulu in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Finland Province Oulu Province Region Northern Ostrobothnia Sub-region Oulu sub-region Charter 1605 Government  - City manager Matti Pennanen Area  - City 449. ...


There are also daily ferry services from the Port of Turku to Sweden and Åland, operated by Silja Line, Viking Line and SeaWind Line. These are something of a Finnish cultural tradition (see ruotsinlaiva), and people often travel long distances across Finland to Turku just to take a cruise across the Gulf of Bothnia. The Port of Turku is the oldest port in Finland, and it is mentioned in the Arab geographer Muhammad al-Idrisis 1154 book Kitab Rudjar. ... “Aland” redirects here. ... Silja Line ships in Helsinki in 2004 Silja Line (Silja Oyj Apb) is a Finnish shipping company owned as of 2006 by the Estonian ferry operator Tallink. ... Viking Line ships (M/S Gabriella & M/S Rosella) in Helsinki, November 2006. ... For the airplane, see Seawind. ... Ruotsin-laiva or ruotsinlaiva (Finnish for ship to Sweden) or Finlandsfärja (Swedish for ship to Finland) is a common name for the large passenger ferries (RORO-type) providing daily transport from the Finnish cities of Helsinki and Turku to the Swedish city of Stockholm and back. ... A cruising sailboat anchored in the San Blas Islands, in Panama. ...


The archipelago sea boat traffic is handled by S/S Ukkopekka. Old steamship cruise Turku-Naantali-Turku. Hiittinen, 25 km west of Hanko Archipelago Sea (Finnish Saaristomeri, Swedish SkärgÃ¥rdshavet) is a part of the Baltic Sea between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, within Finnish territorial waters. ... Finnish steamer S/S Ukkopekka. ... Paddle steamers - Lucerne-Switzerland Left: original paddlewheel from a paddle steamer on the lake of Lucerne. ... Naantali (Swedish Nådendal, Latin Vallis Gratiae - valley of grace), city in south-western Finland, known as the probably most important tourist centre of the country. ...


Turku is the only city in Finland to have three long-distance railway stations: Turku Central, Port of Turku, and Kupittaa. Even Helsinki has only two: Helsinki Central and Pasila. The Turku Central railway station is a railway station in the VII District of Turku, Finland. ... The Port of Turku is the oldest port in Finland, and it is mentioned in the Arab geographer Muhammad al-Idrisis 1154 book Kitab Rudjar. ... Swedish name Kuppis Lines long-distance trains Interchanges bus lines 32, 42, 58, 110 Type bridge station Platforms 1 Lounges 1 Elevators 2 Escalators 2 Kupittaa railway station (Finnish: , Swedish: ) is located in the Kupittaa district of Turku, Finland. ... Swedish name Helsingfors Opened 1862 Passengers per day about 200. ... Pasila railway station is located in northern Helsinki, Finland, approximately 3. ...


People

The Föri, one of Turku's best known landmarks, is a small ferry carrying pedestrians and bicycles across the Aura river.
The Föri, one of Turku's best known landmarks, is a small ferry carrying pedestrians and bicycles across the Aura river.

At the end of 2004 the Turku region (including the economic districts of Turku and Åboland) had a population of 319,632, out of which 174,824 people lived in the city of Turku. The city's population density is 718 inhabitants per square kilometre. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (864x648, 139 KB) Föri of Turku on its way from Ã…bo to Turku. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (864x648, 139 KB) Föri of Turku on its way from Ã…bo to Turku. ... The Aura river (Finnish Aurajoki) is a river in south-western Finland. ... Finland is divided into 82 districts (seutukunnat/ekonomiska regioner in Finnish/Swedish). ...


89.4 % of Turku's population speak Finnish as their native language, while 5.2 % speak Swedish. The next most widely spoken languages are Russian (1.3 %), Arabic (0.6 %), Albanian (0.5 %), and Kurdish (0.4 %). 95.8 % of the population are Finnish citizens, and the most sizeable minorities are from Russia, Estonia, Iraq, and Iran. Like all other Finnish cities, Turku does not collect information about the ethnic and religious makeup of its population. Native Language Music, founded in 1996 by musicians Joe Sherbanee and Theo Bishop, is an independent adult contemporary record company based in Southern California that produces, markets, and distributes premium jazz, world, and new age music. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The Kurdish language (Kurdish: Kurdî or کوردی) is a term used for a range of different dialects of a language spoken by Kurds. ... Citizenship in Finland can be obtained on the basis of birth, marriage of parents, adoption, or the place of birth. ...


Throughout its history, Turku has always welcomed new influences: it was through Turku that the Swedish crown entered what is today known as Finland. In the Middle Ages, it hosted German merchants, while engaging in trade with the Hanseatic League. Even today, the city has retained its tendency towards hospitality – it has a higher proportion of immigrants than any other Finnish city. Recently, however, the increased numbers of immigrants, particularly in the city's eastern suburbs, has led to the outbreak of some xenophobic sentiment (as shown by the growing support for the nationalist Suomen Kansan Sinivalkoiset party), but ethnically motivated crimes are rare in Turku. Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ... Look up xenophobia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Suomen Kansan Sinivalkoiset (Finnish; Finlands Folkets BlÃ¥vita in Swedish, literally the blue-whites of the Finnish people) is a Finnish political party with a far-right nationalist agenda, led by the controvesial political figure Olavi Mäenpää. The party was founded in 1993, but it didnt become a...


Famous people from the city of Turku include Paavo Nurmi, Mauno Koivisto, Saku Koivu and the 18th century botanist, Herman Spöring. The Turku region has also brought forth many prominent personalities, including the marshal, Carl Gustaf Mannerheim. Paavo Johannes Nurmi ( ) (June 13, 1897 Turku – October 2, 1973 Helsinki) was a Finnish runner. ... Dr. Mauno Henrik Koivisto [IPA: mÉ‘uno henrik koiÊ‹isto] (born November 25, 1923) was the President of Finland from 1982 to 1994. ... Saku Antero Koivu (born November 23, 1974 in Turku, Finland) is a professional ice hockey player, and currently plays centre for the Montreal Canadiens as the current team captain. ... Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Dr. Herman Diedrich Spöring Jr. ... Marshal (also sometimes spelled marshall in American English, but not in British English) is a word used in several official titles of various branches of society. ... This article is about the Finnish statesman and Commander-in-Chief. ...


Economy

Business district in Kupittaa
Business district in Kupittaa

Turku is the central economic hub of southwestern Finland, and the capital of the Turku economic district. As of 2003, the district's per capita income was €24,022, higher than the national average of €23,780. Business district in The city's economy is centred around the Port of Turku and other service-oriented industries. 86 per cent of the city's workforce are employed in the services sector. The city is also a renowned high-tech centre – the Turku Science Park area in Kupittaa hosts over 300 companies from the fields of biotechnology and information technology, as well as several institutions of higher learning that work in closely with the business sector. One of the examples of high information technology in Turku area is OpenSpark Finlands largest WiFi community which Turku also uses. This cooperative element is seen as a particularly important factor with regards to the city's expected future economic development, as outlined in the Turku Strategy that is published annually by the city council. Kupittaa is a district in Turku, Finland. ... Finland is divided into 82 districts (seutukunnat/ekonomiska regioner in Finnish/Swedish). ... Per capita income means how much each individual receives, in monetary terms, of the yearly income generated in their country. ... The workforce is the labour pool in employment. ... The tertiary sector of industry (also known as the service sector or the service industry) is one of the three main industrial categories of a developed economy, the others being the secondary industry (manufacturing), and primary industry (extraction such as mining, agriculture and fishing). ... High tech refers to technology that is at the cutting-edge—the most advanced technology currently available. ... Turku Science Park is a community of businesses and educational establishments in the city of Turku, Finland. ... Insulin crystals Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information Technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ...

Some of many office buildings in Kupittaa – from left to right: ICT-Building, EuroCity and Intelligate
Some of many office buildings in Kupittaa – from left to right: ICT-Building, EuroCity and Intelligate

Turku, with its good transportation network and close proximity to the Archipelago Sea, is also an important centre for tourism, frequently hosting various conventions and exhibitions. Kupittaa is a district in Turku, Finland. ... Turku Science Park is a community of businesses and educational establishments in the city of Turku, Finland. ... Turku Science Park is a community of businesses and educational establishments in the city of Turku, Finland. ... Turku Science Park is a community of businesses and educational establishments in the city of Turku, Finland. ... Hiittinen, 25 km west of Hanko Archipelago Sea (Finnish Saaristomeri, Swedish Skärgårdshavet) is a part of the Baltic Sea between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, within Finnish territorial waters. ...


As of 2007, the city's unemployment rate is 8.8 %, one of the lowest amongst the ten biggest cities in Finland. The problem of unemployment is particularly troublesome in the districts of Pansio, Lauste, and Varissuo, where it hovers at around 16 %. CIA figures for world unemployment rates, 2006 Unemployment is the state in which a person is without work, available to work, and is currently seeking work. ... Pansio is a district and a suburb of the city of Turku, Finland. ... Lauste (Finnish; Laustis in Swedish) is a district and a suburb of the city of Turku, Finland. ...


The city collects an 18 per cent income tax (council tax) from its inhabitants, in addition to the progressively graduated taxation practised by the Finnish state. The total amount received through council tax in 2004 was projected at €400 million, a reduction of 1.0 per cent from the previous year. Taxes collected from corporations amounted to €39 million in 2004. Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        An income tax is a tax levied on the financial income... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Gold standard Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Policy-mix Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Regulation Banking Fractional-reserve Full-reserve   Free banking Islamic... For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ...


See also: Economy of Finland Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free-market economy, based on abundant forest resources, capital investments, and technology. ...


Education

The main building of the University of Turku.
The main building of the University of Turku.

Turku has a longer educational history than any other Finnish city – the first school in the city, the Cathedral School, was founded along with the Cathedral of Turku in the late 13th century. The first university in Finland, the "The Royal Academy of Turku" (now University of Helsinki), was established in the city in 1640. In 1820, the first school in Finland, conforming to the Bell-Lancaster method, was founded in Turku with the aim of making primary education more inclusive to the lower classes. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (864x648, 103 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Turku ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (864x648, 103 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Turku ... The University of Turku (Finnish Turun yliopisto, Swedish Ã…bo universitet), located in Turku in southwestern Finland, is the second largest university in the country as measured by student enrolment. ... Logo depicting the school building Katedralskolan i Ã…bo (The Cathedral School of Ã…bo) is a Swedish-language senior high school located in the city of Turku (known in Swedish as Ã…bo) in Finland. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ... The Royal Academy of Turku (Fi: Turun akatemia), (Sv: Ã…bo Kungliga Akademi), was the name of the University of Helsinki until 1809, when it was renamed the Imperial Academy of Turku. ... University of Helsinki is not to be confused with Helsinki University of Technology. ... The Bell-Lancaster method, named after the British educators Dr Andrew Bell and Joseph Lancaster who both independently developed it, was an education method that became popular at a global scale during the early 19th century. ...


Nowadays, the University of Turku is the second largest university in Finland (18,000 students), as measured by student enrolment, and one of the oldest as well, having been founded in 1920. Turku is also home to several other establishments of higher education, namely Åbo Akademi, Finland's only Swedish-language university, Turun kauppakorkeakoulu (Turku School of Economics), and Turun ammattikorkeakoulu (Turku University of Applied Sciences) which is second largest polytechnic in Finland after Metropolia University of Applied Sciences. The University of Turku (Finnish Turun yliopisto, Swedish Ã…bo universitet), located in Turku in southwestern Finland, is the second largest university in the country as measured by student enrolment. ... The Ã…bo Akademi University is a Swedish language university, founded in 1918 in Turku (Ã…bo in Swedish), Finland. ... Turku School of Economics (1999) The Turku School of Economics (Finnish Turun kauppakorkeakoulu) is a university specialising in economic and business sciences located in Turku, Finland. ... Turku University of Applied Sciences (Finnish Turun ammattikorkeakoulu) is a Finnish institute of technology (Ammattikorkeakoulu) located in the city of Turku, in the region of Finland Proper. ... The term polytechnic, from the Greek πολύ polú meaning many and τεχνικός tekhnikós meaning arts, is commonly used in many countries to describe an institution that delivers vocational or technical education and training, other countries do not use the term and use alternative terminology. ...


The central hospital of Turku, Turku University Hospital, is affiliated with the University and it is used as a teaching hospital. TYKS or Turun yliopistollinen keskussairaala (Finnish for University of Turku Central Hospital) is a hospital in Turku, Finland, administered by the University of Turku. ...


Turku is one of only two cities in Finland to have an established international school (the other city being Helsinki). Turku International School, functioning in the eastern district of Varissuo, has been operational since 2003. International schools are private schools that cater mainly to children who are not nationals of the host country, often the children of the staff of international businesses, international organizations, embassies, missions, or missionary programs. ... Turku International School is an international school in Turku, Finland. ... Varissuo is the largest suburb of the city of Turku, in Finland. ...


Media

The most widely read newspaper in Turku, and the area around it, is the daily regional morning newspaper Turun Sanomat, with a readership of over 70 % of the population every day. The free-of-charge Turkulainen newspaper is also among the most popular newspapers, together with the local edition of Metro International and the national evening tabloid Ilta-Sanomat. There are also a number of local newspapers such as Kulmakunta (for the eastern suburbs of Turku, including Varissuo and Lauste), and Rannikkoseutu (for the area around the neighbouring cities of Raisio and Naantali). Åbo Underrättelser, a Swedish language newspaper published in Turku, is the oldest newspaper in Finland, having been published since 1824. This is a list of Finnish newspapers with respective city of publication: // Morning newspapers Aamulehti (Tampere) Demari (Helsinki) Etelä-Suomen Sanomat (Lahti) Helsingin Sanomat (Helsinki) Hämeen Sanomat (Hämeenlinna) Ilkka (Seinäjoki) Itä-Häme (Heinola) Kaleva (Oulu) Kansan Uutiset (Helsinki) Karjalainen (Joensuu) Kauppalehti (Helsinki) Keskipohjanmaa (Kokkola) Keskisuomalainen (Jyv... Turun Sanomat is the leading regional newspaper of the region of Finland Proper. ... Metro International is a Swedish media company based in Luxembourg that publishes the Metro newspapers. ... This article is about the newspaper size. ... Ilta-Sanomat is a tabloid which is the second largest newspaper in Finland. ... Ã…bo Underrättelser is the oldest newspaper still being published in Finland. ...


The newspaper, Turun Sanomat, also operates a regional television station, called Turku TV. The Finnish national broadcaster, Yleisradio, screens local news, daily from Monday to Friday, for the Southwest Finland (including the regions of Finland Proper and Satakunta) residents. All Finnish national TV channels are viewable in the Turku area. In addition, a number of local radio stations, eg Auran Aallot and Radio Sata are operational. YLE (Yleisradio in Finnish, Rundradion in Swedish), Finlands National Broadcasting Company, was founded in 1926. ... The Region of Finland Proper is a region (maakunta / landskap) of Finland. ... Satakunta is a region (maakunta / landskap) of Finland. ... This is a list of television channels broadcasting to Finnish- and Swedish-language audiences in Finland. ...


Culture

Medieval Market of Turku is an annual event organised in the historic city centre.
Medieval Market of Turku is an annual event organised in the historic city centre.

Cultural venues in Turku include several theatres, cinemas, and art galleries, and a city philharmonic orchestra. The city's cultural centre organises a number of regular events, most notably the Medieval Market in July each year. Turku is also the official Christmas city of Finland, and 'Christmas Peace' in Finland is declared on every 24 December at the Cathedral of Turku. The Turku Music Festival and the rock festival Ruisrock (held on the island of Ruissalo) are among the oldest of its kind in Scandinavia. The city also hosts another rock festival, Down by the Laituri, and one of the largest electronic music festivals in Northern Europe, UMF [2] (Uuden Musiikin Festivaali, "New Music Festival"), in addition to a vibrant nightlife. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Medieval Market of Turku (Finnish: Turun keskiaikaiset markkinat) is an annual event organised in the historic city centre of Turku, Finland. ... The culture of Finland combines indigenous heritage, as represented by the countrys rare Finno-Ugric national language, Finnish, the sauna, and the traditional idea of self-suffiency with common Nordic and European culture. ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. ... For other uses, see Orchestra (disambiguation). ... The Medieval Market of Turku (Finnish: Turun keskiaikaiset markkinat) is an annual event organised in the historic city centre of Turku, Finland. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cathedral of Turku The Cathedral of Turku is a Evangelical Lutheran cathedral in Turku, Finland. ... A rock festival, or a rock fest, is a large-scale outdoor rock music concert, featuring multiple acts, often spread out over several days. ... Ruisrock is a rock festival held annually on the island of Ruissalo in Turku, Finland. ... Ruissalo on a map of Turku. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... Down By The Laituri (often shortened to DBTL) is a rock festival organised annually in the city of Turku, Finland. ...

The Turku Concert Hall, designed by architect Risto-Veikko Luukkonen, completed in 1952
The Turku Concert Hall, designed by architect Risto-Veikko Luukkonen, completed in 1952

There are also numerous museums, such as the Turku Art Museum and the Wäinö Aaltonen Museum of Art. The Åbo Akademi University maintains the Sibelius museum, which is the only museum in Finland specialising in the field of music. Apart from these, there are also several historical museums that display the city's medieval period, such as the Turku Castle, which has been a functional historical museum since 1881, and the Aboa Vetus museum, built in the late 1990s over the 14th century archaeological site. The Luostarinmäki handicrafts museum, converted from residential buildings that survived the Great Fire of Turku in 1827, was the first Scandinavian venue to receive the "Golden Apple" tourism award. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... For other uses, see Museum (disambiguation). ... The Medieval keep of Turku Castle viewed from west Exterior of Castle Bailey, viewed from south The Turku Castle, (Finnish: Turun linna, Swedish: Ã…bo slott) dating from the 1280s, is a monument of Finnish history. ... Aboa Vetus and Ars Nova are a pair of museums in central Turku, Finland. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... Handicraft, also known as craftwork or simply craft, is a type of work where useful and decorative devices are made completely by hand or using only simple tools. ... The Cathedral and the Academy building after the fire The Great Fire of Turku almost completely destroyed the city of Turku in 1827. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ...


Turku is a candidate city for European Capital of Culture in 2011, and the city council has approved numerous projects to boost the city's image in preparation for that status. The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by the European Union for a period of one year during which it is given a chance to showcase its cultural life and cultural development. ...


Declaration of Christmas Peace

The Cathedral of Turku, one of the most notable historical buildings in Finland.
The Cathedral of Turku, one of the most notable historical buildings in Finland.

The Declaration of Christmas Peace has been a tradition in Finland from the Middle Ages every year, except in 1939 due to the Winter War. The declaration takes place on the Old Great Square of Turku, Finland's official 'Christmas City', at noon on Christmas eve. It is broadcast in Finnish radio (since 1935) and television, and nowadays also in some foreign countries. Download high resolution version (1200x974, 222 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1200x974, 222 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Cathedral of Turku The Cathedral of Turku is a Evangelical Lutheran cathedral in Turku, Finland. ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Strength 250,000 men 30 tanks 130 aircraft[1][2] 1,000,000 men 6,541 tanks [3] 3,800 aircraft[4][5] Casualties 26,662 dead 39,886 wounded 1,000 captured[6] 126,875 dead...


The declaration ceremony begins with the hymn Jumala ompi linnamme (Martin Luther's Ein' feste Burg ist unser Gott) and continues with the Declaration of Christmas Peace read from a parchment roll in Finnish and Swedish: Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Rare early printing of A Mighty Fortress. ... German parchmenter, 1568 Parchment is a material for the pages of a book or codex, made from fine calf skin, sheep skin or goat skin. ...


"Tomorrow, God willing, is the graceful celebration of the birth of our Lord and Saviour; and thus is declared a peaceful Christmas time to all, by advising devotion and to behave otherwise quietly and peacefully, because he who breaks this peace and violates the peace of Christmas by any illegal or improper behaviour shall under aggravating circumstances be guilty and punished according to what the law and statutes prescribe for each and every offence separately. Finally, a joyous Christmas feast is wished to all inhabitants of the city."


Sports

Veritas Stadion is situated in the district of Kupittaa, in an area dedicated to sporting venues.
Veritas Stadion is situated in the district of Kupittaa, in an area dedicated to sporting venues.

Ice hockey is very popular in Turku even though not as culturally significant than in most Finnish cities. The local club TPS(which is part of the same organisation as the football team) plays in the sport's top level in Finland, the SM-liiga. It is based at Turkuhalli to the southwest of the city centre. TPS has won the Finnish ice hockey championship ten times. The city's other major ice hockey team is TuTo, which play at the country's second level. A new ice hockey arena was constructed for Tuto in the Kupittaa park in 2006. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Veritas Stadion is a football (soccer) stadium in Turku, Finland. ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... TPS is an ice hockey team in the SM-liiga. ... logo of SM-liiga SM-liiga is the top professional ice hockey league in Finland. ... TuTo are a Finnish ice hockey team based at Kupittaan jäähalli (capacity 5500), Turku. ...


Turku is the birthplace to a number of prominent National Hockey League players including Saku Koivu, Mikko Koivu, Miikka Kiprusoff, Sami Salo, Aki-Petteri Berg, Petteri Nummelin and Antero Niittymäki. NHL redirects here. ... Saku Antero Koivu (born November 23, 1974 in Turku, Finland) is a professional ice hockey player, and currently plays centre for the Montreal Canadiens as the current team captain. ... Mikko Koivu (born March 12, 1983 in Turku) is a Finnish professional ice hockey forward and the brother of Canadiens forward Saku Koivu. ... Miikka Kipper Sakari Kiprusoff (born October 26, 1976 in Turku, Finland) is a professional hockey goaltender, currently playing for the Calgary Flames. ... Sami Salo Sami Salo (born September 2, 1974, in Turku, Finland) is a Finnish professional ice hockey defenseman. ... Aki Berg Aki-Petteri Berg (born July 28, 1977 in Turku, Finland) is a Finnish professional hockey defenceman. ... Petteri Nummelin (born November 25, 1972 in Turku, Finland) is a Finnish professional ice hockey defenseman. ... Antero Niittymäki ( in IPA) (born June 18, 1980 in Turku, Finland) is a professional ice hockey goaltender currently with the Philadelphia Flyers. ...


Football is nowadays the most popular sport in Turku. The city has two teams in the Veikkausliiga: FC Inter and TPS. Both teams play their home matches at the modern Veritas Stadion in the district of Kupittaa. Every time these two home teams face each others the stadium is full of fans and tension. Kupittaa is probably the first place in Finland where Football has been played[3]. Soccer redirects here. ... Veikkausliiga is the premier division of Finnish football, comprising the top 14 clubs of the country (season 2006 was played exceptionally with 13 teams because of the AC Allianssi-bankrupt). ... Football Club International Turku (commonly known as FC Inter or Inter Turku) is a football club based in Turku, Finland. ... Turun Palloseura (or TPS) is a Finnish football club, based in the town of Turku. ... Veritas Stadion is a football (soccer) stadium in Turku, Finland. ... Kupittaa is a district in Turku, Finland. ...


The Paavo Nurmi Marathon is an annual sporting event in Turku, named after the world-famous runner who was born and raised in the city. Paavo Johannes Nurmi ( ) (June 13, 1897 Turku – October 2, 1973 Helsinki) was a Finnish runner. ... Modern day marathon runners The word marathon refers to a long-distance road running event of 42. ...


Turku has also been the site of sporting history, as on June 21, 1954 it was in Turku where the Australian John Landy became the second person to run the mile under four minutes. is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... John Landy in 1985. ...


Sister cities

Also: Sign denoting twin towns of Neckarsulm, Germany Town twinning is a concept whereby towns or cities in geographically and politically distinct areas are paired with the goal of fostering human contact and cultural links. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... For other uses, see Gothenburg (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... For the Aarhus convention on public participation, see Aarhus Convention. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... County District Midhordland Municipality NO-1201 Administrative centre Bergen Mayor (2007) Gunnar Bakke (Frp) Official language form Neutral[1] Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 215 465 km² 445 km² 0. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... For alternative meanings of GdaÅ„sk and Danzig, see GdaÅ„sk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) Motto: Nec temere, nec timide (No rashness, no timidness) Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina GdaÅ„sk Established 10th century City Rights 1263 Government  - Mayor PaweÅ‚ Adamowicz Area  - City 262 km²  (101. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Motto: Within your walls be concordance and public welfare Rostock (pronounced // from Polabian Roz toc, literally to flow apart) is the largest city in the north German state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. ... “East Germany” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... This article is about the city in Bulgaria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... County ConstanÅ£a Mayor Radu Åžtefan Mazăre Area 124. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Cologne (German: , IPA: ; local dialect: Kölle ) is Germanys fourth-largest city after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich, and is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than... The Federal Republic of Germany can refer to two things: West Germany from 1949-1990 Germany since German reunification in 1990 ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... Szeged and the Tisza river. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovakia. ... , Nickname: Beauty on the Danube Country  Slovakia Region Districts Rivers Elevation 134 m (440 ft) Coordinates , Highest point Devínska Kobyla  - elevation 514 m (1,686 ft) Lowest point Danube River  - elevation 126 m (413 ft) Area 367. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Florence (or Firenze, Florentia and Fiorenza) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany, and of the province of Florence. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ...   (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of China. ...

Image File history File links Flag_of_Estonia. ... County Area 38. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Estonia. ... County Area 159. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Estonia. ... County Saare County Mayor Urmas Treiel Area 14. ...

Gallery

References

  1. ^ www.turku.fi » turku.fi » Turku.info » Statistical information
  2. ^ 2.2.2 Biotekniikka-alalla syntyy uutta yritystoimintaa
  3. ^ 2.2.3 ICT-sektori keskittynyt Turun ja Salon ympäristöön
  4. ^ Aki Pihlman (2006-09-13). Varhainen Turku rakennettiin pellolle (Finnish). Retrieved on 2008-05-06.
  • The city's official website at http://www.turku.fi/.
  • The website of the tourist organisation Turku TouRing at http://www.turkutouring.fi/.
  • Turku from the Finnish-language Wikipedia. Retrieved 11 August 2005.
  • Kuntaliitto (2005). Aluetietopankki. Retrieved 13 January 2006.
  • Turun kaupungin viestintäkeskus (2005). Kunnalliskertomus 2004. Retrieved 11 August 2005.
  • Turun kaupunki (2005). Turun kaupungin tilastollinen vuosikirja. Retrieved 11 August 2005.
  • Turun kaupunginvaltuusto (2004). Talousarvio 2005. Retrieved 21 August 2005.
  • Turun Sanomat (2004). Tutkimus: lehtien lukijapeitot. Retrieved 21 August 2005.
  • Anttonen, Martti (ed) (1992). Täällä Suomen synnyinmuistot. Jyväskylä: Varsinais-Suomen maakuntaliitto.
  • Knuuti, Heikki et al (1986). Kotikaupunkini Suomen Turku. Keuruu: Otava Publishing.
  • Virmavirta, Jarmo (2004). Finland's City of Turku. Keuruu: Otava Publishing.
  • Turku at EuroWeather.
  • Turun kaupunki (2007). Muutoksen suunnat 3/2007. Retrieved 27 September 2007.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Turku
  • Turku - Official site
  • Turku - Finland's official Christmas City
  • Turku travel guide from Wikitravel
  • Turku TouRing - A tourist organisation for the Turku region.
  • Map of Turku
  • Turku Archipelago - "The world's most beautiful archipelago"
  • Local weather in Turku from the Finnish Meteorological Institute.
  • Turun Sanomat - The city's most widely read newspaper
  • Turku Science Park
  • Unikankare - A culture webzine based in Turku
  • Steamship s/s Ukkopekka - Cruise Turku-Naantali-Turku
  • Taloforum - Photos and discussion about Turku


Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ... An online magazine is a magazine that is delivered in an electronic form. ...

  Municipalities of Finland Proper Coat of arms of Southwest Finland
Alastaro | Askainen | Aura | Dragsfjärd | Halikko | Houtskär | Iniö | Kaarina | Karinainen | Kiikala | Kimito | Kisko | Korpo | Koski | Kustavi | Kuusjoki | Laitila | Lemu | Lieto | Loimaa | Loimaan kunta | Marttila | Masku | Mellilä | Merimasku | Mietoinen | Muurla | Mynämäki | Naantali | Nagu | Nousiainen | Oripää | Paimio | Pargas | Perniö | Pertteli | Piikkiö | Pyhäranta | Pöytyä | Raisio | Rusko | Rymättylä | Salo | Sauvo | Somero | Suomusjärvi | Särkisalo | Taivassalo | Tarvasjoki | Turku | Uusikaupunki | Vahto | Vehmaa | Velkua | Västanfjärd | Yläne
Southwest Finland | Western Finland | Finland

  Results from FactBites:
 
Turku travel guide - Wikitravel (3046 words)
Turku (Swedish: Åbo) [1] is a city in the Southwest of Finland.
Turku has approximately 175 000 inhabitants, and was the most important city in Finland until 1812, when the Russians moved the capital to Helsinki (closer to Russia and further from Sweden).
Turku remained Finland's main city for a while after, but its ambitions were dealt a death blow in 1827, when a raging fire destroyed most of the city.
Turku (233 words)
Turku, or Åbo in Swedish, is a city in Finland, founded in 1229.
Turku Castle was founded in the 13th century, built on an island to guard the entrance to the river.
Turku held was the site of the Academy of Åbo from 1640 until 1850 when, after a disastrous fire, it was moved tothe new capital, Helsinki.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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