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Encyclopedia > Turkmenistan
Türkmenistan
Turkmenistan
Flag of Turkmenistan
Flag Coat of arms
AnthemIndependent, Neutral, Turkmenistan State Anthem
Capital
(and largest city)
Ashgabat
37°58′N, 58°20′E
Official languages Turkmen
Recognised regional languages Russian, Uzbek, Dari
Demonym Turkmen
Government Single-party state
 -  President Gurbanguly Berdimuhammedov
Independence from the Soviet Union 
 -  Declared October 27, 1991 
 -  Recognized December 8, 1991 
Area
 -  Total 488,100 km² (52nd)
188,456 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 4.9
Population
 -  December 2006 estimate 5,110,023 (113th)
 -  Density 9.9/km² (208th)
25.6/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2006 estimate
 -  Total $45.11 billion (86th)
 -  Per capita $8,900 (95th)
HDI (2007) 0.712 (medium) (109th)
Currency Turkmen Manat (TMM)
Time zone TMT (UTC+5)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+5)
Internet TLD .tm
Calling code +993

Turkmenistan (Turkmen: Türkmenistan; also known as Turkmenia) is a Turkic country in Central Asia. The name Turkmenistan is derived from Persian, meaning "land of the Turkmen". The name of its capital, Ashgabat, derived from Persian as well, loosely translating as "the city of love". Until 1991, it was a constituent republic of the Soviet Union, the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic. It is bordered by Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the southwest, Uzbekistan to the northeast, Kazakhstan to the northwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west. According to CIA World Factbook 2006 figures, Turkmenistan ranks 5th in the world for GDP growth rate. Although it is wealthy in natural resources in certain areas, most of the country is covered by the Karakum (Black Sands) Desert. It has a single-party system, and was ruled by President for Life Saparmurat Niyazov until 21 December 2006, when he died. Presidential elections were held on 11 February 2007. Gurbanguly Berdimuhammedow was declared the winner with 89% of the vote. He was sworn in on 14 February 2007. Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkmenistan. ... Image File history File links Turkmenistan_coa. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 The flag of Turkmenistan was adopted on January 24, 2001. ... starburst shaped variant of the Turkmen arms In addition, there is a starburst shaped variant of the Turkmen arms, more commonly used within the former Soviet Union. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Independent, Neutral, Turkmenistan State Anthem is the title of the national anthem of Turkmenistan. ... Image File history File links LocationTurkmenistan. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat (Turkmen: ; Persian: , UniPers: EÅ¡q-âbâd; Russian: - Ashkhabád) also spelled as Ashgabat, Ashkabat, Ashkhabad, Ashgabad, is the capital city of Turkmenistan, a former Soviet republic. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a country, be it may be a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area. ... Dari (Persian: ) is the official name for the Persian language spoken in Afghanistan[1] and is a synonymous term for Parsi]. // There are different opinions about the origin of the word Dari. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... A single-party state or one-party system or single-party system is a type of party system government in which a single political party forms the government and no other parties are permitted to run candidates for election. ... Politics of Turkmenistan take place in the framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of Turkmenistan is both head of state and head of government. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... The manat is the currency unit of Turkmenistan. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... For other meanings, see TM .tm is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Turkmenistan. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... This is the disambiguation page for the terms Turk, Turkey, Turkic, and Turkish. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Farsi redirects here. ... AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat (Turkmen: ; Persian: , UniPers: EÅ¡q-âbâd; Russian: - Ashkhabád) also spelled as Ashgabat, Ashkabat, Ashkhabad, Ashgabad, is the capital city of Turkmenistan, a former Soviet republic. ... State motto: Turkmen: Әхли юртларың пролетарлары, бирлешиң! Ökhli yurtlaryn proletalary, birlishin Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Ashgabat Official language Turkmen and Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until August 7, 1921 May 30, 1925 October 27, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 4th in the USSR 488,100 km² 4. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... The Karakum Desert, also spelled Kara-Kum and Gara Gum (“Black Sand”) (Turkmen: Garagum, Russian: Каракумы) is a desert in Central Asia. ... A single-party state or one-party system or single-party system is a type of party system government in which a single political party forms the government and no other parties are permitted to run candidates for election. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Saparmyrat Ataýewiç Nyýazow (February 19, 1940, Gypjak, Turkmen SSR, Soviet Union – 21 December 2006), also commonly known by the romanization Saparmurat Atayevich Niyazov of the Russian spelling Сапармурат Атаевич Ниязов of his Turkmen name, served as the head of state of Turkmenistan from 1985 until his death in 2006. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Gurbanguly Mälikgulyýewiç Berdimuhammedow (Russianized name: Курбанкули (or Гурбангулы) Мяликгулыевич Бердымухаммедов[1], born 1957) has been the President of Turkmenistan since December 21, 2006, when he became acting president following the death of Saparmurat Niyazov. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Turkmenistan

Originally known as Maxistan after their great leader, the territory of Turkmenistan has a long and checkered history, as armies from one empire after another decamped there on their way to more prosperous territories. The region's written history begins with its conquest by the Achaemenid Empire of ancient Persia, as the region was divided between the satrapies of Margiana, Khwarezm, and Parthia. The territory of Turkmenistan has been populated since ancient times, as armies from one empire to another decamped on their way to more prosperous territories. ... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ... Persia is the historical and alternative name for the state of Iran in the European languages. ... Satrap (Greek σατράπης satrápēs, from Old Persian xšaθrapā(van), i. ... Margu (Greek Margiana) was a satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire, mentioned in the Behistun inscriptions of ca. ... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      Khwarezm was a series of states centered on the Amu Darya river delta of the former Aral Sea, in modern Uzbekistan, extending across the Ust-Urt plateau and possibly as far west as... Parthia at its greatest extent under Mithridates II (123–88 BC) Capital Ctesiphon, Ecbatana Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Parthia, 247 BC]] History  - Established 247 BC  - Disestablished 220 AD Parthian votive relief. ...


Alexander the Great conquered the territory in the fourth century BCE on his way to South Asia, around the time that the Silk Road was established as a major trading route between Asia and the Mediterranean Region. One hundred and fifty years later, Persia's Parthian Kingdom established its capital in Nisa, now in the suburbs of the capital, Ashgabat. In the seventh century CE, Arabs conquered this region, bringing with them Islam and incorporating the Turkmen into Middle Eastern culture. The Turkmenistan region soon came to be known as the capital of Greater Khorasan, when the caliph Al-Ma'mun moved his capital to Merv. For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... BCE is a TLA that may stand for: Before the Common Era, date notation equivalent to BC (e. ... Map of South Asia (see note on Kashmir). ... For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Reproduction of a Parthian warrior as depicted on Trajans Column The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Origins Bust of Parthian soldier, Esgh-abad Museum, Turkmenia. ... CE is an abbreviation which can have the following meanings: Capillary electrophoresis the CE mark is a stylized CE placed on products to signify conformance with European Union regulations. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Friday Mosque in Herat, Afghanistan, a city which was known in the past as the Pearl of Khorasan. ... Abu Jafar al-Mamun ibn Harun (also spelled Almanon and el-Mâmoûn) (786 – October 10, 833) (المأمون) was an Abbasid caliph who reigned from 813 until his death in 833. ... Merv (Russian: Мерв, from Persian: مرو, Marv, sometimes transliterated Marw or Mary; cf. ...

Magtymguly Pyragy (imaginary portrait)
Magtymguly Pyragy (imaginary portrait)

In the middle of the eleventh century, the Turkoman-ruled Seljuk Empire concentrated its strength in the territory of modern Turkmenistan in an attempt to expand into Khorasan (modern Afghanistan). The empire broke down in the second half of the twelfth century, and the Turkmen lost their independence when Genghis Khan took control of the eastern Caspian Sea region on his march west. For the next seven centuries, the Turkmen people lived under various empires and fought constant intertribal wars. Little is documented of Turkmen history prior to Russian engagement. However, from the thirteenth to the sixteenth centuries, Turkmen formed a distinct ethnolinguistic group. As the Turkmen migrated from the area around the Mangyshlak Peninsula in contemporary Kazakhstan toward the Iranian border region and the Amu Darya basin, tribal Turkmen society further developed cultural traditions that would become the foundation of Turkmen national consciousness. Image File history File links Magtimguli_Pyragy. ... Image File history File links Magtimguli_Pyragy. ... A Seljuk Prince. ... This article is about dynasty which ruled the political entity known as Great Seljuq Empire. ... Friday Mosque in Herat, Afghanistan, a city which was known in the past as the Pearl of Khorasan. ... This article is about the person. ... Mangyshlak or Mangghyshlaq Peninsula is located in western Kazakhstan. ... The Amu Darya (Darya means river) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large delta. ...


Between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries, control of Turkmenistan was fought over by Persian shahs, Khiva khans, the emirs of Bukhara and the rulers of Afghanistan. During this period, Turkmen spiritual leader Magtymguly Pyragy reached prominence with his efforts to secure independence and autonomy for his people. At this time, the vast territory of Central Asia including the region of Turkmenistan was largely unmapped and virtually unknown to Europe and the Western world. Rivalry for control of the area between the British Empire and Tsarist Russia was characterised as The Great Game. Throughout their conquest of Central Asia, the Russians were met with the stiffest resistance by the Turkmen. By 1894, however, Russia had gained control of Turkmenistan and incorporated it into its empire. The rivalry officially concluded with the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907. Slowly, Russian and European cultures were introduced to the area. This was evident in the architecture of the newly-formed city of Ashgabat, which became the capital. The October Revolution of 1917 in Russia and subsequent political unrest led to the declaration of the area as the Turkmen SSR, one of the six republics of the Soviet Union in 1924, assuming the borders of modern Turkmenistan. The Emirate of Bukhara (1747-1920) was a state in Central Asia, with its capital in Bukhara and was a Russian protectorate from 1868. ... Magtymguly Pyragy (in Persian: مختومقلی فراغی Makhtumqoli Faraghi)(in Turkmen language: Magtymguly Pragy) (1733-1783) was a Turkmen spiritual leader and philosophical poet whose efforts to secure independence and autonomy for his people in the 18th century figured prominently in the Ruhnama. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Occident redirects here. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Central Asia, circa 1848. ... The blue areas were to be Russian controlled, while the southeast pink region was to be British. ... AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat (Turkmen: ; Persian: , UniPers: EÅ¡q-âbâd; Russian: - Ashkhabád) also spelled as Ashgabat, Ashkabat, Ashkhabad, Ashgabad, is the capital city of Turkmenistan, a former Soviet republic. ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... State motto: Turkmen: Әхли юртларың пролетарлары, бирлешиң! Ökhli yurtlaryn proletalary, birlishin Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Ashgabat Official language Turkmen and Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until August 7, 1921 May 30, 1925 October 27, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 4th in the USSR 488,100 km² 4. ... Soviet Union administrative divisions, 1989 In its final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR), often called simply Soviet republics. ...


The new Turkmen SSR went through a process of further Europeanization. The tribal Turkmen people were encouraged to become secular and adopt European-style clothing. The Turkmen alphabet was changed from the traditional Arabic script to Latin and finally to Cyrillic. However, bringing the Turkmens to abandon their previous nomadic ways in favor of communism was not fully embraced until as late as 1948. Nationalist organizations in the region also existed during the 1920s and the 1930s. Europeanisation (or Europeanization) refers to a number of related phenomena and patterns of change. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first letters) is an alphabet used to write six natural Slavic languages (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ...


When the Soviet Union began to collapse, Turkmenistan and the rest of the Central Asian states heavily favored maintaining a reformed version of the state, mainly because they needed the economic power and common markets of the Soviet Union to prosper. Turkmenistan declared independence on October 27, 1991,[1] one of the last republics to secede. Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ...


In 1991, Turkmenistan became a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, an international organization of former Soviet republics. However, Turkmenistan reduced its status in the organization to "associate member" in August 2005. The reason stated by the Turkmen president was the country's policy of permanent neutrality[2]. It is the only former Soviet state (aside from the Baltic states now in the European Union) without a full membership.  Member state  Associate member Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Working language Russian Type Commonwealth Membership 11 member states 1 associate member Leaders  -  Executive Secretary Sergei Lebedev Establishment December 21, 1991 Website http://cis. ...


The former Soviet leader, Saparmurat Niyazov, remained in power as Turkmenistan's leader after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Under his post-Soviet rule, Russian-Turkmeni relations greatly suffered.[citation needed] He styled himself as a promoter of traditional Muslim and Turkmen culture (calling himself "Turkmenbashi", or "leader of the Turkmen people"), but he quickly became notorious in the West for his dictatorial rule and extravagant cult of personality. The extent of his power was greatly increased during the early 1990s, and in 1999, he became President for Life. Saparmyrat Ataýewiç Nyýazow (February 19, 1940, Gypjak, Turkmen SSR, Soviet Union – 21 December 2006), also commonly known by the romanization Saparmurat Atayevich Niyazov of the Russian spelling Сапармурат Атаевич Ниязов of his Turkmen name, served as the head of state of Turkmenistan from 1985 until his death in 2006. ... The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ... For other uses, see Tradition (disambiguation). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... A cult of personality or personality cult arises when a countrys leader uses mass media to create a larger-than-life public image through unquestioning flattery and praise. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Niyazov died unexpectedly on December 21, 2006, leaving no heir apparent and an unclear line of succession. A former deputy prime minister rumored to be the illegitimate son of Niyazov, [1] Gurbanguly Berdimuhammedow, became acting president, although under the constitution the Chairman of the People's Council, Ovezgeldy Atayev, should have succeeded to the post. However, Atayev was accused of crimes and removed from office. is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gurbanguly Mälikgulyýewiç Berdimuhammedow (Russianized name: Курбанкули (or Гурбангулы) Мяликгулыевич Бердымухаммедов[1], born 1957) has been the President of Turkmenistan since December 21, 2006, when he became acting president following the death of Saparmurat Niyazov. ... Ovezgeldy Atayev is the former Chairman of the Assembly of Turkmenistan. ...


In an election on February 11, 2007, Berdimuhammedow was elected president with 89% of the vote and 95% turnout, although the election was condemned by outside observers as unfair. [2] is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


For an account of developments since Berdymuhamedow's election, see: Gurbanguly Berdimuhammedow's first term as President of Turkmenistan. Gurbanguly Berdimuhammedow was elected President of Turkmenistan on February 11, 2007, following the sudden death of longtime President Saparmurat Niyazov. ...


Politics

Turkmenistan national assembly building in Ashgabat
Turkmenistan national assembly building in Ashgabat

The politics of Turkmenistan take place in the framework of a presidential republic, with the President both head of state and head of government. Turkmenistan has a single-party system. Image File history File links AshgabatAssembly. ... Image File history File links AshgabatAssembly. ... Aşgabat Aşgabat Aşgabat Aşgabat (Turkmen: ; Persian: , UniPers: Ešq-âbâd; Russian: - Ashkhabád) also spelled as Ashgabat, Ashkabat, Ashkhabad, Ashgabad, is the capital city of Turkmenistan, a former Soviet republic. ... Politics of Turkmenistan take place in the framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of Turkmenistan is both head of state and head of government. ... A presidential system, also called a congressional system, is a system of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term) separately from the legislature, to which it is not accountable and which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Country name: conventional long form: none conventional short form: Turkmenistan local long form: none local short form: Turkmenistan former: Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic Data code: TX Government type: republic Capital: Ashgabat Following the breakup of the Soviet Union, Turkmenistan declared its independence on October 27, 1991. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... A single-party state or one-party system or single-party system is a type of party system government in which a single political party forms the government and no other parties are permitted to run candidates for election. ...


After 69 years as part of the Soviet Union (including 67 years as a union republic), Turkmenistan declared its independence on October 27, 1991. is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ...


President for Life Saparmurat Niyazov, a former bureaucrat of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, ruled Turkmenistan from 1985, when he became head of the Communist Party of the Turkmen SSR, until his death in 2006. He retained absolute control over the country after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. On December 28, 1999, Niyazov was declared President for Life of Turkmenistan by the Mejlis (parliament), which itself had taken office only a week earlier in elections that included only candidates hand-picked by President Niyazov; no opposition candidates were allowed. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Saparmyrat Ataýewiç Nyýazow (February 19, 1940, Gypjak, Turkmen SSR, Soviet Union – 21 December 2006), also commonly known by the romanization Saparmurat Atayevich Niyazov of the Russian spelling Сапармурат Атаевич Ниязов of his Turkmen name, served as the head of state of Turkmenistan from 1985 until his death in 2006. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за, transliterated Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza, acronym: КПСС (KPSS)) was the ruling political party in the Soviet Union. ... The Communist Party of the Turkmen SSR was the ruling communist party of the Turkmen SSR, and a part of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The current President of Turkmenistan is Gurbanguly Berdimuhammedow, who took over for Niyazov following Niyazov's 2006 death. Gurbanguly Mälikgulyýewiç Berdimuhammedow (Russianized name: Курбанкули (or Гурбангулы) Мяликгулыевич Бердымухаммедов[1], born 1957) has been the President of Turkmenistan since December 21, 2006, when he became acting president following the death of Saparmurat Niyazov. ...


The former Communist Party, now known as the Democratic Party of Turkmenistan, is the only one legally-permitted to operate out in the open. Political gatherings are deemed illegal unless government sanctioned. The Democratic Party of Turkmenistan is the only political party in Turkmenistan. ...


Human rights

Human rights are generally not respected by many authorities in Turkmenistan, although some human rights are guaranteed in the Constitution of Turkmenistan, such as social equality, sex equality, freedom from cruel and unusual punishment, and freedom of movement. Other social and economic rights include the right to work, the right to rest, and the right to education. The human rights situation in Turkmenistan, an authoritarian state, remains extremely poor. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... The Constitution of Turkmenistan is meant to be the supreme law[1] of the former-Soviet state of Turkmenistan. ... Equal Rights redirects here. ... Feminism is a diverse collection of social theories, political movements, and moral philosophies, largely motivated by or concerning the experiences of women, especially in terms of their social, political, and economic situation. ... Cruel And Unusual redirects here. ... Title page of a European Union member state passport. ... ... Compulsory education is education which is required by the government, usually at the national level. ...


However, there are freedom of religion and freedom of sexuality issues. Any act of homosexuality in Turkmenistan is punishable by up to five years in prison. According to Forum 18, despite international pressure, the authorities keep a very close eye on all religious groups and the legal framework is so constrictive that many prefer to exist underground rather than to have to pass through all the official processes, which act as barriers.[citation needed] Protestant Christian adherents are affected[citation needed], in addition to groups such as Jehovah's Witnesses, Bahá'ís, and the followers of the Hare Krishna movement. The Hare Krishna followers are not allowed to seek donations at the country's main airport, Ashgabat. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ... World laws on homosexuality Legality of same-sex unions in the US. Legality of same-sex unions in Europe. ... Forum 18 is a Norwegian human rights organisation that seeks to establish religious freedom for all on the basis of Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ... Hare Krishna Mantra in Devanagari The Hare Krishna mantra, also referred to reverentially as the Maha Mantra (Great Mantra), is a sixteen-word Vaishnava mantra made well known outside of India by the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (commonly known as the Hare Krishnas).[1] It is believed by practitioners... Ashgabat Airport (IATA: ASB, ICAO: UTAA), also known as Ashkhabad Airport, is the only international airport in Turkmenistan located approximately 10 km (6 mi) northwest of the capital Ashgabat (Ashkhabad). ...


According to the 2007 Reporters Without Borders World Press Freedom Index, Turkmenistan had the third-worst restrictions on the freedom of the press in the world. Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ... Freedom of the Press (or Press Freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ...


In addition, according to the BBC, the new president enforced a ban on satellite dishes, a measure often threatened under Niyazov, but never acted upon. For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Satellite television is television delivered by way of orbiting communications satellites located 37,000 km (22,300 miles) above the earths surface. ...


Provinces and districts

Provinces of Turkmenistan
Provinces of Turkmenistan

Turkmenistan is divided into five provinces or welayatlar (singular - welayat) and one independent city: Turkmenistan is divided into 5 provinces or welayatlar (singular - welayat): Ahal (capital Ashgabat) Balkan (capital Nebitdag) Dashhowuz (formerly Tashauz, capital Dashhowuz) Lebap (capital Turkmenabat, formerly known as Charjew) Mary (capital Mary). ... Districts of Turkmenistan The provinces (velayets) of Turkmenistan are divided into districts (etraplar, sing. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Turkmenistan Categories: GFDL images ... File links The following pages link to this file: Turkmenistan Categories: GFDL images ... A wilaya is an administrative subdivision usually translated as province. ...

Division ISO 3166-2 Capital City Area (km²) Area (sq. mi) Pop (1995) Key
Ashgabat Ashgabat 604,000
Ahal Province TM-A Annau 95,000 36,680 722,800 1
Balkan Province TM-B Balkanabat 138,000 53,280 424,700 2
Daşoguz Province TM-D Daşoguz 74,000 28,570 1,059,800 3
Lebap Province TM-L Turkmenabat 94,000 36,290 1,034,700 4
Mary Province TM-M Mary 87,000 33,590 1,146,800 5

ISO 3166-2 is the second part of the ISO 3166 standard. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat (Turkmen: ; Persian: , UniPers: EÅ¡q-âbâd; Russian: - Ashkhabád) also spelled as Ashgabat, Ashkabat, Ashkhabad, Ashgabad, is the capital city of Turkmenistan, a former Soviet republic. ... Ahal is one of the Welayatlar of Turkmenistan. ... Anau (also spelled Annau), Turkmenistan, is a town 8 kilometers southeast of Ashgabat. ... Balkan is one of the Welayatlar of Turkmenistan. ... Balkanabat (Балканабат), formerly Nebitdag, is a city in western Turkmenistan, and the capital of Balkan Province. ... DaÅŸoguz Province (also: Dashhowuz) (DaÅŸoguz welaýaty / Дашогуз велаяты) is one of the Welayatlar of Turkmenistan. ... DaÅŸoguz (also Dashkhovuz, Dashhowuz, Dashoguz, Dasoguz, Дашогуз) is a city in northern Turkmenistan and the capital of DaÅŸoguz Province. ... Lebap is one of the Welayatlar of Turkmenistan. ... Türkmenabat (formerly Chardjui, Чарджоу, Чәрҗев, Charjou, Chardzhou, Chardzhev, Chärjew or Charjew, 39°5′N 63°34′E) is a town in Turkmenistan, capital of the Lebap Province. ... Mary Province (Mary welaýaty / Мары велаяты) is one of the Welayatlar of Turkmenistan. ... Mary is a city of Turkmenistan, capital of the Mary Province. ...

Geography

Map of Turkmenistan
Map of Turkmenistan

At 188,457 mi² (488,100 km²), Turkmenistan is the world's 52nd-largest country. It is slightly smaller than Spain, and somewhat larger than the US state of California. Turkmenistan map from the CIA factbook 2003. ... Turkmenistan map from the CIA factbook 2003. ... Turkmenistan is a landlocked country of Central Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Kazakhstan. ... This article is about the unit of measure. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...

The Caspian Sea at Türkmenbaşy
The Caspian Sea at Türkmenbaşy

Over 80% of the country is covered by the Karakum Desert. The center of the country is dominated by the Turan Depression and the Karakum Desert. The Kopet Dag Range, along the southwestern border, reaches 2,912 meters (9,553 ft). The Turkmen Balkan Mountains in the far west and the Kugitang Range in the far east are the only other significant elevations. Rivers include the Amu Darya, the Murghab, and the Tejen. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 541 pixelsFull resolution (1702 × 1152 pixel, file size: 991 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 541 pixelsFull resolution (1702 × 1152 pixel, file size: 991 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... TürkmenbaÅŸy is a city in Turkmenistan, part of the Balkan Province, on the Krasnovodsk Gulf of the Caspian Sea. ... The Karakum Desert, also spelled Kara-Kum and Gara Gum (“Black Sand”) (Turkmen: Garagum, Russian: Каракумы) is a desert in Central Asia. ... The Turan Depression or Turan Lowland is a vast low-lying desert basin region that stretches from southern Turkmenistan through Uzbekistan to Kazakhstan. ... The Kopet Dag is a mountain range on the frontier between Turkmenistan and Iran, extending about 650 km (404 mi) along the border, east of the Caspian Sea. ... For exotic financial options, see Mountain range (options). ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... The Amu Darya (Darya means river) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large delta. ... The Murghab River, transliterated from Russian Мургаб variously as Murgab, Murghob, or Murgob and also known in its upper reaches as the Aksu or Oksu, rises in extreme northeastern Afghanistan before flowing north and west into Tajikistan, which contains the bulk of its length. ... The Rudkhaneh-ye Hari Rud (sometimes Harirud) is a river flowing 1100 kilometers from the mountains of central Afghanistan to Turkmenistan, where it disappears in the Kara-Kum desert. ...


The climate mostly consists of an arid subtropical desert, with little rainfall. Winters are mild and dry, with most precipitation falling between January and May. The area of the country with the heaviest precipitation is the Kopet Dag range. The subtropics are the zones of the Earth immediately north and south of the tropic zone, which is bounded by the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, at latitude 23. ... The Kopet Dag is a mountain range on the frontier between Turkmenistan and Iran, extending about 650 km (404 mi) along the border, east of the Caspian Sea. ...


The Turkmen shore along the Caspian Sea is 1768 km long. The Caspian Sea is entirely landlocked, with no access to the ocean. The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ...


The major cities include Ashgabat, Türkmenbaşy (formerly Krasnovodsk) and Daşoguz. AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat AÅŸgabat (Turkmen: ; Persian: , UniPers: EÅ¡q-âbâd; Russian: - Ashkhabád) also spelled as Ashgabat, Ashkabat, Ashkhabad, Ashgabad, is the capital city of Turkmenistan, a former Soviet republic. ... TürkmenbaÅŸy is a city in Turkmenistan, part of the Balkan Province, on the Krasnovodsk Gulf of the Caspian Sea. ... DaÅŸoguz (also Dashkhovuz, Dashhowuz, Dashoguz, Dasoguz, Дашогуз) is a city in northern Turkmenistan and the capital of DaÅŸoguz Province. ...


Economy

Turkmenbashi Palace in Ashgabat
Turkmenbashi Palace in Ashgabat

Half of the country's irrigated land is planted with cotton, making the country the world's tenth-largest producer of it. It possesses the world's fifth-largest reserves of natural gas and substantial oil resources. In 1994, the Russian government's refusal to export Turkmen gas to hard currency markets and mounting debts of its major customers in the former Soviet Union for gas deliveries contributed to a sharp fall in industrial production and caused the budget to shift from a surplus to a slight deficit. Turkmenistan is largely desert country with nomadic cattle raising, intensive agriculture in irrigated oases, and huge gas and oil resources. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (966x694, 194 KB)[edit] Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (966x694, 194 KB)[edit] Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... The politics of Russia (or the Russian Federation) take place in a framework of a federal presidential republic. ... It has been suggested that Soft currency be merged into this article or section. ...


Turkmenistan has taken a cautious approach to economic reform, hoping to use gas and cotton sales to sustain its economy. In 2004, the unemployment rate was estimated to be 60%; the percentage of the population living below the poverty line was thought to be 58% a year earlier.[3] Privatization goals remain limited. Between 1998 and 2002, Turkmenistan suffered from the continued lack of adequate export routes for natural gas and from obligations on extensive short-term external debt. At the same time, however, the value of total exports has risen sharply because of increases in international oil and gas prices. Economic prospects in the near future are discouraging because of widespread internal poverty and the burden of foreign debt. This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Debt (disambiguation). ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ...

A bazaar in Ashgabat
A bazaar in Ashgabat

President Niyazov spent much of the country's revenue on extensively renovating cities, Ashgabat in particular. Corruption watchdogs voiced particular concern over the management of Turkmenistan's currency reserves, most of which are held in off-budget funds such as the Foreign Exchange Reserve Fund in the Deutsche Bank in Frankfurt, according to a report released in April 2006 by London-based non-governmental organization Global Witness. According to the decree of the Peoples' Council of 14 August 2003,[4] electricity, natural gas, water and salt will be subsidized for citizens up to 2030; however, shortages are frequent. On September 5, 2006, after Turkmenistan threatened to cut off supplies, Russia agreed to raise the price it pays for Turkmen natural gas from $65 to $100 per 1,000 cubic meters. Two-thirds of Turkmen gas goes through the Russian state-owned Gazprom.[5] Aşgabat Aşgabat Aşgabat Aşgabat (Turkmen: ; Persian: , UniPers: Ešq-âbâd; Russian: - Ashkhabád) also spelled as Ashgabat, Ashkabat, Ashkhabad, Ashgabad, is the capital city of Turkmenistan, a former Soviet republic. ... Global Witness is an international NGO that highlights the links between natural resource exploitation, poverty, corruption, and human rights abuses worldwide. ... Electricity (from New Latin ēlectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... This article is about common table salt. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about state ownership. ... Gazprom (LSE: OGZD; Russian: , sometimes transcribed as Gasprom) is the largest Russian company and the biggest extractor of natural gas in the world. ...


Demographics

Further information: Islam in Turkmenistan
Turkmen girl

The majority of Turkmenistan's citizens are ethnic Turkmens who predominately adhere to Islam with sizeable minorities of Uzbeks and Russians. Smaller minorities include Kazakhs, Azeris, Persians, Armenians, Koreans, and Tatars. Turkmen is the official language of Turkmenistan, though Russian still is widely spoken in cities as a "language of inter-ethnic communication" (per the 1992 Constitution). Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... Traditionally, the Turkmen of Turkmenistan, like their kin in Uzbekistan and Afghanistan are Sunni Muslims (over 70%). Shia Muslims, the other main branch of Islam, are also numerous in Turkmenistan (20%), and the Shia religious practices of the Persian, Azerbaijani and Kurdish minorities are not politicized. ... Image File history File links Younggirl. ... Image File history File links Younggirl. ... The Turkmen (Türkmen or Түркмен, plural Türkmenler or Түркменлер) are a Turkic people found primarily in the Central Asian states of Turkmenistan and Afghanistan and in northeastern Iran. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Language(s) Kazakh, Russian (and/or languages in country of residence) Religion(s) Sunni Islam The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар IPA: ; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of... This article is about the Azerbaijani ethnic group. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... This article is about the people. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ...


Culture

Education is universal and mandatory through the secondary level, the total duration of which was earlier reduced from 10 to 9 years, with the new President it has been decreed that the 2007 - 2008 school year will be of 10 years as will all subsequent years.[citation needed] The Turkmen people have traditionally been horse-breeding nomads, and even today after the fall of the USSR attempts to urbanize the Turkmens have not been very successful. ...

Akhal-Teke The Akhal-Teke, Ahalteke in the Turkmen language, horse breed (pronounced ) is a breed from Turkmenistan, where they are the national emblem. ... This page is just a list. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Afghan carpet. ... Traditionally, the Turkmen of Turkmenistan, like their kin in Uzbekistan and Afghanistan are Sunni Muslims (over 70%). Shia Muslims, the other main branch of Islam, are also numerous in Turkmenistan (20%), and the Shia religious practices of the Persian, Azerbaijani and Kurdish minorities are not politicized. ... Merv (Russian: Мерв, from Persian: مرو, Marv, sometimes transliterated Marw or Mary; cf. ... Turkmen music is nomadic and rural, and is closely related to Kyrgyz and Kazakh folk forms. ...

Miscellaneous topics

Proposed Central Asian Union A Central Asian Union was proposed by Kazakhstan President Nursultan Nazarbaev on April 26, 2007, consisting of the five Central Asian republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. ... Turkmenistans declaration of permanent neutrality was formally recognized by the United Nations in 1995. ... The human rights situation in Turkmenistan, an authoritarian state, remains extremely poor. ... It has been suggested that State Security Council of Turkmenistan be merged into this article or section. ... Turkmen postage stamps with Scout motifs, juxtaposing Lord Baden-Powell and Princess Diana There is no formal Scouting organization yet in Turkmenistan, due to the political situation and because Turkmenistan refuses to join any organization because of its status of permanent neutrality, which was accepted by the UN General Assembly... // Railways total: 2,187 km broad gauge: 2,187 km 1. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Geok-Tepe (or Geok Depe) is a former fortress of the Turkomans, in Turkmenistan, in the oasis of Akhal-tekke, on the Transcaspian railway, 28 miles north-west of Ashgabat. ...

Further reading

  • Bradt Travel Guide: Turkmenistan by Paul Brummell
  • Historical Dictionary of Turkmenistan by Rafis Abazov
  • Lonely Planet Guide: Central Asia by Paul Clammer, Michael Kohn and Bradley Mayhew
  • The Great Game: The Struggle for Empire in Central Asia by Peter Hopkirk
  • Tradition and Society in Turkmenistan: Gender, Oral Culture and Song by Carole Blackwell
  • Tribal Nation: The Making of Soviet Turkmenistan by Adrienne Lynn Edgar
  • Eastward to Tartary: Travels in the Balkans, the Middle East, and the Caucasus by Robert D. Kaplan
  • Unknown Sands: Journeys Around the World's Most Isolated Country by John W. Kropf
  • Rall, Ted. "Silk Road to Ruin: Is Central Asia the New Middle East?" New York: NBM Publishing, 2006.
  • Theroux, Paul, "Letter from Turkmenistan, The Golden Man, Saparmyrat Nyyazow’s reign of insanity" New Yorker, May 28, 2007

Robert D. Kaplan (born 1952) is an American journalist, currently an editor for the Atlantic Monthly. ... For other uses, see New Yorker. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

References

  1. ^ Tribe, Class, and Nation in Turkmenistan, page 1 Tribal Nation: The Making of Soviet Turkmenistan
  2. ^ Turkmenistan Reduces Ties To ‘Associate Member' Radio Free Europe, August 29, 2005
  3. ^ CIA World Factbook. U.S. government publication. Central Intelligence Agency (19 December 2006). Retrieved on December 21, 2006.
  4. ^ Resolution of Khalk Maslahati (Peoples' Council of Turkmenistan) N 35 (14.08.2003)
  5. ^ BBC NEWS | Business | Russia reaches Turkmen gas deal

CIA redirects here. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

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This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Afshar or Afshari, is a Turkic language spoken in parts of Afghanistan and Iran. ... Altay is a language of the Turkic group of languages. ... ... The Bashkir language is a Turkic language. ... Bulgar (also BolÄŸar), also Proto-Bulgarian is the language of the Bulgars, now extinct, whose classification is unclear. ... The Chagatai language is an extinct Turkic language which was once widely spoken in Central Asia. ... Chulyum also known as Chulym-Turkic , Chulym Tatar (not at all related to the Tatar language), or Küerik is a language of Chulyms. ... Chuvash (Chuvash: Чӑвашла, ČăvaÅ¡la, IPA: ; also known as Chăvash, Chuwash, Chovash, Chavash, ÇuvaÅŸ or ÇuaÅŸ) is a Turkic language spoken to the west of the Ural Mountains in central Russia. ... Crimean Tatar language (Qırımtatar tili, Qırımtatarca), also known as Crimean (Qırım tili, Qırımca) and Crimean Turkish (Qırım Türkçesi) is the language of the Crimean Tatars. ... Cuman language was a Turkic language spoken by the Kipchaks (also known as the Cumans) similar to todays Crimean Tatar language. ... The Dolgan Language, is a Turkic language with around 5,000 speakers that is spoken in the Taymyr Peninsula in the Russian Federation. ... Fuyü Gïrgïs or Fu-Yu Kirgiz is the easternmost Turkic language. ... The Gagauz language (Gagauz dili) is a Turkic language, used by Gagauz people, official language of Gagauzia, Republic of Moldova. ... The Hunnic language is an extinct language of the Huns. ... Ili Turki is a language spoken primarily in China. ... The Karachay-Balkar language (Къарачай-Малкъар /Qarachay-Malqar/) is a Turkic language of the Karachays and Balkars. ... The Karaim language is a Turkic language with Hebrew influences, in a similar manner to Yiddish or Ladino. ... Karakalpak is a Turkic language mainly spoken by Karakalpaks in Karakalpakstan (Uzbekistan), as well as by Bashkirs and Nogay. ... Kazakh (also Qazaq and variants[2], natively , , ‎; pronounced ) is a Turkic language closely related to Nogai and Karakalpak. ... Khakas is a Turkic language spoken by the Khakas people, who mainly live in the southern Siberian Khakas Republic, or Khakassia, in Russia. ... Khalaj is a language spoken primarily in Iran and Afghanistan. ... Language spoken by the medieval Khazar tribe. ... Khorasani Turkic (تركي خراساني / Xorasan TürkçeÉ™sı) is variety of speech belonging to the Turkic language family. ... The Kipchak language was an extinct Turkic language of Kipchak-Bolghar group. ... Krymchak is the Crimean Tatar language dialect spoken by the Krymchaks - Rabbanite Jews of the Crimea. ... Kyrgyz or Kirghiz (Kyrgyz tili, Кыргыз тили, قىرعىز ٴتىلى) is a Turkic language, and, together with Russian, an official language of Kyrgyzstan. ... Kumyk (also Qumuq, Kumuk, Kumuklar, and Kumyki) is a Turkic language, spoken by about 200 thousands speakers (the Kumyks) in the Dagestan republic of Russian Federation. ... The Kypchak languages (also known as the Kipchak, Qypchaq, or Northeastern Turkic languages), are a major branch of the Turkic language family spoken by more than 12 million people in an area spanning from Lithuania to China. ... Nogai (also Nogay or Nogai Tatar), is a Turkic language spoken in southwestern Russia. ... Old Tatar language (Iske imla: يسكى تاتار تلى (translit. ... The Turkic language spoken by the Gokturks and used on the Orkhon inscriptions. ... Ottoman Turkish (Turkish: or , Ottoman Turkish: ‎ ) was the variant of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire. ... Pecheneg language is the extinct Turkic language spoken by the Pechenegs in Eastern Europe, similar to Cuman. ... Qashqai (also spelled Ghashghai, Qashqai, Qashqay, and Kashkai) is a Turkic language. ... Sakha, or Yakut, is a Turkic language with around 363,000 speakers spoken in the Sakha Republic in the Russian Federation. ... Salar is a Turkic language spoken by the Salar people, who mainly live in the provinces of Qinghai and Gansu in China, some also live in Ghulja, Xinjiang. ... The Shor language is one of the Turkic languages. ... The Tatar language (Tatar tele, Tatarça, Татар теле, Татарча) is a Turkic language spoken by the Tatars. ... Tofa, also known as Tofalar or Karagas, is one of the Turkic languages. ... Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... Tuvan (Tuvan: Тыва дыл Tyva dyl), also known as Tuvinian, Tyvan, or Tuvin, is one of the Turkic languages. ... Urum is a Turkic language spoken by several thousand people who inhabit a few villages in the Southeastern Ukraine and in Georgia. ... Uyghur (‎/Uyghurche//, or ‎/Uyghur tili//)[1] is a Turkic language spoken by the Uyghur people in Xinjiang (also called East Turkestan or Uyghurstan), formerly also “Sinkiang” and “Chinese Turkestan,” a Central Asian region administered by China. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... The Altay or Altai are a Turkic people living in the Siberian Altai Republic and Altai Krai and surrounding areas of Tuva and Mongolia. ... The Balkars (Karachay-Balkar: sg. ... The Bashkirs, a Turkic people, live in Russia, mostly in the republic of Bashkortostan. ... Not to be confused with Bulgarians. ... The Chulyms (Чулымцы in Russian; self-designation: Чулымские люди, or Chulymian people) are a Turkic people in the Tomsk Oblast and Krasnoyarsk Krai in Russia. ... The Chuvash (Chuvash ; Russian: Чуваши; Tatar: ÇuaÅŸlar, Чуашлар) are a Turkic people usually associated with Chuvashia. ... The Crimean Tatars (sg. ... Cuman, also called Polovtsy, Polovtsian, or the Anglicized Polovzian (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Turkish: , Bulgarian: , Romanian: , Hungarian: ), is a Western European exonym for the western Kipchaks. ... The Dolgans (Russian: ; self-designation: долган, тыа-кихи, саха) are a Turkic people, who inhabit Taymyr Autonomous Okrug in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. ... The Gagauz are a minority Turkic people in southern Moldova (in Gagauzia) and southwestern Ukraine (in Budjak) that numbers around 250,000. ... The Iraqi Turkmen (also spelled Turkomen, Turcoman, and Turkman) (Turkish:Irak Türkmenleri) are a distinct Turkic ethnic group living in Iraq, notably in the cities of Arbil, Tal Afar, Kirkuk, and Mosul. ... The Karachays (Къарачайлыла, Qaraçaylıla) are a Turkic people of the Ciscaucasus, mostly situated in the Russian Karachay-Cherkess Republic. ... The Crimean Karaites (Crimean Karaim: sg. ... The Karakalpaks are ethnic group of Turkic people who mainly live in the lower reaches of the Amu Darya and in the (former) delta of Amu Darya on the southern shore of the Aral Sea. ... The Karapapak are a small ethnic group of Turkic people who mainly live in north west province of West Azerbaijan (Azarbaijan-e-Gharbi) in and around the Sulduz area and North West of Turkey near the border with Georgia. ... Language(s) Kazakh, Russian (and/or languages in country of residence) Religion(s) Sunni Islam The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар IPA: ; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of... The Khakas, or Khakass, are a Turkic people, who live in Russia, in the republic of Khakassia in the southern Siberia. ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... Kmek or Kimak was a nomadic tribe lived in modern Astrakhan Oblast of Russia in 9th-13th century. ... Kipchaks in Eurasia circa 1200 C.E. Kipchaks (also spelled as Kypchaks, Qipchaqs, Qypchaqs) (Ukrainian: (polovtsy), Crimean Tatar: , Karachay-Balkar: Къыпчакъ, Uzbek: , Kazakh: Қыпшақ, Kumyk: Къыпчакъ, Kyrgyz: Кыпчак, Nogai: Кыпчак, Turkish: Kıpçak) were an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. The western... The Krymchaks (Krymchak: sg. ... Flag of the Kumyks Kumyks are a Turkic people occupying the Kumyk plateau in north Dagestan and south Terek, and the lands bordering the Caspian Sea. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Kyrgyz language. ... Language(s) Turkish, Russian, Georgian,Azerbaijanian Religion(s) Sunni Islam Related ethnic groups Turks, Terekeme, other Muslims of Meskheti Meskhetian Turks are the former Muslim inhabitants of Meskheti (Georgia), along the border with Turkey. ... NaÄŸaybäk (; plural NaÄŸaybäklär; Russian: нагайбаки) is a group of Keräşen Tatars, frequently viewed as one of indigenous peoples of Russia. ... The Nogais, also spelled Nogay, Noghai, and often called the Caucasian Mongols (Caucasian refers to their geographic position, in the Caucasus mountains, not to their ethnicity), are a Turkic people, and an important ethnic group in the Daghestan region who speak the Turkic Nogai language. ... A Seljuk Prince. ... For the language, see Qashqai language. ... The Salar people (Chinese: 撒拉族, Pinyin: Sālāzú) are one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... Syrian Turkmen or Syrian Turkomen[1] are Syrian citizens of Oghuz Turkish descent, who had been living in the Syrian province of the Ottoman Empire before its dissolution and continue to live in the modern country of Syria. ... This article is about the people. ... The Finnish Tatar community, about 800 people, is recognized as a national minority by the government of Finland, which considers their language as a non-territorial language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. ... The Lipka Tatars were a noble military caste of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth who followed the Sunni branch of the Islamic religion and whose origins can be traced back to the Mongol Empire of Ghengis Khan, through the Khanate of the White Horde of Siberia. ... The Native Western Siberian Tatars (200,000) are an ethnic group or a sub-group of the Tatars. ... Volga Tatars are a Turkic people who live in the central and Eastern European parts of Russia. ... A Telengit is a member of an ethnic group in Russia. ... According to the 2002 census, there were 2650 Teleuts in Russia. ... Tofalars (Тофалары, тофа (tofa) in Russian; formerly known as карагасы, or karagas) are a Turkic-speaking people in the Irkutsk Oblast in Russia. ... Turkish Cypriots are those inhabitants of Cyprus who are ethnically Turkish[1], as opposed to those who are of Greek (the Greek Cypriots) or other ethnicities. ... For other uses of Turkish, see Turkish (disambiguation). ... Tuvans or Tuvinians (Tuvan: Тывалар, Tyvalar) are a group of Turkic people who make up about two thirds of the population of Tuva, Russia. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Uyghur language. ... Yakuts, self-designation: Sakha, are a Turkic people associated with the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. ... Main areas inhabited by Yoruk tribes in Anatolia The Yörük are a Turkic-speaking people primarily inhabiting the mountains of the southeast European Balkan peninsula and Anatolia. ... The Yugur people are an ethnic group. ... The history of the Turkic peoples (Turkic speaking peoples). ... Turkic peoples listed geographically. ... Turanism, or Pan-Turanism, is a political movement for the union of all Turanian peoples. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... // Azerbaijan Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Turkmenistan Turkey Uzbekistan Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus [1] Bashkortostan Chuvashia Sakha (Yakutia) Republic Tatarstan Tuva These republics have a small Turkic minority and official language is a Turkic language. ... Anthem: Ä°stiklâl Marşı(Turkish) Independence March Capital Nicosia (LefkoÅŸa in Turkish) Official languages Turkish Government Representative democratic republic1  -  President Mehmet Ali Talat  -  Prime Minister Ferdi Sabit Soyer Independence from Cyprus   -  Proclaimed November 15, 1983   -  Recognition By Turkey only  Area  -  Total 3,355 km² (167th ranked together with Cyprus... // Azerbaijan Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Turkmenistan Turkey Uzbekistan Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus [1] Bashkortostan Chuvashia Sakha (Yakutia) Republic Tatarstan Tuva These republics have a small Turkic minority and official language is a Turkic language. ... The Altai Republic (Russian: ; Altay: Алтай Республика) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... The Republic of Bashkortostan, or Bashkiria (Russian: or ; Bashkir: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... , Chuvash Republic (Russian: ; ), or Chuvashia () is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) located in central Russia. ... Anthem Gagauziya Milli Marşı Location of Gagauzia (purple) Capital (and largest city) Comrat Official languages Gagauz, Moldovan (Romanian), Russian Government  -  Governor Mihail Formuzal  -  Chairman of the Peoples Assembly Stepan Esir Autonomous region of Moldova  -  Created April 23, 1994  Area  -  Total 1,832 km²  707 sq mi  Population  -  19961 estimate... Karakalpakstan (Uzbek: Qoraqalpogiston Respublikasi or Қорақалпоғистон Республикаси; Karakalpak: Қарақалпақстан Республикасы or Qaraqalpaqstan Respublikası) is an autonomous republic of Uzbekistan. ... Khakassia or Khakasiya (Russian: or ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) located in south central Siberia. ... This article is about the autonomous region. ... The Sakha (Yakutia) Republic (Russian: ; Sakha: Саха Республиката) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Republic of Tatarstan (Russian: ; Tatar Cyrillic: Татарстан Республикасы, Latin: Tatarstan Respublikası) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Tyva Republic IPA: (Russian: IPA: ; Tuvan: ), or Tuva (), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Nomadic Empires, sometimes also called Steppe Empires, Central or Inner Asian Empires, are the empires erected by the bow wielding, horse riding, Eurasian nomads, from Classical Antiquity (Scythia) to the Early Modern era (Dzungars). ... The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia and China. ... The Turkic people are any of various peoples whose members speak languages in the Turkic family of languages. ... The Proto-Turkic language is the proto-language of the family of Turkic languages that predates the separation of the Turkic peoples in the course of the Turkic expansion from ca. ... The Turkic people are any of various peoples whose members speak languages in the Turkic family of languages. ...

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Turkmenistan culture and society informatiom (1530 words)
Trapped in a loveless marriage, he lost his two young sons to illness; later in life his whole body of work was not only confiscated by the Persians but, as he stood witness, the camel on which his precious manuscripts were loaded lost its footing and fell into a river to be swept away.
Though Turkmenistan is predominantly a Sunni Muslim country, the religion is not militantly or strictly enforced.
Centuries-old tribal loyalties are at least as important as Islam; even the most urbane Turkmen retains allegiance to his tribe, while in the more remote regions tribalism dominates to such an extent that each tribe is easily distinguished by dialect, style of clothing and jewellery and the patterns woven into their carpets.
Turkmenistan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1345 words)
The Turkmenistan region soon came to be known as the capital of Greater Khorasan when the caliph Al-Ma'mun moved his capital to Merv.
The October Revolution of 1917 in Russia and subsequent political unrest led to the declaration of the Turkmen Republic as one of the 15 republics of the Soviet Union in 1924.
Turkmen is the official language of Turkmenistan, though Russian still is widely spoken as a "language of inter-ethnic communication" (per the 1992 Constitution).
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