Western, or Russian, Turkistan extended from the Caspian Sea in the west to the Chinese frontier in the east and from the Aral-Irtysh watershed in the north to the borders of Iran and Afghanistan in the south.
Turkistan may be regarded as a single region, however, because a combination of geographical and historical factors made it the bridge linking the Eastern and Western worlds and the route taken by many of the great conquerors and migrating peoples.
All of Turkistan fell to the Mongols in the late 13th cent., and the territory was mostly bestowed upon the khan Jagatai.
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