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Encyclopedia > Turkish language
Turkish
Türkçe 
Pronunciation: [ˈt̪yɾkˌtʃe]
Spoken in: Flag of Turkey Turkey,
Flag of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus,
Flag of Bulgaria Bulgaria,
Flag of Greece Greece,
Flag of the Republic of Macedonia Republic of Macedonia,
Flag of the United Nations Kosovo,
Flag of Romania Romania,
Flag of Cyprus Cyprus,
Flag of Azerbaijan Azerbaijan
and by immigrant communities in
Flag of Germany Germany,
Flag of France France,
Flag of the Netherlands The Netherlands,
Flag of Austria Austria,
Flag of Uzbekistan Uzbekistan,
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom,
Flag of the United States United States,
Flag of Belgium Belgium,
Flag of Switzerland Switzerland,
Flag of Italy Italy,
and other countries of the Turkish diaspora 
Region: Anatolia, Cyprus, Balkans, Caucasus, Central Europe, Western Europe
Total speakers: 65–73 million native 
Ranking: 23 (native)
Language family: Altaic (controversial)
 Turkic
  Southwestern Turkic (Oghuz)
   Western Oghuz
    Turkish 
Writing system: Latin alphabet (Turkish variant
Official status
Official language in: Flag of Turkey Turkey,
Flag of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus,
Flag of Cyprus Cyprus,
Flag of the Republic of Macedonia Republic of Macedonia*
*In municipalities with more than 20% Turkish speakers.
Regulated by: Turkish Language Association
Language codes
ISO 639-1: tr
ISO 639-2: tur
ISO 639-3: tur 

Countries with significant Turkish-speaking populations
(Click on image for the legend)

Turkish (Türkçe IPA [ˈt̪yɾktʃe] ) is a language spoken by 65–73 million people worldwide, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. Its speakers are located predominantly in Turkey, with smaller communities in Cyprus, Bulgaria, Greece, and Eastern Europe. Turkish is also spoken by several million immigrants in Western Europe, particularly in Germany. Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Turkish_Republic_of_Northern_Cyprus. ... Anthem Ä°stiklâl Marşı(Turkish) Independence March Capital Nicosia Official languages Turkish Government Representative democratic republic1  -  President Mehmet Ali Talat  -  Prime Minister Ferdi Sabit Soyer Sovereignty from Cyprus   -  Proclaimed November 15, 1983   -  Recognition By Turkey   -  Independence from Cyprus   -  Declared November 15, 1983  Area  -  Total 3,355 km² (not ranked) 1... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Macedonia. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Nations. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cyprus. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Azerbaijan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... For other uses, see Netherlands (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Uzbekistan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... The term Turkish diaspora refers to the estimated population of Turkish people in the world living outside of Turkey. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Balkan redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... Altaic is a proposed language family that includes 66 languages [1] spoken by about 348 million people, mostly in and around Central Asia and northeast Asia. ... Altaic is a putative language family which would include 60 languages spoken by about 250 million people, mostly in and around central Asia. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... The Oghuz languages, a major branch of the Turkic language family, are spoken by more than 110-130 million people (including second language speakers) in an area spanning from the Balkans to China. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... The Turkish alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, a certain number of which (Ç, Äž, I, Ä°, Ö, Åž, and Ãœ) have been adapted or modified for the phonetic requirements of the language. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Turkish_Republic_of_Northern_Cyprus. ... Anthem Ä°stiklâl Marşı(Turkish) Independence March Capital Nicosia Official languages Turkish Government Representative democratic republic1  -  President Mehmet Ali Talat  -  Prime Minister Ferdi Sabit Soyer Sovereignty from Cyprus   -  Proclaimed November 15, 1983   -  Recognition By Turkey   -  Independence from Cyprus   -  Declared November 15, 1983  Area  -  Total 3,355 km² (not ranked) 1... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cyprus. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Macedonia. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Logo of the Turkish Language Association The Turkish Language Association (Turkish: Türk Dil Kurumu - TDK) is the official regulatory body of the Turkish language, founded on July 12, 1932 and headquartered in Ankara, Turkey. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1427x628, 29 KB)Map showing the presence of Turkish speakers in the countries of the world by shades of blue, based on Image:BlankMap-World. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Image File history File links Turkce. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... Immigration is the act of moving to or settling in another country or region, temporarily or permanently. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ...


The roots of the language can be traced to Central Asia, with the first written records dating back nearly 1,200 years. To the west, the influence of Ottoman Turkish—the immediate precursor of today's Turkish—spread as the Ottoman Empire expanded. In 1928, as one of Atatürk's Reforms in the early years of the new Turkish Republic, the Ottoman script was replaced with a phonetic variant of the Latin alphabet. Concurrently, the newly founded Turkish Language Association initiated a drive to reform the language by removing Persian and Arabic loanwords in favor of native variants and coinages from Turkic roots. Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Ottoman Turkish (Turkish: or , Ottoman Turkish: ‎ ) was the variant of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... This page has been protected from editing to deal with vandalism. ... The Ottoman Turkish alphabet (الفبا elifbâ) was the version of the Arabic alphabet that was used for the Ottoman Turkish language during the time of the Ottoman Empire. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Logo of the Turkish Language Association The Turkish Language Association (Turkish: Türk Dil Kurumu - TDK) is the official regulatory body of the Turkish language, founded on July 12, 1932 and headquartered in Ankara, Turkey. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ...


The distinctive characteristics of Turkish are vowel harmony and extensive agglutination. The basic word order of Turkish is Subject Object Verb. Turkish has a T-V distinction: second-person plural forms can be used for individuals as a sign of respect. Turkish also has no noun classes or grammatical gender. Vowel harmony (also metaphony) is a type of long-distance assimilatory phonological process involving vowels. ... For the music festival, see Agglutination Metal Festival. ... In linguistic typology, Subject Object Verb (SOV) is the type of languages in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence appear (usually) in that order. ... In sociolinguistics, a T-V distinction describes the situation wherein a language has second-person pronouns that distinguish varying levels of politeness, social distance, courtesy, familiarity, or insult toward the addressee. ... In linguistics, the term noun class refers to a system of categorizing nouns. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ...

Contents

Classification

Number of native speakers in the Turkic language family
Number of native speakers in the Turkic language family

Turkish is a member of the Turkish, or Western, subgroup of the Oghuz languages, which includes Gagauz and Azeri. The Oghuz languages form the Southwestern subgroup of the Turkic languages, a language family comprising some 30 living languages spoken across Eastern Europe, Central Asia. and Siberia. Some linguists believe the Turkic languages to be a part of a larger Altaic language family.[1] About 40% of Turkic language speakers are Turkish speakers.[2] The characteristic features of Turkish, such as vowel harmony, agglutination, and lack of grammatical gender, are universal within the Turkic family and the Altaic languages.[2] There is a high degree of mutual intelligibility between Turkish and the other Oghuz languages, including Azeri, Turkmen, Qashqai, and Gagauz.[3] The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Altaic is a proposed language family that includes 66 languages [1] spoken by about 348 million people, mostly in and around Central Asia and northeast Asia. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 70 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Turkish language Turkic languages ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 70 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Turkish language Turkic languages ... The Oghuz languages, a major branch of the Turkic language family, are spoken by more than 110-130 million people (including second language speakers) in an area spanning from the Balkans to China. ... The Gagauz language (Gagauz dili) is a Turkic language, used by Gagauz people, official language of Gagauzia, Republic of Moldova. ... The Azerbaijani language, also called Azeri, Azari, Azeri Turkish, or Azerbaijani Turkish, is the official language of the Republic of Azerbaijan. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Altaic is a proposed language family that includes 66 languages [1] spoken by about 348 million people, mostly in and around Central Asia and northeast Asia. ... Vowel harmony (also metaphony) is a type of long-distance assimilatory phonological process involving vowels. ... For the music festival, see Agglutination Metal Festival. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Azerbaijani language, also called Azeri, Azari, Azeri Turkish, or Azerbaijani Turkish, is the official language of the Republic of Azerbaijan. ... Qashqai (also spelled Ghashghai, Qashqai, Qashqay, and Kashkai) is a Turkic language. ... The Gagauz language (Gagauz dili) is a Turkic language, used by Gagauz people, official language of Gagauzia, Republic of Moldova. ...


History

See also: Turkic peoples and History of the Turkic peoples

The earliest known Turkic inscriptions reside in modern Mongolia. The Bugut inscriptions written in the Sogdian alphabet during the First Göktürk Khanate are dated to the second half of the 6th century.[4][5] The two monumental Orkhon inscriptions, erected in honour of the prince Kul Tigin and his brother Emperor Bilge Khan and dating back to some time between 732 and 735, constitute another important early record. After the discovery and excavation of these monuments and associated stone slabs by Russian archaeologists in the wider area surrounding the Orkhon Valley between 1889–93, it became established that the language on the inscriptions was the Old Turkic language written using the Orkhon script, which has also been referred to as "Turkic runes" or "runiform" due to an external similarity to the Germanic runic alphabets.[6] This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... The history of the Turkic peoples (Turkic speaking peoples). ... The Sogdian alphabet is derived from Syriac, the descendant script of Aramaic alphabet. ... The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia and China. ... Orhon (or Orkhon) inscriptions are the oldest known Turkic writings, which were erected near the Orhon River between 732 and 735 in honour of two Kokturk princes named Kul and Bilge. ... Kul Tigin (Kül (Köl, Gül, Göl) Tigin Khan Bengü İnançu Apa Tarkan Taşı) (685 - 731 or 732 AD) was a Turkic leader. ... Bilge Khan 毗伽可汗(Arslan Bilgä KhaÄŸan; 683 or 684 - 734) was one of the most powerful emperors of the Göktürk Empire. ... Orkhon Valley Cultural Landscape sprawls along the banks of the Orhon River in Central Mongolia, some 360 km west from the capital Ulaanbaatar. ... The Turkic language spoken by the Göktürks and used on the Orkhon inscriptions. ... Orkhon tablet Inscription in Kyzyl using Orkhon script Orkhon script The Orkhon script (also spelled Orhon script, also Orkhon-Yenisey script, Old Turkic script, Göktürk script, Turkish: Orhon Yazıtları) is the alphabet used by the Göktürk from the 8th century to record the Old Turkic... Rune redirects here. ...

Old Turkic inscription with the Orkhon script (c. 8th century). Kyzyl, Russia
Old Turkic inscription with the Orkhon script (c. 8th century). Kyzyl, Russia

With the Turkic expansion during Early Middle Ages (c. 6th–11th centuries), peoples speaking Turkic languages spread across Central Asia, covering a vast geographical region stretching from Siberia to Europe and the Mediterranean. The Seljuqs of the Oghuz Turks, in particular, brought their language, Oghuz Turkic—the direct ancestor of today's Turkish language—into Anatolia during the 11th century.[7] Also during the 11th century, an early linguist of the Turkic languages, Kaşgarlı Mahmud from the Kara-Khanid Khanate, published the first comprehensive Turkic language dictionary and map of the geographical distribution of Turkic speakers in the Compendium of the Turkic Dialects (Ottoman Turkish: Divânü Lügati't-Türk).[8] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (337x800, 53 KB) Photographer: Philipp Roelli (2005) the creator of this image releases it under the GFDL. File links The following pages link to this file: Orkhon script ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (337x800, 53 KB) Photographer: Philipp Roelli (2005) the creator of this image releases it under the GFDL. File links The following pages link to this file: Orkhon script ... The Turkic language spoken by the Göktürks and used on the Orkhon inscriptions. ... Orkhon tablet Inscription in Kyzyl using Orkhon script Orkhon script The Orkhon script (also spelled Orhon script, also Orkhon-Yenisey script, Old Turkic script, Göktürk script, Turkish: Orhon Yazıtları) is the alphabet used by the Göktürk from the 8th century to record the Old Turkic... Music-Drama Theatre in Kyzyl Kyzyl (Tuvan and Russian: Кызы́л) is a city in Russia, capital of Tyva Republic. ... The present distribution of Turkic languages bears witness to the Early Medieval westward expansion of Turkic tribes. ... Justinians wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... This article is about dynasty which ruled the political entity known as Great Seljuq Empire. ... A Seljuk Prince. ... The Oghuz languages, a major branch of the Turkic language family, are spoken by more than 110-130 million people (including second language speakers) in an area spanning from the Balkans to China. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ... Map from Kashgaris Diwan, showing the distribution of Turkic tribes. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Ottoman Turkish

Following the adoption of Islam c. 950 by the Kara-Khanid Khanate and the Seljuq Turks, who are regarded as the cultural ancestors of the Ottomans, the administrative language of these states acquired a large collection of loanwords from Arabic and Persian. Turkish literature during the Ottoman period, particularly Ottoman Divan poetry, was heavily influenced by Persian, including the adoption of poetic meters and a great quantity of borrowings. The literary and official language during the Ottoman Empire (c. 1299–1922) was a mixture of Turkish, Persian, and Arabic that differed considerably from the period's everyday spoken Turkish, and is termed Ottoman Turkish. Ottoman Turkish (Turkish: or , Ottoman Turkish: ‎ ) was the variant of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about dynasty which ruled the political entity known as Great Seljuq Empire. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Farsi redirects here. ... A page from the Dîvân-ı Fuzûlî, the collected poems of the 16th-century Ottoman poet Fuzûlî Turkish literature (Turkish: Türk edebiyatı or Türk yazını) is the collection of written and oral texts composed in the Turkish language, either in its Ottoman form or... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Ottoman Turkish (Turkish: or , Ottoman Turkish: ‎ ) was the variant of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire. ...


Language reform and modern Turkish

Literacy rates before the language reform in Turkey (1927). The literacy rates rose to 48.4% among males and 20.7% among females in 1950.
Literacy rates before the language reform in Turkey (1927). The literacy rates rose to 48.4% among males and 20.7% among females in 1950.[9]

After the foundation of the Republic of Turkey and the script reform, the Turkish Language Association (TDK) was established in 1932 under the patronage of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, with the aim of conducting research on Turkish. One of the tasks of the newly-established association was to initiate a language reform to replace loanwords of Arabic and Persian origin with Turkish equivalents.[10] By banning the usage of loanwords in the press, the association succeeded in removing several hundred foreign words from the language. While most of the words introduced to the language by the TDK were newly derived from Turkic roots, it also opted for reviving Old Turkish words which had not been used for centuries.[11] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 553 pixel Image in higher resolution (889 × 614 pixel, file size: 259 KB, MIME type: image/png) Published in 1935, The Turkey of Ataturk by Donald Everett Webster. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 553 pixel Image in higher resolution (889 × 614 pixel, file size: 259 KB, MIME type: image/png) Published in 1935, The Turkey of Ataturk by Donald Everett Webster. ... Logo of the Turkish Language Association The Turkish Language Association (Turkish: Türk Dil Kurumu - TDK) is the official regulatory body of the Turkish language, founded on July 12, 1932 and headquartered in Ankara, Turkey. ... “Mustafa Kemal” redirects here. ... Language reform is a kind of language planning by massive change to a language. ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ...


Due to this sudden change in the language, older and younger people in Turkey started to differ in their vocabularies. While the generations born before the 1940s tend to use the older terms of Arabic or Persian origin, the younger generations favor new expressions. It is particularly ironic that Atatürk himself, in his monumental speech to the new Parliament in 1927, used a style of Ottoman diction which today sounds so alien that it has had to be "translated" three times into modern Turkish: first in 1963, again in 1986, and most recently in 1995.[12] There is also a political dimension to the language debate, with conservative groups tending to use more archaic words in the press or everyday language. Nutuk (Söylev) was the speech delivered by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk in 1927 . ... The Grand National Assembly (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi in Turkish) is the unicameral parliament of Turkey which carries out legislative functions. ...


The past few decades have seen the continuing work of the TDK to coin new Turkish words to express new concepts and technologies as they enter the language, mostly from English. Many of these new words, particularly information technology terms, have received widespread acceptance. However, the TDK is occasionally criticized for coining words which sound contrived and artificial. Some earlier changes—such as bölem to replace fırka, "political party"—also failed to meet with popular approval (in fact, fırka has been replaced by the French loanword parti). Some words restored from Old Turkic have taken on specialized meanings; for example betik (originally meaning "book") is now used to mean "script" in computer science. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... The Turkic language spoken by the Gokturks and used on the Orkhon inscriptions. ... Scripting languages (commonly called script languages) are computer programming languages that are typically interpreted. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ...


Many of the words derived by TDK coexist with their older counterparts. This usually happens when a loanword changes its original meaning. For instance, dert, derived from the Persian dard (درد "pain"), means "problem" or "trouble" in Turkish; whereas the native Turkish word ağrı is used for physical pain. Sometimes the loanword has a slightly different meaning from the native Turkish word, giving rise to a situation similar to the coexistence of Germanic and Romance words in English (see List of Germanic and Latinate equivalents). Among some of the old words that were replaced are terms in geometry, cardinal directions, some months' names, and many nouns and adjectives. Some examples of modern Turkish words and the old loanwords are: The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... This list contains Germanic elements of the English language which have a close corresponding Latinate form. ... For other uses, see Geometry (disambiguation). ... A compass rose showing the cardinal directions Cardinal directions or cardinal points are the four principal directions or points of the compass in plane. ...

Ottoman Turkish Modern Turkish English translation Comments
müselles üçgen triangle Compound of the noun üç ("three") and the very old Turkic noun gen ("tension", "side")
tayyare uçak airplane Derived from the verb uçmak ("to fly"). The word was first proposed to mean "airport".
nispet oran ratio The old word is still used in the language today together with the new one. Modern word is from Old Turkic verb or- (to cut).
şimal kuzey north Derived from the Old Turkic noun kuz ("cold and dark place", "shadow"). The word is restored from Middle Turkic usage.[13]
Teşrini-evvel Ekim October The noun ekim means "the action of planting", referring to the planting of cereal seeds in autumn, which is widespread in Turkey
For a more comprehensive list, see List of replaced loanwords in Turkish

The Turkic language spoken by the Gokturks and used on the Orkhon inscriptions. ... The Turkic language spoken by the Gokturks and used on the Orkhon inscriptions. ... Middle Turkic refers to a phase in the development of the Turkic language family, covering much of the Middle Ages (c. ... This list of replaced loanwords in Turkish includes Ottoman Turkish loanwords mostly of Arabic and Persian, but also French, Greek, and Italian origin, which were replaced with their Turkish counterparts suggested by the Turkish Language Association (Turkish: Türk Dil Kurumu - TDK) as a part of the cultural reforms - in...

Geographic distribution

See also: Turkish diaspora
Road sign at the European end of the Bosphorus Bridge in Istanbul. Photo taken during the 28th Eurasia Marathon in 2006
Road sign at the European end of the Bosphorus Bridge in Istanbul. Photo taken during the 28th Eurasia Marathon in 2006

Turkish is natively spoken by the Turkish people in Turkey and by the Turkish diaspora in some 30 other countries. In particular, Turkish speaking minorities exist in countries that formerly (in whole or part) belonged to the Ottoman Empire, such as Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece (primarily in Western Thrace), the Republic of Macedonia, Romania, and Serbia.[14] More than two million Turkish speakers live in Germany, and there are significant Turkish-speaking communities in France, the Netherlands, Austria, Belgium, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom.[15] Due to the cultural assimilation of Turkish immigrants in host countries, not all ethnic Turkish immigrants speak the language with native fluency. The term Turkish diaspora refers to the estimated population of Turkish people in the world living outside of Turkey. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... View of the Asian side The Bosphorus Bridge, also called the First Bosphorus Bridge (Turkish: Boğaziçi Köprüsü or ) is a bridge in Istanbul, Turkey spanning the Bosphorus strait (Turkish: Boğaziçi). ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... The Intercontinental Istanbul Eurasia Marathon, also known as the Eurasia Marathon, is an international athletics event organized by the metropolitan municipality in Istanbul, Turkey every year in October since 1979. ... For other uses of Turkish, see Turk (disambiguation). ... The term Turkish diaspora refers to the estimated population of Turkish people in the world living outside of Turkey. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Western or Greek Thrace (Greek Δυτική ή Ελληνική Θράκη,Turkish Batı Trakya) is the part of Thrace located between the rivers Nestos and Evros in northeastern Greece. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Cultural assimilation (often called merely assimilation) is an intense process of consistent integration whereby members of an ethno-cultural group, typically immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into an established, generally larger community. ...


The number of native speakers in Turkey is about 60–67 million, corresponding to about 90–93 percent of the population, and 65–73 million native speakers exist worldwide.[2][16] Turkish is spoken as a first or second language by almost all of Turkey's residents, with Kurdish making up most of the remainder (about 3,950,000 as estimated in 1980).[17] The Kurdish language (Kurdish: Kurdî or کوردی) is the language spoken by Kurds. ...


Official status

Turkish is the official language of Turkey and is one of the official languages of Cyprus. It also has official (but not primary) status in the Prizren District of Kosovo and several municipalities of the Republic of Macedonia, depending on the concentration of Turkish-speaking local population. Prizren District within Kosovo and Metohija Prizren District Prizrenski okrug The Prizren District expands in the southern part of the Republic of Serbia. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ...


In Turkey, the regulatory body for Turkish is the Turkish Language Association (Türk Dil Kurumu or TDK), which was founded in 1932 under the name Türk Dili Tetkik Cemiyeti ("Society for Research on the Turkish Language"). The Turkish Language Association was influenced by the ideology of linguistic purism: indeed one of its primary tasks was the replacement of loanwords and foreign grammatical constructions with equivalents of Turkish origin.[18] These changes, together with the adoption of the new Turkish alphabet in 1928, shaped the modern Turkish language spoken today. TDK became an independent body in 1951, with the lifting of the requirement that it should be presided over by the Minister of Education. This status continued until August 1983, when it was again made into a governmental body in the constitution of 1982, following the military coup d'état of 1980.[11] Logo of the Turkish Language Association The Turkish Language Association (Turkish: Türk Dil Kurumu - TDK) is the official regulatory body of the Turkish language, founded on July 12, 1932 and headquartered in Ankara, Turkey. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Turkish alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, a certain number of which (Ç, Äž, I, Ä°, Ö, Åž, and Ãœ) have been adapted or modified for the phonetic requirements of the language. ... The September 12, 1980 Turkish coup détat, headed by General Kenan Evren, Chief of the General Staff, was the third military putsch in the history of the Republic after the 1960 coup and the 1971 Coup by Memorandum. Kenan Evren headed the National Security Council (NSC) of five generals...


Dialects

Map of Turkey
Map of Turkey

Istanbul Turkish is established as the official standard language of Turkey. Dialectal variation persists, in spite of the levelling influence of the standard used in mass media and the Turkish education system since the 1930s.[19] Academically, researchers from Turkey often refer to Turkish dialects as ağız or şive, leading to an ambiguity with the linguistic concept of accent, which is also covered with these same words. Projects investigating Turkish dialects are being carried out by several universities, as well as a dedicated work group of the Turkish Language Association. Work is currently in progress for the compilation and publication of their research as a comprehensive dialect atlas of the Turkish language.[20][21] map of Turkey, converted directly from CIA World Factbook GIF File links The following pages link to this file: Anatolia Dardanelles Sea of Marmara Geography of Turkey Turkey Categories: CIA World Factbook images ... map of Turkey, converted directly from CIA World Factbook GIF File links The following pages link to this file: Anatolia Dardanelles Sea of Marmara Geography of Turkey Turkey Categories: CIA World Factbook images ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... A standard language (also standard dialect or standardized dialect) is a particular variety of a language that has been given either legal or quasi-legal status. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ... The Turkish Education System mandates 8 years of primary education between the ages of 6 and 14, and in 2001 the enrollment of children in this age range was nearly 100%. Three or more years of secondary education are available in public, open, and vocational high schools. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Logo of the Turkish Language Association The Turkish Language Association (Turkish: Türk Dil Kurumu - TDK) is the official regulatory body of the Turkish language, founded on July 12, 1932 and headquartered in Ankara, Turkey. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Atlas An atlas is a collection of maps or manifolds, traditionally bound into book form, but also found in multimedia formats. ...


The standard dialect of the Turkish language is İstanbul. Rumelice is spoken by immigrants from Rumelia, and includes the distinct dialects of Deliorman, Dinler, and Adakale, which are influenced by the theoretized Balkan linguistic union. Kıbrıs is the name for Cypriot Turkish and is spoken by the Turkish Cypriots. Edirne is the dialect of Edirne. Ege is spoken in the Aegean region, with its usage extending to Antalya. The nomadic Yörük tribes of the Mediterranean Region and the Balkan peninsula also have their own dialect of Turkish. Turkey is a country shaped and defined by immigration. ... Map of Rumelia as of 1801 Rumelia (turkish: Rum: Roman El: Land Rumeli: Lands of Rome), the area that was the East Roman or Byzantine Empire, a name commonly used, from the 15th century onwards, to denote the part of the Balkan Peninsula subject to the Ottoman Empire. ... The Ludogorie (-Bulgarian: Лудогорие, usually used with a definite article, Лудогорието, Ludogorieto; Turkish: Deliorman) is a region in northeastern Bulgaria stretching over the plateau of the same name. ... The Balkan linguistic union or Balkansprachbund is the similarity in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and phonology among languages of the Balkans, which belong to various Indo-European branches, such as Albanian, Greek, Romance and Slavic. ... Cypriot Turkish is a dialect of Turkish spoken by Turkish Cypriots. ... Turkish Cypriots are those inhabitants of Cyprus who are ethnically Turkish[1], as opposed to those who are of Greek (the Greek Cypriots) or other ethnicities. ... Adrianople redirects here. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is mostly about the Antalya City; for the province, see Antalya Province. ... Main areas inhabited by Yoruk tribes in Anatolia The Yörük are a Turkic-speaking people primarily inhabiting the mountains of the southeast European Balkan peninsula and Anatolia. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ...


Güneydoğu is spoken in the southeast, to the east of Mersin. Doğu, a dialect in Eastern Anatolia, has a dialect continuum with Azeri, particularly with Karapapak dialects in some areas. The Central Anatolia region speaks Orta Anadolu. Karadeniz, spoken in the Eastern Black Sea Region and represented primarily by the Trabzon dialect, exhibits substratum influence from Greek in phonology and syntax.[22] Kastamonu is spoken in Kastamonu and its surrounding areas. The Hemşinli dialect, known as Hemşince, is spoken by the western group of Hamshenis around Rize, influenced by Armenian.[23] Karamanlıca is spoken in Greece, where it is also named Kαραμανλήδικα (Karamanlidika). It is the literary standard for Karamanlides. This article is about the city of Mersin, see Mersin Province, (named İçel province until 2002), for information about the surrounding area. ... Eastern Anatolia Region Eastern Anatolia Region (Turkish: DoÄŸu Anadolu Bölgesi) encompasses the eastern provinces of Turkey, and it is one of the 7 non-administrative sub-divisions used for census purposes. ... A dialect continuum is a range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater. ... The Azerbaijani language, also called Azeri, Azari, Azeri Turkish, or Azerbaijani Turkish, is the official language of the Republic of Azerbaijan. ... The Karapapak are a small ethnic group of Turkic people who mainly live in north west province of West Azerbaijan (Azarbaijan-e-Gharbi) in and around the Sulduz area and North West of Turkey near the border with Georgia. ... Central Anatolia Region Central Anatolia Region (İç Anadolu Bölgesi) // Central Anatolia Region Aksaray Province Ankara Province Çankırı Province EskiÅŸehir Province Karaman Province Kayseri Province Kırıkkale Province KırÅŸehir Province Konya Province NevÅŸehir Province NiÄŸde Province Sivas Province Yozgat Province The best contry is... Black Sea Region // Black Sea Region Amasya Province Artvin Province Bartın Province Bayburt Province Bolu Province Çorum Province Düzce Province Giresun Province Gümüşhane Province Karabük Province Kastamonu Province Ordu Province Rize Province Samsun Province Sinop Province Tokat Province Trabzon Province Zonguldak Province Provinces of Turkey... Trabzon, formerly known as Trebizond (Greek: ), is a city on the Black Sea coast of north-eastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Phonology (Greek phonÄ“ = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... Kastamonu (Greek: Κασταμόνου) is the capital district of the Kastamonu Province, Turkey. ... HemÅŸince is the Turkish dialect spoken by the Hamshenis of the Rize Province in Turkey, particularly in HemÅŸin, ÇamlıhemÅŸin and in the mountainous interior of Pazar (Atina), Çayeli (Mapavri), ArdeÅŸen (ArtaÅŸen) districts. ... The Hamshenis (also known as Hemshinlis or Khemshils; Õ€Õ¡Õ´Õ·Õ«Õ¶Õ« in Armenian; HemÅŸinli in Turkish; Амшенцы in Russian) are an ethnic group of Armenian origin that inhabit the Black Sea coastal areas of Turkey, Russia, and Georgia (Abkhazia). ... Rize is the capital of Rize Province, in north-east Turkey, on the Black Sea coast. ... Karamanlides are a Turkish-speaking ethnic group that are of Orthodox Christian faith. ...


Sounds

Main article: Turkish phonology

The phonology of the Turkish language describes the set of sounds and their relationships with one another in spoken Turkish. ... The Turkish alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, a certain number of which (Ç, Ğ, I, İ, Ö, Ş, and Ü) have been adapted or modified for the phonetic requirements of the language. ...

Consonants

Consonant phonemes of Standard Turkish
Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosives p b c ɟ k ɡ
Nasal m n
Fricative f v ʃ ʒ ɣ h
Affricate
Tap ɾ
Approximant j
Lateral ɫ l

The phoneme /ɣ/ (usually referred to as yumuşak g ("soft g")), ğ in Turkish orthography, actually represents a rather weak front-velar or palatal approximant between front vowels. It never occurs at the beginning of a word, but always follows a vowel. When word-final or preceding another consonant, it lengthens the preceding vowel.[24] In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... Affricate consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as or ) but release as a fricative (such as or or, in a couple of languages, into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel. ... In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... Äž, or ÄŸ, is a letter, known as g-breve in English, used in the Turkish, Azerbaijani and Tatar languages. ... The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of using a specific writing system to write the language. ...


In native Turkic words, the sounds /c/, /ɟ/, and /l/ are in complementary distribution with /k/, /g/, and /ɫ/; the former set occurrs adjacent to front vowels and the latter adjacent to back vowels. The distribution of these phonemes is often unpredictable, however, in foreign borrowings and proper nouns. In such words, /c/, /ɟ/, and /l/ often occur with back vowels:[25] some examples are given below. Complementary distribution in linguistics is the relationship between two different elements, where one element is found in a particular environment and the other element is found in the opposite environment. ... In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ... Turkish ( IPA ) is a language spoken by 65–73 million people worldwide, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. ...


When a vowel is added to nouns ending with postvocalic <k>, the <k> becomes <ğ> by consonant alternation. A similar alternation applies to certain loan-words ending in <p> and <t>, which become <b> and <d>, respectively, with the addition of a vowel.[26] In linguistics, Alternation is when a set of morphosyntactic properties is phonologically expressed in two or more different ways in different words. ...


Vowels

IPA chart for Turkish vowels
Image:Turkish vowel chart.png

The vowels of the Turkish language are, in their alphabetical order, a, e, ı, i, o, ö, u, and ü. Undotted <ı> is the close back unrounded vowel [ɯ].[27] There are no diphthongs in Turkish; when two vowels come together, which occurs rarely and only with loanwords, each vowel retains its individual sound. Image File history File links Turkish_vowel_chart. ... Two distinct versions of the letter I, dotted and dotless, are used in the Turkish alphabet, which is a variant of the Latin alphabet. ... Two distinct versions of the letter I, dotted and dotless, are used in the Turkish alphabet, which is a variant of the Latin alphabet. ... The close back unrounded vowel is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. ... In phonetics, a diphthong (in Greek &#948;&#943;&#966;&#952;&#959;&#947;&#947;&#959;&#962;) is a vowel combination usually involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ...


Vowel harmony

For more details on this topic, see Vowel harmony.

The Turkish vowel system can be considered as being two-dimensional, where vowels are characterised by two features: front/back and rounded/unrounded. Vowel harmony is the principle by which a native Turkish word incorporates either exclusively back vowels (a, ı, o, and u) or exclusively front vowels (e, i, ö, and ü). The pattern of vowels is shown in the table below.[28] Vowel harmony (also metaphony) is a type of long-distance assimilatory phonological process involving vowels. ... In phonetics, vowel backness is the position of the tongue relative to the back of the mouth in a vowel sound. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... A back vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ...

Turkish vowels
Front Back
Unrounded Rounded Unrounded Rounded
High i ü ı u
Low e ö a o

Grammatical affixes have "a chameleon-like quality",[29] and obey one of the following patterns of vowel harmony: Look up affix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Chameleon (disambiguation). ...

  • twofold (-e/-a):[30] the locative suffix, for example, is -de after front vowels and -da after back vowels. The notation -de² is a convenient shorthand for this pattern.
  • fourfold (-i/-ı/-ü/-u): the genitive suffix, for example, is -in or -ın after unrounded vowels (front or back respectively); and -ün or -un after the corresponding rounded vowels. In this case, the shorthand notation -in4 is used.

The following examples, based on the copula -dir4 ("[it] is"), illustrate the principles of vowel harmony in practice: Türkiyedir ("it is Turkey"), kapıdır ("it is the door"), but gündür ("it is the day"), paltodur ("it is the coat"). Locative is a case which indicates a location. ... The genitive case is a grammatical case that indicates a relationship, primarily one of possession, between the noun in the genitive case and another noun. ... This article supplements the general articles on the copula and Turkish grammar. ...


There are some exceptions to the rules of vowel harmony. In compound words, the vowels need not harmonize between the constituent words of the compound. Forms like bu+gün ("today") or baş+kent ("capital") are permissible. In addition, vowel harmony does not apply in loanwords and some invariant affixes, such as -yor (present tense) and -bil- (potential). Some loanwords do, however, exhibit partial or even complete vowel harmony (e.g. mümkün "possible" < Arabic mumkin; and dürbün "binoculars" < Persian dūrbīn).[31] There are also a few native Turkish words that do not follow the rule, such as anne ("mother"). In such words, suffixes harmonize with the final vowel: thus annedir ("she is a mother"). Many loanwords from Arabic and French, however, take front-vowel suffixes after final back vowels: for example halsiz < hal + -siz4 "listless", meçhuldür < meçhul + -dir4 "it is unknown", harfler < harf + -ler² "(alphabetical) letters" (instead of the expected *halsız, *meçhuldur and *harflar). A compound is a word (lexeme) that consists of more than one free morpheme. ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ...


The road sign in the photograph above illustrates several of these features:

  • a native compound which does not obey vowel harmony: Orta+köy ("middle village"—a place name)
  • a loanword also violating vowel harmony: viyadük ("viaduct" < French viaduc)
  • the possessive suffix -i4 harmonizing with the final vowel (and softening the k by consonant alternation): viyadüğü

In linguistics, Alternation is when a set of morphosyntactic properties is phonologically expressed in two or more different ways in different words. ...

Stress

Stress is usually on the last syllable.[24] Exceptions include some suffix combinations and loanwords, particularly from Italian and Greek, as well as many proper names. While such loanwords are usually stressed on the penultimate syllable ([ɫoˈkanta] lokanta "restaurant" or [isˈcele] iskele "quay"), the stress of proper names is less predictable ([isˈtanbuɫ] İstanbul, [ˈaŋkaɾa] Ankara). In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word. ... Look up Suffix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ...


Grammar

Main article: Turkish grammar

Turkish is an agglutinative language and frequently uses affixes, or endings.[32] One word can have many affixes and these can also be used to create new words, such as creating a verb from a noun, or a noun from a verbal root (see the section on Word formation). Most affixes indicate the grammatical function of the word.[33] The only native prefixes are alliterative intensifying syllables used with adjectives or adverbs: for example sımsıcak ("boiling hot" < sıcak) and masmavi ("bright blue" < mavi).[34] This article concerns the grammar of the Turkish language. ... It has been suggested that Agglutination be merged into this article or section. ... Look up affix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Alliteration is a literary device in which the same sound appears at the beginning of two or more consecutive words. ...


The extensive use of affixes can give rise to long words. It is jokingly said that the longest Turkish word is Çekoslovakyalılaştıramadıklarımızdanmışsınız, meaning "You are said to be one of those that we couldn't manage to convert to a Czechoslovak". This example is of course contrived; but long words do frequently occur in normal Turkish, as in this heading of a newspaper obituary column: Bayramlaşamadıklarımız (Bayram [festival]-Recipr-Impot-Partic-Plur-PossPl1; "Those of our number with whom we cannot exchange the season's greetings").[35]


Nouns

There is no definite article in Turkish, but definiteness of the object is implied when the accusative ending is used (see below). Turkish nouns decline by taking case-endings, as in Latin. There are six noun cases in Turkish, with all the endings following vowel harmony (shown in the table using the shorthand superscript notation. The plural marker -ler² immediately follows the noun before any case or other affixes (e.g. köylerin "of the villages"). Definite Article is the title of British comedian Eddie Izzards 1996 performance released on video and CD. The video/DVD and CD performances were both recorded on different nights at the Shaftesbury Theatre in London, England. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... In linguistics, declension is the inflection of nouns, pronouns and adjectives to indicate such features as number (typically singular vs. ... Look up plural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Case Ending Examples Meaning
köy "village" ağaç "tree"
Nominative Ø (none) köy ağaç (the) village/tree
Genitive -in4 köyün ağacın the village's/tree's
of the village/tree
Dative -e² köye ağaca to the village/tree
Accusative -i4 köyü ağacı the village/tree
Ablative -den² köyden ağaçtan from the village/tree
Locative -de² köyde ağaçta in the village/on the tree

The accusative case marker is used only for definite objects; compare ağaç gördük "we saw a tree" with ağacı gördük "we saw the tree".[36] The plural marker -ler² is not used when a class or category is meant: ağaç gördük can equally well mean "we saw trees [as we walked through the forest]"—as opposed to ağaçları gördük "we saw the trees [in question]". The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun, which generally marks the subject of a verb, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The dative case is a grammatical case generally used to indicate the noun to whom something is given. ... The accusative case (abbreviated ACC) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb. ... In linguistics, ablative case (also called the sixth case) (abbreviated ABL) is a name given to cases in various languages whose common thread is that they mark motion away from something, though the details in each language may differ. ... Locative is a case which indicates a location. ...


The declension of ağaç illustrates two important features of Turkish phonology: consonant assimilation in suffixes (ağaçtan, ağaçta) and voicing of final consonants before vowels (ağacın, ağaca, ağacı). Assimilation is a regular and frequent sound change process by which a phoneme changes to match an adjacent phoneme in a word. ... Look up Suffix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ...


Additionally, nouns can take suffixes that assign person: for example -imiz4, "our". With the addition of the copula (for example -im4, "I am") complete sentences can be formed. The interrogative particle mi4 immediately follows the word being questioned: köye mi? "[going] to the village?", ağaç mı? "[is it a] tree?". For other uses, see Point of view (literature). ... This article supplements the general articles on the copula and Turkish grammar. ... Interrogative redirects here. ...

Turkish English
ev (the) house
evler (the) houses
evin your house
eviniz your (pl./formal) house
evim my house
evimde at my house
evlerinizin of your houses
Evinizdeyim. I am at your house.
Evinizde miyim? Am I at your house?

The Turkish personal pronouns in the nominative case are ben (1s), sen (2s), o (3s), biz (1pl), siz (2pl, or formal/polite 2s), and onlar (3pl). They are declined regularly with some exceptions: benim (1s gen.); bizim (1pl gen.); bana (1s dat.); sana (2s dat.); and the oblique forms of o use the root on. All other pronouns (reflexive kendi and so on) are declined regularly. Personal pronouns are pronouns that refer to objects of a sentence, usually (but not always), people or animals. ...


Adjectives

Turkish adjectives are not declined. However most adjectives can also be used as nouns, in which case they are declined: e.g. güzel ("beautiful") → güzeller ("(the) beautiful ones / people"). Used attributively, adjectives precede the nouns they modify. The adjectives var ("existent") and yok ("non-existent") are used in many cases where English would use "there is" or "have", e.g. süt yok ("there is no milk", lit. "(the) milk (is) non-existent"); the construction "noun 1-GEN noun 2-POSS var/yok" can be translated "noun 1 has/doesn't have noun 2"; imparatorun elbisesi yok "the emperor has no clothes" ("(the) emperor-of clothes-his non-existent"); kedimin ayakkabıları yoktu ("my cat had no shoes", lit. "cat-my-of shoe-plur.-its non-existent-past tense"). In linguistics, declension is the inflection of nouns, pronouns and adjectives to indicate such features as number (typically singular vs. ...


Verbs

See also: Turkish copula

Turkish verbs indicate person. They can be made negative, potential ("can"), or impotential ("cannot"). Furthermore, Turkish verbs show tense (present, past, inferential, future, and aorist), mood (conditional, imperative, necessitative, and optative), and aspect. Negation is expressed by the infix -me²- immediately following the stem. This article supplements the general articles on the copula and Turkish grammar. ... For other uses, see Point of view (literature). ... Grammatical tense is a way languages express the time at which an event described by a sentence occurs. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... The past tense is a verb tense expressing action, activity, state or being in the past. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood (or mode), which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... It has been suggested that Future perfect tense be merged into this article or section. ... Aorist (from Greek αοριστος, indefinite) is a term used in certain Indo-European languages to refer to a particular grammatical tense and/or aspect. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood (or mode), which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... The conditional mood (or conditional tense) is the form of the verb used in conditional sentences to refer to a hypothetical state of affairs, or an uncertain event that is contingent on another set of circumstances. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood, which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... The optative mood is a grammatical mood that indicates a wish or hope. ... In linguistics, the grammatical aspect of a verb defines the temporal flow (or lack thereof) in the described event or state. ... An infix is an affix inserted inside an existing word. ...

Turkish English
gel- (to) come
gelebil- (to) be able to come
gelme- not (to) come
geleme- (to) be unable to come
gelememiş I gather (s)he couldn't come
gelebilecek (s)he'll be able to come
gelebilirsen if you can come
gelinir (passive) one comes, people come

All Turkish verbs are conjugated in the same way, except for the irregular and defective verb i-, the Turkish copula, which can be used in compound forms (the shortened form is called an enclitic): Gelememişti = Gelememiş idi = Gelememiş + i- + -di In linguistics, a defective verb is a verb with an incomplete conjugation. ... This article supplements the general articles on the copula and Turkish grammar. ... In linguistics, a clitic is a morpheme that functions syntactically like a word, but does not appear as an independent phonological word; instead it is always attached to a following or preceding word. ...


Participles

Turkish has several participles, including present (with the ending -en²), future (-ecek²), past (-miş4), and aorist (-er² or -ir4). These forms can function as either adjectives or nouns: oynamayan çocuklar "children who do not play", oynamayanlar "those who do not play"; okur yazar "reader-writer = literate", okur yazarlar "literates". In linguistics, a participle is a non-finite verb form that can be used in compound tenses or voices, or it can be used as a modifier. ... Aorist (from Greek αοριστος, indefinite) is a term used in certain Indo-European languages to refer to a particular grammatical tense and/or aspect. ...


The most important function of participles is to form modifying phrases equivalent to the relative clauses found in most European languages. The participles used in these constructions are the future (-ecek²) and an older form (-dik4), which covers both present and past meanings.[37] The use of these "personal" or "relative" participles is illustrated in the following table, in which the examples are presented according to the grammatical case which would be seen in the equivalent English relative clause.[38] A relative clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun. ...

English equivalent Example Translation
Case of relative pronoun Pronoun Literal Idiomatic
Nominative who, which/that şimdi konuşan adam "now speaking man" the man (who is) now speaking
Genitive whose (nom.) babası şimdi konuşan adam "father-his now speaking man" the man whose father is now speaking
whose (acc.) babasını dün gördüğüm adam "father-his-ACC yesterday seen-my man" the man whose father I saw yesterday
at whose resimlerine baktığımız ressam "pictures-his-to looked-our artist" the artist whose pictures we looked at
of which muhtarı seçildiği köy "mayor-its been-chosen-his village" the village of which he was elected mayor
of which muhtarı seçilmek istediği köy "mayor-its to-be-chosen wishing-his village" the village of which he wishes to be elected mayor
Remaining cases (incl. prepositions) whom, which yazdığım mektup "written-my letter" the letter (which) I wrote
from which çıktığımız kapı "emerged-our door" the door from which we emerged
on which geldikleri vapur "come-their ship" the ship they came on

Word order

Word order in simple Turkish sentences is generally Subject Object Verb, as in Japanese and Latin, but unlike English. In more complex sentences, the basic rule is that the qualifier precedes the qualified: this principle includes, as an important special case, the participial modifiers discussed above. The definite precedes the indefinite: thus çocuğa hikâyeyi anlattı "she told the child the story", but hikâyeyi bir çocuğa anlattı "she told the story to a child".[39] In linguistic typology, Subject Object Verb (SOV) is the type of languages in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence appear (usually) in that order. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


It is possible to alter the word order to stress the importance of a certain word or phrase. The main rule is that the word before the verb has the stress without exception. For example, if one wants to say "Hakan went to school" with a stress on the word "school" (okul, the indirect object) it would be "Hakan okula gitti". If the stress is to be placed on "Hakan" (the subject), it would be "Okula Hakan gitti" which means "it's Hakan who went to school".


Vocabulary

Main article: Turkish vocabulary
Origin of the words in Turkish vocabulary
Origin of the words in Turkish vocabulary

The 2005 edition of Güncel Türkçe Sözlük, the official dictionary of the Turkish language published by Turkish Language Association, contains 104,481 entries, of which about 14% are of foreign origin.[40] Among the most significant foreign contributors to Turkish vocabulary are Arabic, French, Persian, Italian, English, and Greek.[41] This article is a companion to Turkish grammar and contains some information that might be considered grammatical. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 63 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Turkish language ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 63 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Turkish language ... Logo of the Turkish Language Association The Turkish Language Association (Turkish: Türk Dil Kurumu - TDK) is the official regulatory body of the Turkish language, founded on July 12, 1932 and headquartered in Ankara, Turkey. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Farsi redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Word formation

Turkish extensively uses agglutination to form new words from nouns and verbal stems. The majority of Turkish words originate from the application of derivative suffixes to a relatively small set of core vocabulary. For the music festival, see Agglutination Metal Festival. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


An example set of words derived from a substantive root:

Turkish Components English Word class
göz göz eye Noun
gözlük göz + -lük eyeglasses Noun
gözlükçü göz + -lük + -çü optician Noun
gözlükçülük göz + -lük + -çü + -lük optician's trade Noun
gözlem göz + -lem observation Noun
gözlemek göz + -le + -mek to observe Verb
gözlemci göz + -lem + -ci observer Noun

Another example, starting from a verbal root:

Turkish Components English Word class
yat- yat- to lie down Verb
yatık yat- + -(ı)k leaning Adjective
yatak yat- + -ak bed, place to sleep Noun
yatay yat- + -ay horizontal Adjective
yatkın yat- + -gın inclined to; stale (from lying too long) Adjective
yatır- yat- + -(ı)r- to lay down Verb
yatırım yat- + -(ı)r- + -(ı)m laying down; deposit, investment Noun
yatırımcı yat- + -(ı)r- + -(ı)m + -cı depositor, investor Noun

New words are also frequently formed by compounding two existing words into a new one, as in German. A few examples of compound words are given below: In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (a word) that consists of more than one other lexeme. ...

Turkish English Constituent words Literal meaning
Pazartesi Monday Pazar ("Sunday") and ertesi ("after") after Sunday
bilgisayar computer bilgi ("information") and say- ("to count") information counter
gökdelen skyscraper gök ("sky") and del- ("to pierce") sky piercer
başparmak thumb baş ("prime") and parmak ("finger") primary finger
önyargı prejudice ön ("before") and yargı ("splitting; judgement") fore-judging

Writing system

Main article: Turkish alphabet
Atatürk introducing the new Turkish alphabet to the people of Sivas. September 20, 1928. (Cover of the French L'Illustration magazine)
Atatürk introducing the new Turkish alphabet to the people of Sivas. September 20, 1928. (Cover of the French L'Illustration magazine)

Turkish is written using a modified version of the Latin alphabet introduced in 1928 by Atatürk to replace the Arabic-based Ottoman Turkish alphabet. The Ottoman alphabet marked only three different vowels—long ā, ū and ī—and included several redundant consonants, such as variants of z (which were distinguished in Arabic but not in Turkish). The omission of short vowels in the Arabic script made it particularly unsuitable for Turkish, which has eight vowels. The Turkish alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, a certain number of which (Ç, Äž, I, Ä°, Ö, Åž, and Ãœ) have been adapted or modified for the phonetic requirements of the language. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... “Mustafa Kemal” redirects here. ... The Turkish alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, a certain number of which (Ç, Äž, I, Ä°, Ö, Åž, and Ãœ) have been adapted or modified for the phonetic requirements of the language. ... Sivas is the provincial capital of Sivas Province in Turkey. ... The Turkish alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, a certain number of which (Ç, Äž, I, Ä°, Ö, Åž, and Ãœ) have been adapted or modified for the phonetic requirements of the language. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... “Mustafa Kemal” redirects here. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... The Ottoman Turkish alphabet (الفبا elifbâ) was the version of the Arabic alphabet that was used for the Ottoman Turkish language during the time of the Ottoman Empire. ...


The reform of the script was an important step in the cultural reforms of the period. The task of preparing the new alphabet and selecting the necessary modifications for sounds specific to Turkish was entrusted to a Language Commission composed of prominent linguists, academics, and writers. The introduction of the new Turkish alphabet was supported by public education centers opened throughout the country, cooperation with publishing companies, and encouragement by Atatürk himself, who toured the country teaching the new letters to the public.[42] As a result, there was a dramatic increase in literacy from its original Third World levels.[43] This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... The Turkish alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, a certain number of which (Ç, Äž, I, Ä°, Ö, Åž, and Ãœ) have been adapted or modified for the phonetic requirements of the language. ...


Turkish now has an alphabet suited to the sounds of the language: the spelling is largely phonetic, with one letter corresponding to each phoneme. Most of the letters are used approximately as in English, the main exceptions being <c>, which denotes [dʒ] (<j> being used for the [ʒ] found in Persian and European loans); and the undotted <ı>, representing [ɯ]. As in German, <ö> and <ü> represent [œ] and [y]. The letter <ğ>, in principle, denotes [ɣ] but has the property of lengthening the preceding vowel and assimilating any subsequent vowel. The letters <ş> and <ç> represent [ʃ] and [tʃ], respectively. A circumflex is written over back vowels following <k>, <g>, or <l> when these consonants represent [c], [ɟ], and [l]—almost exclusively in Arabic and Persian loans.[44] A pronunciation spelling of a word is a spelling intentionally different from the standard spelling, used to emphasis a particular pronunciation of the word. ... In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ... The circumflex ( ˆ ) (often called a caret, a hat or an uppen) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek, French, Dutch, Esperanto, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovak, Vietnamese, Japanese romaji, Welsh, Portuguese, Italian, Afrikaans and other languages, and formerly in Turkish [citation needed]. It received its English name from Latin circumflexus (bent... A back vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ...


The specifically Turkish letters and spellings described above are illustrated in this table:

Turkish spelling Pronunciation Meaning
Cağaloğlu ˈdʒaːɫoːɫu [İstanbul district]
çalıştığı tʃaɫɯʃtɯˈɣɯ where/that s/he works/worked
müjde myʒˈde good news
lâzım laˈzɯm necessary
mahkûm mahˈcum condemned

Cağaloğlu is a neighbourhood (semt) of Istanbul within the borough of Eminönü. Much of the publishing industry in Istanbul is located in Cağaloğlu. ...

Sample

See also: List of Turkish phrases

Dostlar Beni Hatırlasın by Aşık Veysel Şatıroğlu (1894–1973), a minstrel and highly regarded poet in the Turkish folk literature tradition. Turkish has many formulaic expressions for various everyday social situations. ... Aşık Veysel ÅžatıroÄŸlu (1894-1973), also known as just Aşık Veysel, is a Turkish minstrel who was born in Sivas in 1894, and due to an illness he became blind at the age of 7 due to smallpox outbreak in Sivas. ... For the 18th century American form of music and performance known as minstrelsy, see minstrel show. ... ...

Original IPA Translation
Ben giderim adım kalır ben ɟid̪eɾim ɑ̟d̪ɯm kɑ̟ɫɯɾ After I pass, my name remains
Dostlar beni hatırlasın d̪os̟t̪ɫɑ̟ɾ beni hɑ̟tɯɾɫɑ̟s̟ɯn May the friends remember me
Düğün olur bayram gelir d̪yjyn oɫuɾ bɑ̟jɾɑ̟m ɟeliɾ Weddings happen, holidays come
Dostlar beni hatırlasın d̪ostɫɑ̟ɾ beni hɑ̟tɯɾɫɑ̟s̟ɯn May the friends remember me

Can kafeste durmaz uçar dʒɑ̟n kɑ̟fes̟t̪e d̪uɾmɑ̟z utʃɑ̟ɾ Soul flies from the cage
Dünya bir han konan göçer d̪yjja biɾ hɑ̟n konɑ̟n ɟœtʃeɾ World is an inn, settlers depart
Ay dolanır yıllar geçer ɑ̟j d̪oɫɑ̟nɯɾ jɯɫːaɾ ɟetʃeɾ The moon wanders, years go by
Dostlar beni hatırlasın d̪ostɫɑ̟ɾ beni hɑ̟tɯɾɫɑ̟s̟ɯn May the friends remember me

Can bedenden ayrılacak dʒɑ̟n bed̪end̪en ɑ̟jɾɯɫɑ̟dʒɑ̟s̟k Body will be deprived of life
Tütmez baca yanmaz ocak t̪yt̪mez̟ bɑ̟dʒɑ̟s̟ jɑ̟nmɑ̟z̟ odʒɑ̟k Hearth won't burn, smoke won't rise
Selam olsun kucak kucak s̟elaːm oɫsun kudʒɑ̟k kudʒɑ̟k By armfuls, salutes I pass
Dostlar beni hatırlasın d̪ostɫɑ̟ɾ beni hɑ̟tɯɾɫɑ̟s̟ɯn May the friends remember me

Açar solar türlü çiçek ɑ̟tʃɑ̟ɾ s̟olɑ̟ɾ t̪yɾly tʃitʃec Many blooms thrive and fade
Kimler gülmüş kim gülecek cimleɾ ɟylmyʃ cim ɟyledʒec Who had laughed, who'll be glad
Murat yalan ölüm gerçek muɾɑ̟t jɑ̟ɫɑ̟n œlym ɟeɾtʃec Desire's lie, real is death
Dostlar beni hatırlasın d̪ostɫɑ̟ɾ beni hɑ̟tɯɾɫɑ̟s̟ɯn May the friends remember me

Gün ikindi akşam olur ɟyn icindi ɑ̟kʃɑ̟m oɫuɾ Into evening will turn the days
Gör ki başa neler gelir ɟœɾ ci bɑ̟ʃɑ̟ neleɾ ɟeliɾ Behold what soon will take place
Veysel gider adı kalır βejs̟el ɟideɾ ɑ̟d̪ɯ kɑ̟ɫɯɾ Veysel departs, his name remains
Dostlar beni hatırlasın d̪ostɫɑ̟ɾ beni hɑ̟tɯɾɫɑ̟s̟ɯn May the friends remember me

Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...

See also

The Turkish alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, a certain number of which (Ç, Ğ, I, İ, Ö, Ş, and Ü) have been adapted or modified for the phonetic requirements of the language. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A page from the Dîvân-ı Fuzûlî, the collected poems of the 16th-century Ottoman poet Fuzûlî Turkish literature (Turkish: Türk edebiyatı or Türk yazını) is the collection of written and oral texts composed in the Turkish language, either in its Ottoman form or... ... This list of replaced loanwords in Turkish includes Ottoman Turkish loanwords mostly of Arabic and Persian, but also French, Greek, and Italian origin, which were replaced with their Turkish counterparts suggested by the Turkish Language Association (Turkish: Türk Dil Kurumu - TDK) as a part of the cultural reforms - in... A caique on the Bosphorus This is a list of words that have entered into the English language from the Turkic languages. ... // This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ...

Notes

Details of the sources cited only by the author's name are given in full in the References section.

  1. ^ Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.) (2005). Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Language Family Trees - Altaic. Retrieved on 2007-03-18.
  2. ^ a b c Katzner
  3. ^ Language Materials Project: Turkish. UCLA International Institute, Center for World Languages (February 2007). Retrieved on 2007-04-26.
  4. ^ Bazin, Louis (1975). "Turcs et Sogdiens: Les Enseignements de L'Inscription de Bugut (Mongolie), Mélanges Linguistiques Offerts à Émile Benveniste". Collection Linguistique, publiée par la Société de Linguistique de Paris (LXX): 37–45. (French)
  5. ^ Alyılmaz, Cengiz (2006). "On the Bugut Inscription and Mausoleum Complex", in Matteo, C., Paola, R., Gianroberto, S.: Eran ud Aneran. Studies presented to Boris Il'ic Marsak on the occasion of his 70/th birthday (PDF), Venice: Cafoscarina. ISBN 8875431051. Retrieved on 2007-06-28. 
  6. ^ Ishjatms
  7. ^ Findley
  8. ^ Soucek
  9. ^ Taeuber, Irene B. (April 1958). "Population and Modernization in Turkey". Population Index 24 (2): 110. OCLC 41483131. Retrieved on 2007-04-27. Lay summary – JSTOR. 
  10. ^ See Lewis (2002) for a thorough treatment of the Turkish language reform.
  11. ^ a b Turkish Language Association. Türk Dil Kurumu - Tarihçe (History of the Turkish Language Association). Retrieved on 2007-03-18.(Turkish)
  12. ^ See Lewis (2002): 2–3 for the first two translations. For the third see Bedi Yazıcı. Nutuk: Özgün metin ve çeviri (Atatürk's Speech: original text and translation). Retrieved on 2007-09-28.(Turkish)
  13. ^ Mütercim Asım (1799). Burhân-ı Katı Tercemesi. (Turkish)
  14. ^ Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.) (2005). Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Report for language code:tur (Turkish). Retrieved on 2007-03-18.
  15. ^ Center for Studies on Turkey, University of Essen (2003). The European Turks: Gross Domestic Product, Working Population, Entrepreneurs and Household Data (PDF). Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association. Retrieved on 2007-01-06.
  16. ^ TNS Opinion & Social (February 2006), Special Eurobarometer 243 / Wave 64.3: Europeans and their Languages, European Commission Directorate of General Press and Communication, <http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_243_en.pdf>. Retrieved on 2007-03-28
  17. ^ Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.) (2005). Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Report for language code:kmr (Kurdish). Retrieved on 2007-03-18.
  18. ^ The name TDK itself exemplifies this process. The words tetkik and cemiyet in the original name are both Arabic loanwords (the final -i of cemiyeti being a Turkish possessive suffix); kurum is a native Turkish word based on the verb kurmak, "set up, found".
  19. ^ Johanson, Lars (2001). "Discoveries on the Turkic linguistic map" (PDF). Swedish Research Institute in Istanbul. Retrieved on 2007-03-18.
  20. ^ Özsoy
  21. ^ Akalın, Şükrü Haluk (January 2003). "Türk Dil Kurumu'nun 2002 yılı çalışmaları (Turkish Language Association progress report for 2002)" (PDF). Türk Dili 85 (613). ISSN 1301-465X. Retrieved on 2007-03-18. (Turkish)
  22. ^ Brendemoen, B. (1996), "Phonological Aspects of Greek-Turkish Language Contact in Trabzon", Conference on Turkish in Contact, Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study (NIAS) in the Humanities and Social Sciences, Wassenaar, 5–6 February, 1996
  23. ^ Vaux, Bert. "Hemshinli: The Forgotten Black Sea Armenians" (PDF). Harvard University. Retrieved on 2007-04-24.
  24. ^ a b Handbook of the IPA, p. 155
  25. ^ Lewis (2001):3-4,6.
  26. ^ The <k>/<ğ> alternation does not usually apply to monosyllabic nouns. Lewis (2001):10.
  27. ^ "Americans will recognize in it the first vowel of Missouri as pronounced by a native of that state." Lewis (2001):13.
  28. ^ Note that this table is essentially the same as the IPA vowel chart shown above: both table and chart indicate the physical location and quality of each vowel.
  29. ^ Lewis (1953):21
  30. ^ For the terms twofold and fourfold, as well as the superscript notation, see Lewis (1953):21–22. In his more recent works Lewis prefers to omit the superscripts, on the grounds that "there is no need for this once the principle has been grasped" (Lewis [2001]:18).
  31. ^ In Lewis's marvellously precise formulation, "The effect of vowel harmony extends to non-Turkish words too, bringing as many vowels as possible of a foreign borrowing into one class, or pressing a foreign borrowing whose vowels happen to be all of one class still further into Turkish form." Lewis (2001): 17.
  32. ^ This section draws heavily on Lewis (2001) and, to a lesser extent, Lewis (1953). Only the most important references are specifically flagged with footnotes.
  33. ^ see Lewis (2001) Ch XIV.
  34. ^ "The prefix, which is accented, is modelled on the first syllable of the simple adjective or adverb but with the substitution of m, p, r, or s for the last consonant of that syllable." Lewis (2001):55. The prefix retains the first vowel of the base form and thus exhibits a form of reverse vowel harmony.
  35. ^ This "splendid word" appeared at the time of Bayram, the festival marking the end of the month of fasting. Lewis (2001):287.
  36. ^ Because it is also used for the indefinite accusative, Lewis uses the term "absolute case" in preference to "nominative". Lewis (2001):28.
  37. ^ See Lewis (2001):163–165, 260–262 for an exhaustive treatment.
  38. ^ For the terms personal and relative participle see Lewis (1958):98 and Lewis (2001):163 respectively. Most of the examples are taken from Lewis (2001).
  39. ^ Lewis (2001): 239–240.
  40. ^ Güncel Türkçe Sözlük. Turkish Language Association (2005). Retrieved on 2007-03-21.(Turkish)
  41. ^ Türkçe Sözlük (2005)’teki Sözlerin Kökenlerine Ait Sayısal Döküm (Numerical list on the origin of words in Türkçe Sözlük (2005)). Turkish Language Association (2005). Retrieved on 2007-03-21.(Turkish)
  42. ^ Dilaçar, Agop (1977). "Atatürk ve Yazım". Türk Dili 35 (307). ISSN 1301-465X. Retrieved on 2007-03-19. (Turkish)
  43. ^ Coulmas, pp. 243–244
  44. ^ Lewis (2001):3-7.

Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Binomial name Ucla xenogrammus Holleman, 1993 The largemouth triplefin, Ucla xenogrammus, is a fish of the family Tripterygiidae and only member of the genus Ucla, found in the Pacific Ocean from Viet Nam, the Philippines, Palau and the Caroline Islands to Papua New Guinea, Australia (including Christmas Island), and the... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... Logo of the Turkish Language Association The Turkish Language Association (Turkish: Türk Dil Kurumu - TDK) is the official regulatory body of the Turkish language, founded on July 12, 1932 and headquartered in Ankara, Turkey. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bert Vaux (November 19, 1968, Houston, Texas) is Professor of Linguistics in the Department of Foreign Languages and Linguistics at the University of Wisconsin in Milwaukee. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Logo of the Turkish Language Association The Turkish Language Association (Turkish: Türk Dil Kurumu - TDK) is the official regulatory body of the Turkish language, founded on July 12, 1932 and headquartered in Ankara, Turkey. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Logo of the Turkish Language Association The Turkish Language Association (Turkish: Türk Dil Kurumu - TDK) is the official regulatory body of the Turkish language, founded on July 12, 1932 and headquartered in Ankara, Turkey. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Agop Martayan Dilaçar (May 22, 1895 – September 12, 1979) was an Armenian linguist specialized in Turkic languages and the first Secretary General and head specialist of the Turkish Language Association. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

Printed sources

  • Akalın, Şükrü Haluk (January 2003). "Türk Dil Kurumu'nun 2002 yılı çalışmaları (Turkish Language Association progress report for 2002)" (PDF). Türk_Dili 85 (613). ISSN 1301-465X. Retrieved on 2007-03-18. (Turkish)
  • Brendemoen, B. (1996), "Phonological Aspects of Greek-Turkish Language Contact in Trabzon", Conference on Turkish in Contact, Netherlands Institute for Advanced Study (NIAS) in the Humanities and Social Sciences, Wassenaar, 5–6 February, 1996
  • Coulmas, Florian (1989). Writing Systems of the World. Blackwell Publishers Ltd, Oxford. ISBN 0631180281. 
  • Dilaçar, Agop (1977). "Atatürk ve Yazım". Türk Dili 35 (307). ISSN 1301-465X. Retrieved on 2007-03-19. (Turkish)
  • Findley, Carter V. (October 2004). The Turks in World History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517726-6. 
  • Johanson, Lars (2001). "Discoveries on the Turkic linguistic map" (PDF). Swedish Research Institute in Istanbul. Retrieved on 2007-03-18.
  • International Phonetic Association (1999). "Turkish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 155. ISBN 0-521-65236-7 (hb); ISBN 0-521-63751-1 (pb). 
  • Ishjatms, N. (1996), "Nomads In Eastern Central Asia", History of civilizations of Central Asia, vol. 2, UNESCO Publishing, ISBN 92-3-102846-4
  • Katzner, Kenneth (March 2002). Languages of the World, Third Edition. Routledge, an imprint of Taylor & Francis Books Ltd.. ISBN 978-0415250047. 
  • Lewis, Geoffrey (1953). Teach Yourself Turkish. English Universities Press.  (2nd edition 1989)
  • Lewis, Geoffrey (2001). Turkish Grammar. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-870036-9. 
  • Lewis, Geoffrey (2002). The Turkish Language Reform: A Catastrophic Success. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-925669-1. 
  • Nişanyan, Sevan (2007). Sözlerin Soyağacı: Çağdaş Türkçenin Etimoloji Sözlüğü (Etymological Dictionary of Contemporary Turkish). Adam Yayınları, Revised and Enlarged 3rd Edition. ISBN 975-418-868-4. (Turkish)
  • Özsoy, A. Sumru; Taylan, Eser E. (eds.) (2000). Türkçe’nin ağızları çalıştayı bildirileri (Workshop on the dialects of Turkish). Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Yayınevi. ISBN 9755181407. (Turkish)
  • Soucek, Svat (March 2000). A History of Inner Asia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521651691. 
  • Vaux, Bert. "Hemshinli: The Forgotten Black Sea Armenians" (PDF). Harvard University. Retrieved on 2007-04-24.

On-line sources ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Agop Martayan Dilaçar (May 22, 1895 – September 12, 1979) was an Armenian linguist specialized in Turkic languages and the first Secretary General and head specialist of the Turkish Language Association. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Phonetic Association // (abbr. ... Geoffrey L. Lewis is a distinguished scholar of the Turkish language and the author of several well known books about Turkish. ... Geoffrey L. Lewis is a distinguished scholar of the Turkish language and the author of several well known books about Turkish. ... Geoffrey L. Lewis is a distinguished scholar of the Turkish language and the author of several well known books about Turkish. ... Boğaziçi University (Turkish: Boğaziçi Üniversitesi) is one of the most prominent educational institutions in Turkey. ... Bert Vaux (November 19, 1968, Houston, Texas) is Professor of Linguistics in the Department of Foreign Languages and Linguistics at the University of Wisconsin in Milwaukee. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Logo of the Turkish Language Association The Turkish Language Association (Turkish: Türk Dil Kurumu - TDK) is the official regulatory body of the Turkish language, founded on July 12, 1932 and headquartered in Ankara, Turkey. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Binomial name Ucla xenogrammus Holleman, 1993 The largemouth triplefin, Ucla xenogrammus, is a fish of the family Tripterygiidae and only member of the genus Ucla, found in the Pacific Ocean from Viet Nam, the Philippines, Palau and the Caroline Islands to Papua New Guinea, Australia (including Christmas Island), and the... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Logo of the Turkish Language Association The Turkish Language Association (Turkish: Türk Dil Kurumu - TDK) is the official regulatory body of the Turkish language, founded on July 12, 1932 and headquartered in Ankara, Turkey. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Logo of the Turkish Language Association The Turkish Language Association (Turkish: Türk Dil Kurumu - TDK) is the official regulatory body of the Turkish language, founded on July 12, 1932 and headquartered in Ankara, Turkey. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

  • Eyüboğlu, İsmet Zeki (1991). Türk Dilinin Etimoloji Sözlüğü (Etymological Dictionary of the Turkish Language). Sosyal Yayınları, İstanbul. ISBN 975-7384-72-2. (Turkish)
  • Özel, Sevgi; Haldun Özen and Ali Püsküllüoğlu (eds.) (1986). Atatürk'ün Türk Dil Kurumu ve Sonrası (Atatürk's Turkish Language Association and its Legacy). Bilgi Yayınevi, Ankara. OCLC 18836678. (Turkish)
  • Püsküllüoğlu, Ali (2004). Arkadaş Türkçe Sözlük (Arkadaş Turkish Dictionary). Arkadaş Yayınevi, Ankara. ISBN 975-509-053-3. (Turkish)

The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ...

External links

Wikipedia
Turkish language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wiktionary
Turkish language edition of Wiktionary, the free dictionary/thesaurus
Wikibooks
Wikibooks' [[wikibooks:|]] has more about this subject:
Turkish
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...

Linguistics

Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... The Rosetta Project is a global collaboration of language specialists and native speakers working to develop a contemporary version of the historic Rosetta Stone to last from 2000 to 2100. ...

Learning resources

Turkish editions of Wikimedia projects

v  d  e
Turkic languages
Oghur Bulgar† | Chuvash | Hunnic† | Khazar† | Turkic Avar†
Uyghur Old Turkic† | Aini²| Chagatay† | Ili Turki | Lop | Uyghur | Uzbek
Kypchak Altay | Baraba | Bashkir | Crimean Tatar¹ | Cuman† | Karachay-Balkar | Karaim | Karakalpak | Kazakh | Kipchak† | Krymchak | Kumyk | Kyrgyz | Nogai | Old Tatar† | Tatar | Urum¹
Oghuz Afshar | Azerbaijani | Crimean Tatar¹ | Gagauz | Khorasani Turkish | Ottoman Turkish† | Pecheneg† | Qashqai | Salar | Turkish | Turkmen | Urum¹
Arghu Khalaj
Northeastern Chulym | Dolgan | Fuyü Gïrgïs | Khakas | Shor | Tofa | Tuvan | Western Yugur | Sakha/Yakut
Notes: ¹Listed in more than one group, ²Mixed language, ³Disputed, †Extinct

  Results from FactBites:
 
Turkish language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2616 words)
In particular, Turkish is used in countries that formerly (in whole or part) belonged to the Ottoman Empire, such as Bulgaria, Romania, the former Yugoslavia (specifically in Kosovo and Metohija), the Republic of Macedonia, Syria, Greece (especially in Western Thrace) and Israel (by Turkish Jews).
Turkish is the official language of Turkey, and is one of the official languages of Cyprus.
Turkish is written using a modified version of the Latin alphabet, which was introduced in 1928 by Kemal Atatürk as part of his efforts to secularise Turkey.
Encyclopedia4U - Turkish language - Encyclopedia Article (208 words)
Turkish (Türk dili) is a member of Turkic family of languages, often considered a subclass of the Altaic languages.
Although the languages of other Turkic countries (former Soviet republics) are quite similar to Turkish (especially those of Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan), there are many major differences in pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary.
The characteristic features of Turkish are the vowel harmony (if the first vowel of a Turkish word is a front vowel, the second and other vowels of the same word are usually the same vowel or another front vowel; e.g.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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