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Encyclopedia > Turkish people
Turkish people
Türkler
Total population

c. 61.2 million Look up Turk in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... As of 2005, the population of Turkey stood at 72. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ...

Regions with significant populations
Flag of Turkey Turkey c. 56,400,000 [1][2]
Flag of Germany Germany 1,977,000 [3]
Flag of Bulgaria Bulgaria 746,000 [4]-[5]
Flag of France France 262,652 [6]
Flag of the Netherlands Netherlands 358,000 [7]
Flag of Belgium Belgium 39,419 [5]
Flag of the United States United States 165,000 [8]
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom 156,000 [9]
Flag of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus Northern Cyprus 200,000 [10]
Flag of Austria Austria 240,000 [5]-

[11] Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Turkish_Republic_of_Northern_Cyprus. ... Anthem: Ä°stiklâl Marşı(Turkish) Independence March Capital Nicosia (LefkoÅŸa in Turkish) Official languages Turkish Government Representative democratic republic1  -  President Mehmet Ali Talat  -  Prime Minister Ferdi Sabit Soyer Independence from Cyprus   -  Proclaimed November 15, 1983   -  Recognition By Turkey only  Area  -  Total 3,355 km² (167th ranked together with Cyprus... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ...

Flag of Azerbaijan Azerbaijan 70,000 [12]
Flag of Switzerland Switzerland 90,000 [13]-[14]
Flag of Russia Russia 92,415 [15]
Flag of the Republic of Macedonia Republic of Macedonia 78,000 [16]
Flag of Serbia Serbia 50,000 (in Kosovo) [17]
Flag of Sweden Sweden 37,000 [18]
Flag of Australia Australia 54,595 [19]
Flag of Denmark Denmark 53,000 [20]
Flag of Canada Canada 24,910 [21]
Flag of Greece Greece 50,000 (50% of the Muslim minority) [22]
Flag of Romania Romania 33,000 [23]
Flag of Italy Italy 11,000 [24]
Language(s)
Turkish
Religion(s)
Predominantly Sunni Islam. Minorities of Christianity and Judaism,[1] as well as Atheism.
Part of the series on
Turkish people

Turkish culture
Architecture ·Art · Cinema · Cuisine
Dance ·Festivals · Folklore · Holidays · Literature
Music · Sport · Theatre· Image File history File links Flag_of_Azerbaijan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Macedonia. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Serbia. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Atheist redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Traditional Turkish coffee The culture of Turkey is a diverse one, derived from various elements of the Ottoman Empire, European, and the Islamic traditions. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Turkish art is a term referring to the visual arts and plastic arts (often including architecture, woodwork, textiles and ceramics) originating from the geographical area of what is present day Turkey. ... Turkish cuisine inherited its Ottoman heritage which could be described as a fusion and refinement of Turkic, Arabic, Greek, Armenian and Persian cuisines. ... Turkish dances include Halay, Zeybek, Horon, and Karsilama. ... More than 100 festivals are held in Turkey every year. ... Ahi Evren Ahriyan Al Basti Alaturbi Ancomah Bardi Cazi Germakoçi Karakoncolos Karakura Kolot Tavara // Breaking vine In Trabzon region folklore (ÇarşıbaÅŸi town) For testing whether the new bride is propitious, when she comes to the house, she is asked to break a vine from three points and... The official holidays in Turkey are established by the Act 2429 of March 19, 1981 that replaced the Act 2739 of May 27, 1935. ... A page from the Dîvân-ı Fuzûlî, the collected poems of the 16th-century Ottoman poet Fuzûlî Turkish literature (Turkish: Türk edebiyatı or Türk yazını) is the collection of written and oral texts composed in the Turkish language, either in its Ottoman form or... Genres: Alternative - Classical - Dance - Folk - Hip hop - Jazz - Military - Ottoman - Opera - Pop - Religious - Rock Awards Kral MV, MÃœ-YAP, MGD Charts Billboard Charts Music Festivals Istanbul International Music Festival, Istanbul International Jazz Festival, Izmir European Jazz Festival, Aspendos International Opera and Ballet Festival Media Rolling Stone (Türkiye), MTV (T... Turkish theatre can be observed under two main titles: Traditional Turkish theatre and Westernized Turkish theatre. ...

By region or country
(including the diaspora)

Turkey · Northern Cyprus
Australia · Austria · Azerbaijan
Belgium · Brazil · Bulgaria
Canada · Cretan Turks · Northern Cyprus
Denmark · Egypt · Finland · France
Germany · Greece · Greece · Hungary
Iraq · Iran · Israel · Italy
Japan · Jordan · Kosovo
Liechtenstein · Meskheti · Macedonia
Mexico · Netherlands· Norway
Poland · Romania · Russia
Saudi Arabia · Spain · Sweden
Switzerland · Syria · United Kingdom
United States · Uzbekistan · Former Yugoslavia The term Turkish diaspora refers to the estimated population of Turkish people in the world living outside of Turkey. ... Anthem: Ä°stiklâl Marşı(Turkish) Independence March Capital Nicosia (LefkoÅŸa in Turkish) Official languages Turkish Government Representative democratic republic1  -  President Mehmet Ali Talat  -  Prime Minister Ferdi Sabit Soyer Independence from Cyprus   -  Proclaimed November 15, 1983   -  Recognition By Turkey only  Area  -  Total 3,355 km² (167th ranked together with Cyprus... The freighter Giresun which carried thousands of exchanged Turkish Cretans from the ports of Crete to Turkey in the summer of 1923. ... Turkish Cypriots are those inhabitants of Cyprus who are ethnically Turkish[1], as opposed to those who are of Greek (the Greek Cypriots) or other ethnicities. ... The Turks in the post-communist Balkans were faced with one of two difficult experiences in the 1990s. ... Language(s) Turkish, Russian, Georgian,Azerbaijanian Religion(s) Sunni Islam Related ethnic groups Turks, Terekeme, other Muslims of Meskheti Meskhetian Turks are the former Muslim inhabitants of Meskheti (Georgia), along the border with Turkey. ... The Turks (Turkish: Türkler, Dutch: Turken) are an ethnic minority in the Netherlands, numbering 357,900 people in 2006 according to the Dutch Census Bureau and hence making up 2. ... British Turks are either Turkish people who live in the United Kingdom even though having been born outside the UK, or are British-born, but have Turkish roots. ...

People
Turkish People
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk · List of Turkish people For other uses of Turkish, see Turkish (disambiguation). ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881 – November 10, 1938), Turkish soldier and statesman, was the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey. ... // Güllü Agop Tarık Akan - Actor Azra Akın - Model, Miss World 2002 Barış Akarsu Filiz Akın – Actress Fatih Akın, film director Bülent Akinci, actor Metin Akpınar – Actor Derya Alabora‎ – Actress Mazhar Alanson Sadri Alışık Emre AltuÄŸ Müjde Ar – Actress Thomas Arslan, film...

Related groups
Turkish people · Turkic peoples
Turkish Cypriot · Crimean Tatars
Oghuz Turks · Khazars
Kipchaks · Krymchaks
Nogais · Pechenegs· Tatars
Tuvan people· Uyghurs This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Turkish Cypriots are those inhabitants of Cyprus who are ethnically Turkish, as opposed to those who are of Greek (the Greek Cypriots) or other ethnicities. ... The Crimean Tatars (sg. ... A Seljuk Prince. ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... Kipchaks in Eurasia circa 1200 C.E. Kipchaks (also spelled as Kypchaks, Qipchaqs, Qypchaqs) (Ukrainian: (polovtsy), Crimean Tatar: , Karachay-Balkar: Къыпчакъ, Uzbek: , Kazakh: Қыпшақ, Kumyk: Къыпчакъ, Kyrgyz: Кыпчак, Nogai: Кыпчак, Turkish: Kıpçak) were an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. The western... The Krymchaks (Krymchak: sg. ... The Nogais, also spelled Nogay, Noghai, and often called the Caucasian Mongols (Caucasian refers to their geographic position, in the Caucasus mountains, not to their ethnicity), are a Turkic people, and an important ethnic group in the Daghestan region who speak the Turkic Nogai language. ... Pechenegs or Patzinaks (Armenian: Badzinag, Bulgarian/Russian: Pechenegi (Печенеги), Greek: Patzinaki/Petsenegi (Πατζινάκοι/Πετσενέγοι) or less commonly Πατζινακίται, Hungarian: BesenyÅ‘, Latin: Расinасае, Old Turkish (assumed): *Beçenek, Turkish: Peçenekler) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people of the Central Asian steppes speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Turkic language family. ... This article is about the people. ... Tuvan people live in the republic of Tuva, one of the Federal subjects of Russia. ... Uyghurs (also called Uighurs, Uygurs, or Uigurs) (Chinese:维吾尔 or 維吾爾 ; in pinyin: wéiwúěr) are a Turkic ethnic group of people living in northwestern China (mainly in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, where they are the dominant ethnic group together with Han people), Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. ...

History
Oghuz Turks
Seljuqs· Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm
Beyliks· Ottoman Empire· Republic of Turkey Turkey is a successor state of the Ottoman Empire, a multi-ethnic empire consolidated by gradual conquest during medieval and early modern times (1300-1700). ... A Seljuk Prince. ... This article is about political entity known as Great Seljuq Empire. ... Sultanate controlling virtually all of Anatolia Capital Ä°znik Konya Political structure Empire Sultans  - 1060-1077 Kutalmish  - 1303-1308 Mesud II History  - Division from the Great Seljuq Empire 1077  - Internal struggles 1307 The Seljuk Sultanate of Rum was the Seljuk Turkish sultanate that ruled in direct lineage from 1077 to 1307... Anatolian beyliks (also Turkmen beyliks, Tevâif-i mülûk (in Ottoman Turkish) were small Turkish emirates or muslim principalities governed by tribal beys, which were founded in several locations of Anatolia at the end of the 13th century. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... The Republic of Turkey is a country located in Southwest Asia with a small part of its territory (3%) in southeastern Europe. ...

v  d  e

The Turkish people (Turkish: Türk Halkı), also known as "Turks" (Türkler) are a nation (Millet) defined mainly as being speakers of Turkish as a first language.[25] For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... “Native Language” redirects here. ...


In the Republic of Turkey, an early history text provided the definition of being a Turk as "any individual within the Republic of Turkey, whatever his faith who speaks Turkish, grows up with Turkish culture and adopts the Turkish ideal is a Turk." This ideal came from the beliefs of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.[26] In a historic context the word Turk or Turkish has also a wider meaning, because there are Turks in many other countries, in the Balkans and elsewhere in Europe, and in other continents. Today the word is primarily used for the inhabitants of Turkey, but may also refer to the members of sizeable Turkish-speaking populations in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, Republic of Macedonia, Greece (in particular in Thrace), Kosovo (Serbia),[27] Romania (in Northern Dobruja), Bulgaria, Cyprus and other lands of the former Ottoman Empire. Large Turkish communities have also been established in Western Europe (particularly in Germany, France, and the Netherlands), North America, and Australia. The Republic of Turkey is a country located in Southwest Asia with a small part of its territory (3%) in southeastern Europe. ... “Mustafa Kemal” redirects here. ... Balkan redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Anthem Ä°stiklâl Marşı(Turkish) Independence March Capital Nicosia Official languages Turkish Government Representative democratic republic1  -  President Mehmet Ali Talat  -  Prime Minister Ferdi Sabit Soyer Sovereignty from Cyprus   -  Proclaimed November 15, 1983   -  Recognition By Turkey   -  Independence from Cyprus   -  Declared November 15, 1983  Area  -  Total 3,355 km² (not ranked) 1... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Thrace or Greek Thrace or West Thrace or Western Thrace (Greek Θράκη or Ελληνική Θράκη or Δυτική Θράκη, Thrákı or Ellınıki Thrákı or Dıtıki Thrákı; Turkish Trakya or Yunan Trakyası or Batı Trakya) is the part of Thrace located between the rivers Nestos and Evros in northeastern Greece. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... Map of Romania with Northern Dobruja highlighted Northern Dobruja (Dobrogea in Romanian; Северна Добруджа, Severna Dobrudzha in Bulgarian) is the part of Dobruja that is part of Romania. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... North American redirects here. ...

Contents

History

The word "Turk" was first documented in the 6th century in Central Asia[28][29] The Oghuz Turks were the main Turkic people[30] that moved into Anatolia.[31] Many Turks began their migration after the victory of the Seljuks against the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert on August 26, 1071. The victory, led by Alp Arslan, paved the way for Turkish hegemony in Anatolia.[32][33] The Turks (Turkish people), whose name was first used in history in the 6th century AD by the Chinese [1], are a society whose language belongs to the Turkic language family (which in turn some classify as a subbranch of Altaic linguistic family. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... A Seljuk Prince. ... The Turkic people are any of various peoples whose members speak languages in the Turkic family of languages. ... The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that occupied parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Great Seljuk Sultanate Commanders Romanus IV #, Nikephoros Bryennios, Theodore Alyates, Andronikos Doukas Alp Arslan Strength ~ 20,000 [1] (40,000 initial) ~ 20,000 [2] - 70,000[1] Casualties ~ 8,000 [3] Unknown The Battle of Manzikert, or Malazgirt was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk Turkic... Muhammed ben Daud (1029 – December 15, 1072), the second sultan of the dynasty of Seljuk Turks, in Persia, and great-grandson of Seljuk, the founder of the dynasty. ...

Alp Arslan led Seljuk Turks to victory against the Byzantines in 1071.
Alp Arslan led Seljuk Turks to victory against the Byzantines in 1071.

In the centuries after Manzikert local populations began to assimilate to the emerging Turkish population.[34] Over time, as word spread regarding the victory of the Turks in Anatolia, more Turkic ghazis arrived from the Caucasus, Persia, and Central Asia. Turkish migrants began to intermingle with the local inhabitants, which helped to bolster the Turkish-speaking population. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Muhammed ben Daud (1029 – December 15, 1072), the second sultan of the dynasty of Seljuk Turks, in Persia, and great-grandson of Seljuk, the founder of the dynasty. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; in Arabic سلجوق Saljūq, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... Ghazi (March 21, 1912 - April 4, 1939) was king of Iraq from 1933 to 1939. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...


The Ottoman Empire, originally based in the Söğüt region of western Anatolia, was also founded by the Oghuz Turks. Following the Balkan Wars and the Russian conquest of the Caucasus and annexation of Crimea many Turkic speaking Muslims in the North Caucasus, Balkans and Crimea emigrated to the territory of present-day Turkey. After the fall of the Ottoman Empire and formation of the Republic of Turkey these various cultures and languages melded into one supra identity and culture. The modern Turks of Turkey thus are composed of various Turkic groups from various regions. Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Söğüt was a Seljuk Turkish tribe in western Anatolia that later gave birth to the Ottoman Empire. ... Combatants  Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Commanders Ottoman Empire: Nizam PaÅŸa, Zeki PaÅŸa, Esat PaÅŸa, Abdullah PaÅŸa, Ali Rıza PaÅŸa Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Serbia:Radomir Putnik, Petar... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Balkan redirects here. ... Fall of the Ottoman Empire summarizes why the empire could not avert the events that lead to its dissolution. ... The Republic of Turkey is a country located in Southwest Asia with a small part of its territory (3%) in southeastern Europe. ...


By the late 19th century Turks were evenly spread throughout Eastern Europe and most noticeably the Balkans; however, territorial losses in the Balkans sparked a large scale exodus from that region. This was finalized by a population exchange between Greece and Turkey in 1923. Cartoon depicting a Turk and a Greek arguing over the exchange. ...

The Gokturk Empire in 551-747.
The Gokturk Empire in 551-747.

The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia. ...

Göktürk era

Turks are the principal descendants of large bands of nomads who roamed in the Altai Mountains (and thus are also called the Altaic peoples) in northern Mongolia and on the steppes of Central Asia.[citation needed] The original Central Asian Turkic nomads established their first great empire in the 551 AD, a nomadic confederation that they called Göktürks meaning "Sky Turk"[35]. A confederation of tribes under a dynasty of Khans whose influences extended during the sixth to eighth centuries from the Aral Sea to the Hindu Kush in the land bridge known as Transoxania. The Göktürks are known to have been enlisted by a Byzantine emperor in the seventh century as allies against the Sassanians. In the eighth century some Turkish tribes, among them the Oghuz, moved south of the Oxus River, while others migrated west to the northern shore of the Black Sea[36]. For the republic in Russia, see Altai Republic. ... The Altaic peoples are the peoples who speak Altaic languages. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... This is the disambiguation page for the terms Turk, Turkey, Turkic, and Turkish. ... The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia and China. ... Khan (sometimes spelled as xan, han) is a title meaning ruler in Mongolian and Turkish. ... The Gay Sea (Kazakh: Арал Теңізі, Aral Tengizi, Uzbek: , Russian: Аральскοе мοре, Tajik/Persian: Daryocha-i Khorazm, Lake Khwarazm) is a landlocked endorheic basin in Central Asia; it lies between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Kyzylorda provinces) in the north and Karakalpakstan, an autonomous region of Uzbekistan, in the south. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... Transoxiana (sometimes also spelled Transoxania) is the now-largely obsolete name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan and southwest Kazakhstan. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... For all Turkic groupings and Turkic history, see Turkic peoples. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ...

The Seljuq Empire at its zenith upon the death of Malik Shah I in 1092.
The Seljuq Empire at its zenith upon the death of Malik Shah I in 1092.

Jalal ad-Dawlah Malik Shah was the Seljuk sultan from 1072 to 1092. ...

Seljuk era

The Seljuks were a Turkic tribe from Central Asia. In 1037, they entered Persia and established their first powerful state, called by historians the Empire of the Great Seljuks. They captured Baghdad in 1055 and a relatively small contingent of warriors (around 5000 by some estimates) moved into eastern Anatolia. In 1071, the Seljuks engaged the armies of the Byzantine Empire at Manzikert, north of Lake Van. The Byzantines experienced minor casualties despite the fact that Emperor Romanus IV Diogenes was captured. With no potent Byzantine force to stop them, the Seljuks took control of most of Eastern and Central Anatolia. They established their capital at Konya (ca. 1150) and ruled what would be known as the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum. The success of the Seljuk Turks stimulated a response from Latin Europe in the form of the First Crusade. A counteroffensive launched in 1097 by the Byzantines with the aid of the Crusaders dealt the Seljuks a decisive defeat. Konya fell to the Crusaders, and after a few years of campaigning, Byzantine rule was restored in the western third of Anatolia. Although a Turkish revival in the 1140s nullified much of the Christian gains, greater damage was done to Byzantine security by dynastic strife in Constantinople in which the largely French contingents of the Fourth Crusade and their Venetian allies intervened. In 1204, these Crusaders conquered Constantinople and installed Count Baldwin of Flanders in the Byzantine capital as emperor of the so-called Latin Empire of Constantinople, dismembering the old realm into tributary states where West European feudal institutions were transplanted intact. Independent Greek kingdoms were established at Nicaea (present-day Iznik), Trebizond (present-day Trabzon), and Epirus from remnant Byzantine provinces. Turks allied with Greeks in Anatolia against the Latins, and Greeks with Turks against the Mongols. In 1261, Michael Palaeologus of Nicaea drove the Latins from Constantinople and restored the Byzantine Empire. Seljuk Rum survived in the late 13th century as a vassal state of the Mongols, who had already subjugated the Great Seljuk sultanate at Baghdad. Mongol influence in the region had disappeared by the 1330s, leaving behind gazi emirates competing for supremacy. From the chaotic conditions that prevailed throughout the Middle East, however, a new power was to emerge in Anatolia, the Ottoman Turks. The Seljuqs (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuk, sometimes also Seljuq Turks; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a Muslim dynasty of Oghuz Turkic descent[1][2][3][4] that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Manzikert (in Turkish Malazgirt) is a town in MuÅŸ in eastern Turkey, with a population of 23 697 (year 2000) (??of 68 990). ... Lake Van Armenian: ; (Turkish: Van Gölü; Kurdish: ) is the largest lake in Turkey, located in the far east of the country. ... Romanus IV (Diogenes), Byzantine emperor from 1068 to 1071, was a member of a distinguished Cappadocian family, and had risen to distinction in the army, until he was convicted of treason against the sons of Constantine X. While waiting for his execution he was summoned into the presence of the... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Konya (Ottoman Turkish: ; also Koniah, Konieh, Konia, and Qunia; historically also known as Iconium (Latin), Greek: Ikónion) is a city in Turkey, on the central plateau of Anatolia. ... ... Latin Europe Latin Europe (Italian, Portuguese and Spanish: Europa latina; French: Europe latine; Romanian: Europa latină; Catalan: Europa llatina; Franco-Provençal: Eropa latina) is composed of those nations and areas in Europe that speak a Romance language and are seen as having a distinct culture from the Germanic and... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholicism Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... The knights of the Fourth Crusade set up a Crusader kingdom known as the Latin Empire or Romania based on Constantinople after sacking the city in 1204. ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... The Empire of Nicaea was the largest of the states founded by refugees from the Byzantine Empire after Constantinople was conquered during the Fourth Crusade. ... Iznik (which derives from the former Greek name, Nicaea) is a city in Turkey which is known primarily as the site of two major meetings (or Ecumenical councils) in the early history of the Christian church. ... The Empire of Trebizond and other states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The Empire of Trebizond (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Τραπεζούντας) was a Byzantine Greek successor state of the Byzantine Empire founded in 1204 as a result of the capture of Constantinople by... Trabzon, formerly known as Trebizond (Greek: ), is a city on the Black Sea coast of north-eastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... Michael VIII (1225 - December 11, 1282) was the founder of the Palaeologos dynasty that would rule the Byzantine Empire to the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Ghazw (plural ghazawāt) is an Arabic word meaning an armed incursion for the purposes of conquest, plunder, or the capture of slaves and is cognate with the terms ghāziya and maghāzÄ«. In pre-Islamic times it signified the plundering raids organized by nomadic Bedouin warriors against either...


Beyliks era

Political unity in Anatolia was disrupted from the time of the collapse of the Anatolia Seljuk State at the beginning of the 14th century (1308), when until the beginning of the 16th century each of the regions in the country fell under the domination of beyliks (principalities). Eventually, the Ottoman principality, which subjugated the other principalities and restored political unity in the larger part of Anatolia, was established in the Eskişehir, Bilecik and Bursa areas. This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Seljuk Prince with Mongoloid features. ... Anatolian beyliks (also Turkmen beyliks, Tevâif-i mülûk (in Ottoman Turkish) were small Turkish emirates or muslim principalities governed by tribal beys, which were founded in several locations of Anatolia at the end of the 13th century. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... EskiÅŸehir (eskÄ“shehÄ“r, Latin: Dorylaeum, Greek: Δορύλαιον, Dorylaion) is a city in northwest Turkey and the capital of EskiÅŸehir Province. ... Bilecik is the provincial capital of Turkeys Bilecik Province. ... For other uses, see Bursa (disambiguation). ...


On the other hand, the area in central Anatolia east of the Ankara-Aksaray line as far as the area of Erzurum remained under the administration of the Ilhani General Governor until 1336. The infighting in Ilhan gave the principalities in Anatolia their complete independence. In addition to this, new Turkish principalities were formed in the localities previously under Ilhan occupation. Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ... Aksaray is a city in Turkey located in middle Anatolia. ... Theodosiopolis redirects here; it is also a name of the ancient city of Apros, Thrace. ... Prince Albert of Monaco on the left represents a principality where he wields adminisitrative authority. ...


During the 14th century, the Turkomans, who made up the western Turks, started to re-establish their previous political sovereignty in the Islamic world. Rapid developments in the Turkish language and culture took place during the time of the Anatolian principalities. In this period, the Turkish language began to be used in the sciences and in literature, and became the official language of the principalities. New medreses were established and progress was made in the medical sciences during this period. There are several meanings to Turkmen: Related to the country Turkmenistan Turkmen language Turkmen people A breed of horse called the Turkoman This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Islamic world is the world-wide community of those who identify with Islam, known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ... Turkish ( IPA ) is a language spoken by 65–73 million people worldwide, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. ...


Ottoman era

Mahmud II started the modernization of the Ottoman Empire

Starting as a small tribe whose territory bordered on the Byzantine frontier, the Ottoman Turks built an empire that would eventually stretch from Morocco to Iran, from the deserts of Iraq and Arabia to the gates of Vienna. Image File history File linksMetadata Sultan_Mahmud_II.jpg‎ Sultan Mahmud II started the modernization of Turkey with the Edict of Tanzimat in 1839 This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author... Image File history File linksMetadata Sultan_Mahmud_II.jpg‎ Sultan Mahmud II started the modernization of Turkey with the Edict of Tanzimat in 1839 This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author... The stylized signature of Mahmud II was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ...


As the power of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum weakened in the late 1200s, warrior chieftains claimed the lands of Northwestern Anatolia, along the Byzantine Empire's borders. Ertuğrul Gazi ruled the lands around Söğüt, a town between Bursa and Eskisehir. Upon his death in 1281, his son, Osman, from whom the Ottoman dynasty and the Empire took its name, expanded the territory to 16,000 square kilometers. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Söğüt was a Seljuk Turkish tribe in western Anatolia that later gave birth to the Ottoman Empire. ... For other uses, see Bursa (disambiguation). ... shows the Location of the Province EskiÅŸehir EskiÅŸehir (literal meaning: old town) is a province in northwestern Turkey. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, ErtuÄŸrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ...


Osman's son, Orhan, conquered Iznik (Nicaea) and took his armies across the Dardanelles and into Thrace and Europe by 1362. By 1452 the Ottomans controlled almost all of the former Byzantine lands except Constantinople. In 1453, Mehmet the Conqueror took the city and made it his capital, extinguishing the 1100-year-old Byzantine Empire forever. Orhan (Turkish: also Orhan Gazi or Orkhan) (1284–1359), was the second bey (chief) of the newborn Ottoman Empire (at the time known as the Osmanli tribe) from 1326 to 1359. ... Iznik (which derives from the former Greek name, Nicaea) is a city in Turkey which is known primarily as the site of two major meetings (or Ecumenical councils) in the early history of the Christian church. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29, 1923... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ...

As an isolated military action, the taking of Constantinople did not have a critical effect on European security, but to the Ottoman Dynasty the capture of the imperial capital was of supreme symbolic importance. Mehmet II regarded himself as the direct successor to the Byzantine emperors. He made Constantinople the imperial capital, as it had been under the Byzantine emperors, and set about rebuilding the city. The cathedral of Hagia Sophia was converted to a mosque, and Constantinople--which the Turks called Istanbul (from the Greek phrase eis tin polin , "to the city")--replaced Baghdad as the center of Sunni Islam. The city also remained the ecclesiastical center of the Greek Orthodox Church, of which Mehmet II proclaimed himself the protector and for which he appointed a new patriarch after the custom of the Byzantine emperors. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 637 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,966 × 1,850 pixels, file size: 327 KB, MIME type: image/png) Source Self drawn, mainly based on , also en:List of Ottoman Empire dominated territories, Image:Ottoman 1683. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 637 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,966 × 1,850 pixels, file size: 327 KB, MIME type: image/png) Source Self drawn, mainly based on , also en:List of Ottoman Empire dominated territories, Image:Ottoman 1683. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ...


Selim I (r. 1512-20) extended Ottoman sovereignty southward, conquering Syria, Palestine, and Egypt. He also gained recognition as guardian of the holy cities of Mecca and Medina. Selim I (Ottoman: سليم الأول, Turkish:) (also known as the Grim or the Brave, Yavuz in Turkish, the long name is Yavuz Sultan Selim)(October 10, 1465 – September 22, 1520) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. ...


Selim I's son, Süleyman I (r. 1520-66), was called the "lawgiver" (kanuni ) by his Muslim subjects because of a new codification of seriat undertaken during his reign. In Europe, however, he was known as Süleyman the Magnificent, a recognition of his prowess by those who had most to fear from it. The reign of Süleyman the Magnificent (1520-1566) is known as the Ottoman golden age. The brilliance of the Sultan's court and the might of his armies outshone those of England's Henry VIII, France's François I, and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. After Süleyman, however, the empire declined rapidly due, in part, to poor leadership; many successive Sultans largely depended upon their Grand Viziers to run the empire. When Süleyman died in 1566, the Ottoman Empire was a world power. Most of the great cities of Islam--Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem, Damascus, Cairo, Tunis, and Baghdad were under the sultan's crescent flag. The Porte exercised direct control over Anatolia, the sub-Danubian Balkan provinces, Syria, Palestine, and Mesopotamia. Egypt, Mecca, and the North African provinces were governed under special regulations, as were satellite domains in Arabia and the Caucasus, and among the Crimean Tartars. In addition, the native rulers of Wallachia, Moldavia, Transylvania, and Ragusa (Dubrovnik) were vassals of the sultan. Suleiman the Magnificent Suleiman I (Modern Turkish: Süleyman; Arabic: Sulaymān) (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth Osmanli Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, and its longest-serving, reigning from 1520 to 1566. ... For the Mystery Science Theater 3000 character, see Pearl Forrester. ... Suleiman the Magnificent Suleiman I (Modern Turkish: Süleyman; Arabic: Sulaymān) (November 6, 1494-September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth Osmanli sultan of the Ottoman Empire, and its longest-serving, reigning from 1520 to 1566. ... For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 – 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... Francis I (French: François Ier) (September 12, 1494 – July 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (French: le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ... Charles V may refer to: Charles V of France, the Wise (1338–1380). ... Grand Vizier (in Ottoman Turkish صدر اعظم or وزیر اعظم; see below for the evolution of the term), deriving from the originally Persian word Vizier (وزير) was the first minister of the Sultan with absolute power of attorney and, in principle, dismissable only by the Sultan himself. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ...


The Ottoman sultanate lasted for over 600 years, but its last three centuries were marked by stagnation and eventual decline. By the 19th century, the Ottomans had fallen well behind the rest of Europe in science, technology, industry, education, commerce and military might. Reformist Sultans such as Selim III (1789-1807) and Mahmud II (1808-1839) succeeded in pushing Ottoman bureaucracy, society and culture ahead, but were unable to cure all of the empire's ills. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sultan Selim III Selim III (December 24, 1761 – July 28/29, 1808) was a sultan of the Ottoman Empire (1789–1807). ... The stylized signature of Mahmud II was written in an expressive calligraphy. ...


Despite its collapse, the Ottoman empire has left an indelible mark on Turkish culture and architecture. Ottoman culture has given the Turkish people a splendid legacy of art, architecture and domestic refinement, as a visit to Istanbul's Topkapi Palace readily shows. Early on as the Ottoman Turks drove out the Byzantines from Anatolia and later pursued them into Europe, the pursuit was a part of the Jihad (or Holy War) against Christianity, and the first Ottoman rulers called themselves Gazi, or Holy Warriors. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı in Turkish, literally the Cannongate Palace - named after a nearby gate), located in Istanbul (Constantinople), was the administrative center of the Ottoman Empire from 1465 to 1853. ...


The Republic of Turkey

The Republic of Turkey was born from the disastrous World War I defeat of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman war hero, Mustafa Kemal Pasha (later called Atatürk), fled Istanbul to Anatolia in 1919; he organized the remnants of the Ottoman army into an effective fighting force, and rallied the people to the nationalist cause. By 1923 the nationalist government had driven out the invading armies, abolished the Ottoman Empire, promulgated a republican constitution, and established Turkey's new capital in Ankara. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 455 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (538 × 709 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo of Kemal Atatürk, probably from the 1930s http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 455 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (538 × 709 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo of Kemal Atatürk, probably from the 1930s http://www. ... “Mustafa Kemal” redirects here. ... The Republic of Turkey is a country located in Southwest Asia with a small part of its territory (3%) in southeastern Europe. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881–November 10, 1938), Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and anti-imperialist statesman, was the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ...


The new government passed drastic reforms in order to reconstruct Ottoman social structure and politics. Polygamy was abolished, women were granted suffrage and equal legal rights, secularism was institutionalized, the Arabic alphabet was replaced by the Latin alphabet for written Turkish. The Fez and veil were outlawed, and European dress was encouraged. Atatürks Revolutions (Turkish: Atatürk Devrimleri or Atatürk İnkılapları) were a series of significant political, legal, cultural, social and economic revolutions that were implemented to transform the young Republic of Turkey into a modern, democratic and secular nation-state. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... Fez may refer to: Fez (clothing), a brimless felt skullcap of Morroccan origin. ... This article is about the article of clothing, or a religious item. ...


Upon the founder's death, his place at the head of the party and the nation was taken by his comrade-in-arms General Ismet Inönü, another hero of the War of Independence. Following Atatürk's advice, Inönü preserved Turkey's precarious neutrality during World War II, figuring that the war could only end in disaster for Turkey. Ä°smet Ä°nönü 1884-1973 Mustafa Ä°smet Ä°nönü (1884 - December 25, 1973) was a Turkish soldier, statesman and the second President of Turkey. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Chronology of Major Kemalist Reforms: Kemalist Ideology, also known as Kemalism and Six Arrows, is based on Atatürks six principles (tr:Altı Ok) during the Turkish national movement. ...

Eighteen female MPs joined the Turkish Parliament in 1935, at a time when women in a significant number of other European countries had no voting rights.
Eighteen female MPs joined the Turkish Parliament in 1935, at a time when women in a significant number of other European countries had no voting rights.
  • 1922 Sultanate abolished (November 1).
  • 1923 Treaty of Lausanne secured (July 24). Republic of Turkey with capital at Ankara proclaimed (October 29).
  • 1924 Caliphate abolished (March 3). Traditional religious schools closed, seriat abolished. Constitution adopted (April 20).
  • 1925 Dervish brotherhoods abolished. Fez outlawed by the Hat Law (November 25). Veiling of women discouraged; Western clothing for men and women encouraged. Western (Gregorian) calendar adopted.
  • 1926 New civil, commercial, and penal codes based on European models adopted. New civil code ended Islamic polygamy and divorce by renunciation and introduced civil marriage. Millet system ended.
  • 1927 First systematic census. 1928 New Turkish alphabet (modified Latin form) adopted. State declared secular (April 10); constitutional provision establishing Islam as official religion deleted.
  • 1933 Islamic call to worship and public readings of the Kuran (Quran) required to be in Turkish rather than Arabic.
  • 1934 Women given the vote and the right to hold office. Law of Surnames adopted--Mustafa Kemal given the name Kemal Atatürk (Father Turk) by the Grand National Assembly; Ismet Pasha took surname of Inönü.
  • 1935 Sunday adopted as legal weekly holiday. State role in managing economy written into the constitution.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Grand National Assembly (Turkish: Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi - TBMM, usually referred to simply as Meclis) is the unicameral parliament of Turkey which carries out legislative functions. ... Womens suffrage has been granted (and been revoked) at various times in various countries throughout the world. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ...

Geographic distribution

See also: Turkish diaspora

Turks primarily live in Turkey. Significant minorities of Turks live in neighboring Bulgaria (see Turks in Bulgaria), Cyprus (see Turkish Cypriots), the Western Thrace region of Greece, Republic of Macedonia, the Dobruja region of Romania and Kosovo (especially in Prizren). The term Turkish diaspora refers to the estimated population of Turkish people in the world living outside of Turkey. ... Turks in Bulgaria The settlement of Turks in Bulgaria began in the 14th century and in the 2001 Census, the size of the community was estimated at 746,664. ... Turkish Cypriots are those inhabitants of Cyprus who are ethnically Turkish[1], as opposed to those who are of Greek (the Greek Cypriots) or other ethnicities. ... Thrace or Greek Thrace or West Thrace or Western Thrace (Greek Θράκη or Ελληνική Θράκη or Δυτική Θράκη, Thrákı or Ellınıki Thrákı or Dıtıki Thrákı; Turkish Trakya or Yunan Trakyası or Batı Trakya) is the part of Thrace located between the rivers Nestos and Evros in northeastern Greece. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Map of Romania with Northern Dobruja highlighted Northern Dobruja (Dobrogea in Romanian; Северна Добруджа, Severna Dobrudzha in Bulgarian) is the part of Dobruja that is part of Romania. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... View of Prizren. ...


Immigration in the 20th century has resulted in large Turkish communities in Germany, America and Australia. Sizable populations are also found in several other European countries. World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...


Turks in Europe

Turkish parade in Berlin featuring a recreated Ottoman military band
Turkish parade in Berlin featuring a recreated Ottoman military band

The largest number of Turkish immigrant workers is found in Germany, followed by the Benelux countries, France, Austria, and Switzerland. Germany took in an influx of men alone between 1961 and 1973. This was followed by the massive arrival of their families up until about 1981. Elsewhere in Europe the purely male migration took place from 1965 to 1974. Family reunifications were likewise spread over the period up until and including the first half of the '80s. As a result, Europe's Turkish population consists of a majority of families, with almost total male/female parity. The Turkish diaspora in Europe is growing steadily. For Western Europe as a whole it rose from 1.988 million in 1985 to 3.034 million in 1996 (2.944 million in the EU countries). This is a 52.6% increase over one decade. Image File history File linksMetadata Turkisch-day-in-Berlin. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Turkisch-day-in-Berlin. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... A modern mehter marching band Ottoman military bands are thought to be the oldest variety of military marching band in the world. ... Location of Benelux in Europe Official languages Dutch and French Membership  Belgium  Netherlands  Luxembourg Website http://www. ...


Germany hosts 2.5 million Turkish immigrants. It is followed by importance by the Benelux countries, France, United Kingdom and Austria. Between 1961-1973 there was a big influx of Turkish men alone in Germany, which was followed by the arrival of their families up until 1981. Five years later, the same phenomenon took also place in the rest of the countries. 35% of the Turkish living in Germany live in North Rhineland-Westphalia. Berlin, with 136.400 Turkish hosts, by its own 5% of the Turkish immigrants in Europe. This article is about the capital of Germany. ... World map showing Europe Political map (neighboring countries in Asia and Africa also shown) Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ...


The Turkish population of Europe rose from 1.988 million in 1985 to 3.034 in 1996. This increase is explained by the continuation of migration through marriages and by the high birth rate of the Turkish population. This high rate has as a consequence that Turkish migrant population is very young (1/3 is under 18 years old). More than 80% of these young people have been born and schooled in Europe.


Turks in North America

In the United States, the largest Turkish communities are found in Paterson, New York City, Chicago, Miami, and Los Angeles. Since the 1970s, the number of Turkish immigrants has risen to more than 2,000 per year. Paterson has always been home to immigrants looking to make a start in the new world. “Paterson” redirects here. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in Florida. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ...


There is also a growing Turkish population in Canada, Turkish immigrants have settled mainly in Montreal and Toronto, although there are small Turkish communities in Calgary, Edmonton, London, Ottawa, and Vancouver. The population of Turkish Canadians in Metropolitan Toronto may be as large as 5,000. Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Turkey
Traditional Turkish coffee is ubiquitous in Turkish homes
Traditional Turkish coffee is ubiquitous in Turkish homes

The culture of Turkish people is a diverse one, derived from various elements of the Ottoman Empire, European, and the Islamic traditions. Turkish culture is an immense mixture partly produced by the rich history. The original lands of Turks is Central Asia, bordering China. From this location, they were forced to move west for various reasons more than a thousand years ago. On the way to Anatolia they have interacted with Chinese, Indian, Middle Eastern, European and Anatolian civilizations, and today's Turkish culture carries motives from each one of these diverse cultures. Traditional Turkish coffee The culture of Turkey is a diverse one, derived from various elements of the Ottoman Empire, European, and the Islamic traditions. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3072x2048, 3207 KB) Summary A cup of turkish coffee. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3072x2048, 3207 KB) Summary A cup of turkish coffee. ... A cup of Turkish coffee served at an Ä°stanbul terrace. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Because of the different historical factors playing an important role in defining a Turkish identity, the culture of Turkey is an interesting combination of clear efforts to be "modern" and Western, alongside a desire to maintain traditional religious and historical values. For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ...


Language

Main article: Turkish language

Turkish is a very ancient language going back 5500 to 8500 years.[citation needed] It has a phonetic, morphological and syntactic structure, and at the same time it possesses a rich vocabulary. The fundamental features, which distinguish the Ural-Altaic languages from the Indo-European, are as follows; vowel harmony's are used which is a feature of all Ural-Altaic tongues, the absence of gender, agglutination, adjectives precede nouns, and verbs come at the end of the sentence. Turkish ( IPA ) is a language spoken by 65–73 million people worldwide, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. ... The Ural-Altaic language family (also known as Uralo-Altaic) is an hypothetical grouping of the Uralic and Altaic languages into one field. ...

Countries with significant Turkish-speaking populations
Countries with significant Turkish-speaking populations

The Turkish language is a member of the ancient Oghuz subdivision of Turkic languages, which in turn is a branch of the proposed Altaic language family.[37][38][39] Turkish is for the most part, mutually intelligible with other Oghuz languages like Azeri, Crimean Tatar, Gagauz, Turkmen and Urum, and to a lesser extent with other Turkic languages. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1427x628, 29 KB)Map showing the presence of Turkish speakers in the countries of the world by shades of blue, based on Image:BlankMap-World. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1427x628, 29 KB)Map showing the presence of Turkish speakers in the countries of the world by shades of blue, based on Image:BlankMap-World. ... Turkish ( IPA ) is a language spoken by 65–73 million people worldwide, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. ... A Seljuk Prince. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Altaic is a proposed language family that includes 66 languages [1] spoken by about 348 million people, mostly in and around Central Asia and northeast Asia. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Crimean Tatar language (Qırımtatar tili, Qırımtatarca), also known as Crimean (Qırım tili, Qırımca) and Crimean Turkish (Qırım Türkçesi) is the language of the Crimean Tatars. ... The Gagauz language (Gagauz dili) is a Turkic language, used by Gagauz people, official language of Gagauzia, Republic of Moldova. ... Urum is a Turkic language spoken by several thousand people who inhabit a few villages in the Southeastern Ukraine and in Georgia. ...


Modern Turkish differs greatly from the Ottoman Turkish language, the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire, which was influenced by Arabic and Persian. During the Ottoman period, the language was essentially a mixture of Turkish, Persian, and Arabic, differing considerably from the everyday language spoken by the empire's Turkish subjects, to the point that they had to hire arzıhâlcis (request-writers) to communicate with the state. After the proclamation of the Turkish Republic in early 20th century, many of the foreign borrowings in the language were replaced with Turkic equivalents in a language reform by the newly founded Turkish Language Association. Almost all government documents and literature from the Ottoman period and the early years of the Republic are thus unintelligible to today's Turkish-speaker without translation. Ottoman Turkish (Turkish: or , Ottoman Turkish: ‎ ) was the variant of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire. ... A page from the Dîvân-ı Fuzûlî, the collected poems of the 16th-century Ottoman poet Fuzûlî Turkish literature (Turkish: Türk edebiyatı or Türk yazını) is the collection of written and oral texts composed in the Turkish language, either in its Ottoman form or... This article is about the Republic of Turkey. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Language reform is a kind of language planning by massive change to a language. ... Logo of the Turkish Language Association The Turkish Language Association (Turkish: Türk Dil Kurumu - TDK) is the official regulatory body of the Turkish language, founded on July 12, 1932 and headquartered in Ankara, Turkey. ...


Historically, there were many dialects of Turkish that were spoken throughout Anatolia and the Balkans that differed significantly from each other. After the proclamation of the Republic, the Istanbul dialect was adopted as the standard. There is no official effort to protect regional dialects, and some are currently under threat of disappearing as they face the standard language used in the media and educational system. This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Balkan redirects here. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ...


Turkish heritage

Main article: Turkic peoples
Main article: Turkic languages
Countries and autonomous subdivisions where a Turkic language has official status
Countries and autonomous subdivisions where a Turkic language has official status

Some 180 million people have a Turkic language as their native language; an additional 20 million people speak a Turkic language as a second language. The Turkic language with the greatest number of speakers is Turkish proper, or Anatolian Turkish, the speakers of which account for about 40% of all Turkic speakers, dwelling predominantly in Turkey proper and formerly Ottoman-dominated areas of Eastern Europe and West Asia; as well as in Western Europe, Australia and the Americas as a result of immigration. The remainder of the Turkic peoples are concentrated in Central Asia, Russia, the Caucasus, China, and northern and northwestern Iran. This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 352 pixelsFull resolution (1427 × 628 pixel, file size: 40 KB, MIME type: image/png) // Map showing countries and autonomous subdivisions where a language belonging to the Turkic language family has official status. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 352 pixelsFull resolution (1427 × 628 pixel, file size: 40 KB, MIME type: image/png) // Map showing countries and autonomous subdivisions where a language belonging to the Turkic language family has official status. ... A second language (L2) is any language learned after the first language or mother tongue (L1). ... Turkish ( IPA ) is a language spoken by 65–73 million people worldwide, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... A map showing Southwest Asia - The term Middle East is more often used to refer to both Southwest Asia and some North African countries Southwest Asia, or West Asia, is the southwestern part of Asia. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Azerbaijan or Azarbaijan (Persian: آذربایجان; Ä€zarbāijān; Azerbaijani: آذربایجان , Kurdish: Azirbaycan/Adirbaycan), also Iranian Azerbaijan, Iranian Azarbaijan, Persian Azerbaijan or Persian Azarbaijan (Persian: آذربایجان ایران; Ä€zarbāijān-e Irān), is a region in northwestern Iran. ...


Arts and Calligraphy

Main article: Turkish art
Main article: Turquerie

A transition from Islamic artistic traditions under the Ottoman Empire to a more secular , Western orientation has taken place in Turkey. Turkish painters today are striving to find their own art forms, free from Western influence. Sculpture is less developed, and public monuments are usually heroic representations of Ataturk and events from the war of independence. Literature is considered the most advanced of contemporary Turkish arts. Many critics regard Kemal Tahir as the greatest modern Turkish novelist. Among authors translated into English is Yasar Kemal. Turkish art is a term referring to the visual arts and plastic arts (often including architecture, woodwork, textiles and ceramics) originating from the geographical area of what is present day Turkey. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


The reign of the early Ottoman Turks in the (16th and early 17th centuries) introduced the Turkish calligraphy. It was invented by Housam Roumi and reached its height of popularity under Süleyman I the Magnificent (152066). As decorative as it was communicative, Diwani was distinguished by the complexity of the line within the letter and the close juxtaposition of the letters within the word. Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Suleiman the Magnificent Suleiman I (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566); in Turkish Süleyman, (nicknamed the Magnificent in Europe and the Lawgiver in the Islamic World, in Turkish Kanuni) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566 and successor to Selim I. He was born... Year 1520 (MDXX) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events January 7 - Pius V becomes Pope Selim II succeeds Suleiman I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Religious rioting in the Netherlands signifies the beginning of the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands. ...

Arabic Diwani font This image is ineligible for copyright and therefore in the public domain, because it consists entirely of information that is common property and contains no original authorship. ...

Architecture

Main article: Ottoman architecture

Turkish architecture reached its peak during the Ottoman period. Ottoman architecture, influenced by Seljuk, Byzantine and Islamic architecture, came to develop a style all of its own. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Suleiman Mosque side view. ... Karaköy, the modern name for the ancient Galata, is a commercial neighborhood in the BeyoÄŸlu district of Istanbul, Turkey, located at the northern part of the Golden Horn mouth on the European side of Bosphorus. ... Seraglio Point (Sarayburnu) on the Golden Horn as seen from Galata Tower, with the Sea of Marmara and the Princes Islands in the background, and Kadıköy (ancient Chalcedon) at left, on the Asian side Seraglio Point from Pera, with the Bosphorus at left, the entrance of the Golden... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 291 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... A view of the Dolmabahçe from the Bosphorus with modern Istanbul in the background The Dolmabahçe Palace (Dolmabahçe Sarayı) is a palace in Istanbul, located at the western, European, side of the Bosphorus. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (800x640, 110 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Arnavutköy (meaning Albanian village in Turkish) is a historic neighborhood in Istanbul, famous for its wooden Ottoman mansions and fish restaurants as well as the prestigious Robert College campus with its centennial buildings. ... Bosphorus - photo taken from International Space Station. ... Hotel Pera Palace (Turkish: Hotel Pera Palas) is a historical four-star hotel located in the Tepebaşı neighborhood of BeyoÄŸlu (Pera) district in Ä°stanbul, Turkey. ... Alexander Vallaury (1850-1921) was a French-Turkish architect, who founded architectural education and lectured in the School of Fine Arts in Istanbul, Turkey. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Seljuk Prince with Mongoloid features. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... The interior of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. ...


The years 1300-1453 constitute the early or first Ottoman period, when Ottoman art was in search of new ideas. During this period we encounter three types of mosque: tiered single-domed and sub line-angled mosques. The Junior Haci Özbek Mosque (1333) in Iznik, the first important centre of Ottoman art, is the first example of Ottoman single-domed mosques.


The architectural style which was to take on classical form after the conquest of Istanbul, was born in Bursa and in Edirne. The Great Mosque (Ulu Cami) in Bursa was the first Seljuk mosque to be converted into a domed one. Edirne was the last Ottoman capital before Istanbul, and it is here that we witness the final stages in the architectural development that culminated in the construction of the great mosques of Istanbul. The buildings constructed in Istanbul between the capture of the city and the construction of the mosque of Sultan Bayezit are also considered works of the early period. Among these are the mosques of Fatih (1470), the mosque of Mahmutpasa, Tiled Pavilion and Topkapi Palace. Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... For other uses, see Bursa (disambiguation). ... Adrianople redirects here. ...


In Ottoman times the mosque did not exist by itself. It was looked on by society as being very much interconnected with city planning and communal life. Beside the mosque there were soup kitchens, theological schools, hospitals, Turkish baths and tombs. This article is about the Turkish bath establishment. ...


Examples of Ottoman architecture of the classical period, aside from Istanbul and Edirne, can also be seen in Egypt, Tunisia, Algiers, the Balkans and Hungary, where mosques, bridges, fountains and schools were built. This article is about the capital of Algeria. ... Balkan redirects here. ...


During the years 1720-1890, Ottoman art deviated from the principles of classical times. In the 18th century, during the Lale (Tulip) period, Ottoman art came under the influence of the excessive decorations of the west; Baroque, Rococo, Ampir and other styles intermingled with Ottoman art. Fountains became the characteristic structures of this period. An eclecticism set in. The Aksaray Valide mosque in Istanbul is an example of the mixture of Turkish art and Gothic style.


Evil eye

The belief in the evil eye, known as nazar, is strong in Turkish culture. The belief says that when someone eyes your good fortune with envy, bad luck in some form may befall you. It is widely feared that an accolade or praise, however well meaning it may be, may be tinged with a bit of envy. The evil eye can be warded of by a nazar amulet (Turkish: nazar boncuğu or nazarlık). John Phillip, The Evil Eye (1859), a self-portrait depicting the artist sketching a Spanish gypsy who thinks she is being given the evil eye The evil eye is a folklore belief that the envy elicited by the good luck of fortunate people may result in their misfortune, whether it... Image:Nazar boncug(u - vliegtuig met blauwe oog dat beschermt tegen het boze oog. ...


Music

See also: Music of Turkey
Sertab Erener at the ESC in 2003

Turkey is a country in western Asia and Southeast Europe and on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea, and is a crossroads of cultures from across Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus and South and Central Asia. The music of Turkey includes elements of Central Asian folk music, Arabic, Persian classical music, ancient Greco-Roman music and modern European and American popular music. Turkey, rich in musical heritage, has developed this art in two areas, Turkish classical music (similar to Greco- Roman) and Turkish folk music (Similar to Central Asian). The biggest Turkish pop star of the 20th century was probably Sezen Aksu, known for overseeing the Turkish contribution to the Eurovision Song Contest and was known for her light pop music. Genres: Alternative - Classical - Dance - Folk - Hip hop - Jazz - Military - Ottoman - Opera - Pop - Religious - Rock Awards Kral MV, MÃœ-YAP, MGD Charts Billboard Charts Music Festivals Istanbul International Music Festival, Istanbul International Jazz Festival, Izmir European Jazz Festival, Aspendos International Opera and Ballet Festival Media Rolling Stone (Türkiye), MTV (T... Sertab Erener (born December 4, 1964) is a Turkish pop star. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Central Asia is a region of Asia. ... Arabic music includes several genres and styles of music ranging from Arab classical to Arabic pop music and from secular to sacred music. ... Moosiqi Asil or Persian music is the traditional and indigenous music of Persia and Persian-speaking countries: musiqi, the science and art of music, and moosiqi, the sound and performance of music (Sakata 1983). ... The Greco-Roman period of history refers to the culture of the peoples who were incorporated into the Roman Republic and Roman Empire. ... Sezen Aksu (born July 13, 1954) is a Turkish pop music singer, song-writer and producer popular at home and abroad. ... Eurovision redirects here. ...


European classical composers in the 18th century were fascinated by Turkish music, particularly the strong role given to the brass and percussion instruments in Ottoman Janissary bands called Mehter who were the fist marching military band in History. Joseph Haydn wrote his Military Symphony to include Turkish instruments, as well as some of his operas. Turkish instruments were also included in Ludwig van Beethoven's Symphony Number 9. Mozart wrote the "Rondo alla turca" in his Sonata in A major and also used Turkish themes in his operas. Although this Turkish influence was a fad, it introduced the cymbals, bass drum(called davul), and bells into the symphony orchestra, where they remain. For details, see Turkish music (style). Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Image of a trumpet, foreground, a piccolo trumpet behind, and a flugelhorn in background. ... Percussion redirects here. ... The Janissaries (derived from Ottoman Turkish: ينيچرى (yeniçeri) meaning new soldier) comprised infantry units that formed the Ottoman sultans household troops and bodyguard. ... Ottoman Empire Ottoman Military bands, or Mehter Takımı(in Turkish), are considered to be the oldest type of military marching band in the world. ... Haydn redirects here. ... “Beethoven” redirects here. ... This article is about the composition. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozarts Piano Sonata No. ... For the Japanese rock band, see Cymbals (band). ... A bass drum is a large drum that produces a note of low definite or indefinite pitch. ... A bell is a simple sound-making device. ... History (Timeline and Samples) Genres: Alternative - Classical - Dance - Folk - Hip hop - Jazz - Military - Ottoman - Pop - Religious - Rock Music awards Kral - MÜ-YAP - MGD Charts Powerturk 40 - Kral 20 Annual festivals Istanbul International Music Festival - Istanbul International Jazz Festival - Ankara IMF - Izmir European Jazz Festival Media Bant magazine - Mix! - Adante - BlueJean...


Jazz musician Dave Brubeck wrote his "Blue Rondo à la Turk" as a tribute to Mozart and Turkish music. For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... David Warren Brubeck (born December 6, 1920 in Concord, California[1]), better known as Dave Brubeck, is a U.S. jazz pianist. ...


Turkish pop music boasts numerous mainstream artists with large followings since the 1960s like Ajda Pekkan and Sezen Aksu, and younger pop stars like Sertab Erener, Tarkan, Serdar Ortac and Mustafa Sandal. Underground music and the genres of electronica, hip-hop, rap and dance music saw an increased demand and activity following the 1990s. This article is about the genre of popular music. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1958 to the end of 1974. ... Ayşe Ajda Pekkan (born February 12, 1946 in Istanbul) is a Turkish pop music singer and actress. ... Sertab Erener (born December 4, 1964) is a Turkish pop star. ... For other uses, see Tarkan (disambiguation). ... Serdar Ortaç is one of the leading singers in the Turkish popular music movement which started in 1990s. ... Mustafa Sandal, commonly known as Musti, is a famous Turkish pop singer. ... Underground music is music which has developed a cult following, independent of commercial success. ... Electronica refers to a wide range of contemporary electronic music designed for a wide range of uses, including foreground listening, some forms of dancing, and background music for other activities; but unlike electronic dance music, is not specifically focused on the dance floor. ... Breakdance, an early form of hip hop dance, often involves battles, showing off skills without any physical contact with the adversaries. ... RAP may mean: the IATA airport code for Rapid City Regional Airport Rassemblement pour lalternative progressiste, a Québecois political party. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ...


Turkish rock music, sometimes referred to as Anatolian rock, initiated during the 1960s by individuals like Cem Karaca, Barış Manço, and Erkin Koray, has seen wide-range success and has grown a considerable fan base. A few of the more mainstream Turkish rock bands include Moğollar, Mor ve Ötesi, Kurban, Duman, and maNga. Individual rock performers like Şebnem Ferah, Özlem Tekin, Teoman and Emre Aydın have substantial fan-bases. Turkey also boasts numerous large-scale rock festivals and events. Annually held rock festivals include Barışarock, Rock'n Coke, ZeytinliRockFest, RockA during many of which internationally renowned bands / artists frequently take the stage together with Turkish artists. Genres: Alternative - Classical - Dance - Folk - Hip hop - Jazz - Military - Ottoman - Opera - Pop - Religious - Rock Awards Kral MV, MÃœ-YAP, MGD Charts Billboard Charts Music Festivals Istanbul International Music Festival, Istanbul International Jazz Festival, Izmir European Jazz Festival, Aspendos International Opera and Ballet Festival Media Rolling Stone (Türkiye), MTV (T... Cem Karaca (March 19, 1945 - February 8, 2004) was a prominent Turkish rock musician and one of the important figures in the Anatolian rock movement. ... Barış Manço (also spelt Baris Mancho in some European album releases) (January 2, 1943 - February 1, 1999) was a Turkish singer, composer, television producer and celebrity. ... Erkin Koray, 2005 Erkin Koray has been in the Turkish rock music scene since the late 1950s and early 1960s. ... This article is about the type of musical group. ... Current Mogollar line-up (from left to right): Cahit Berkay, Taner Özgür, Serhat Ersöz, Engin Yörükoglu MoÄŸollar is one of the pioneer bands in Turkish rock music for about 30 years and one of the founders of Turkish ethno rock music (or Anatolian rock music). ... Mor ve Ötesi (meaning Purple and beyond) is a Turkish alternative rock band hailing from the city of Istanbul, formed by frontman Harun Tekin. ... This article is about the Turkish rock band, for the religious festival celebrated in Turkey, see Kurban Bayramı Kurban is a Turkish rock band. ... Duman is a Turkish rock band. ... This article is about the comics created in Japan. ... Åžebnem Ferah (born April 12, 1972 in Yalova, Turkey) is a Turkish singer and song-writer. ... Özlem Tekin (born November 18, 1971) is a Turkish singer, TV show host and occasional actress, primarily known for her music. ... Teoman YakupoÄŸlu (born on November 20, 1967), using the stage name Teoman, is a popular Turkish rock singer and song-writer. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Poster of Barışarock 2006. ... The Rockn Coke logo. ...


In 2003, a Turkish singer Sertab Erener won the Eurovision Song Contest with her song Everyway That I Can. Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Everyway That I Can is the winning song of the 2003 Eurovision Song Contest, by Sertab Erener. ...

Tevfik Fikret (1867–1915), a prominent poet of the late Ottoman era.
Tevfik Fikret (1867–1915), a prominent poet of the late Ottoman era.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (583x786, 328 KB)Source: Théma Larousse Tematik Ansiklopedisi. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (583x786, 328 KB)Source: Théma Larousse Tematik Ansiklopedisi. ... Tevfik Fikret (December 26, 1867 - August 19, 1915) (توفیق فکرت) was the pseudonym of Turkish poet Mehmed Tevfik. ...

Literature

Main article: Turkish literature
Turkish Literature
By category
Epic Tradition

Orhon
Dede Korkut - Köroğlu A page from the Dîvân-ı Fuzûlî, the collected poems of the 16th-century Ottoman poet Fuzûlî Turkish literature (Turkish: Türk edebiyatı or Türk yazını) is the collection of written and oral texts composed in the Turkish language, either in its Ottoman form or... A page from the Dîvân-ı Fuzûlî, the collected poems of the 16th-century Ottoman poet Fuzûlî Turkish literature (Turkish: Türk edebiyatı or Türk yazını) is the collection of written and oral texts composed in the Turkish language, either in its Ottoman form or... Orkhon tablet Inscription in Kyzyl using Orkhon script Orkhon script The Orkhon script (also spelled Orhon script, also Orkhon-Yenisey script, Old Turkic script, Göktürk script, Turkish: Orhon Yazıtları) is the alphabet used by the Göktürk from the 8th century to record the Old Turkic... The Book of Dede Korkut is one of the most famous epics of the Turkmens or the Oghuz Turks. ... The Epic of KöroÄŸlu (Turkish: KöroÄŸlu destanı) is a legend prominent in the oral traditions of the Turkic peoples. ...

Folk Tradition

Folk literature
Folklore ... Ahi Evren Ahriyan Al Basti Alaturbi Ancomah Bardi Cazi Germakoçi Karakoncolos Karakura Kolot Tavara // Breaking vine In Trabzon region folklore (Çarşıbaşi town) For testing whether the new bride is propitious, when she comes to the house, she is asked to break a vine from three points and...

Ottoman Era

Poetry | Prose Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The prose of the Ottoman Empire can, roughly, be divided along the lines of two broad periods: early Ottoman prose, written prior to the 19th century CE and exclusively nonfictional in nature; and later Ottoman prose, which extended from the mid-19th century Tanzimat period of reform to the final...

Republican Era

Poetry | Prose This article is about the Republic of Turkey. ... // National Literature (1911-1923) Mehmet Emin Yurdakul (1869-1944) Ziya Gökalp (1876-1924) Garip Movement For more details on this topic, see garip. ... // National Literature (1911-1923) Ömer Seyfettin, short story author (1884-1920) Halide Edip Adıvar, novelist (1884-1964) Reşat Nuri Güntekin, novelist (1889-1956) Yakup Kadri Karaosmanoğlu, short story author (1889-1974) Fuat Köprülü, writer (1890-1966) Republican Period Literature (1923- ) novel Cevat Şakir Kabaa...

Before the adoption of Islam, the Seljuks had a mainly oral tradition. With the adoption of Islam, Turks were influenced with Persian culture and they developed literature using the Persian structures, such as mesnevi and gazel. With the 19th century and the tanzimat period, artists began to use Western structures. The republican period is dominated by Western forms of literature. Look up Persian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Tanzimat (Ottoman Turkish: تنظيمات), meaning reorganization of the Ottoman Empire, was a period of reformation that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876. ...


The history of the language is divided into three main groups, old Turkish (from the 7th to the 13th centuries), mid-Turkish (from the 13th to the 20th) and new Turkish from the 20th century onwards. During the Ottoman Empire period Arabic and Persian words entered the Turkish language and it consequently became mixed with three different languages. During the Ottoman period which spanned five centuries, the natural development of Turkish was severely hampered.[citation needed]


Then there was the "new language" movement. In 1928, five years after the proclamation of the Republic, the Arabic alphabet was replaced by the Latin one, which in turn speeded up the movement to rid the language of foreign words. The Turkish Language Institute was established in 1932 to carry out linguistic research and contribute to the natural development of the language. As a consequence of these efforts, modern Turkish is a literary and cultural language developing naturally and free of foreign influences. Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ...


Turkish literature was the joint product of the Turkish clans and was mostly oral. The oldest known examples of Turkish writings are on obelisks dating from the late 7th and early 8th centuries. The Orhun monumental inscriptions written in 720 for Tonyukuk, in 732 for Kültigin and in 735 for Bilge Kagan are masterpieces of Turkish literature with their subject matter and perfect style. Turkish epics dating from those times include the Yaratilis, Saka, Oguz-Kagan, Göktürk, Uygur and Manas. A cataphract-style parade armour of a Saka royal from the Issyk kurgan. ... The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia and China. ... Uyghurs (also called Uighurs, Uygurs, or Uigurs) (Chinese: 維吾爾 or 维吾尔 in pinyin: wéiwúěr) are a Turkic ethnic group of people living in northwestern China (mainly in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, where they are the dominant ethnic group together with Han people), Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. ...


The "Book of Dede Korkut", put down in writing in the 14th century, is an extremely valuable work that preserves the memory of that epic era in beautiful language.


Following Turkish migrations into Anatolia in the wake of the Malazgirt victory in 1071, the establishment of various Beyliks in Anatolia and the eventual founding of the Seljuk and Ottoman Empires set the scene for Turkish literature to develop along two distinct lines, with "divan" or classical literature drawing its inspiration from the Arabic and Persian languages and Turkish folk literature still remaining deeply rooted in Central Asian traditions. This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... A page from the Dîvân-ı Fuzûlî, the collected poems of the 16th-century Ottoman poet Fuzûlî Turkish literature (Turkish: Türk edebiyatı or Türk yazını) is the collection of written and oral texts composed in the Turkish language, either in its Ottoman form or...


Divan poets did not have independent philosophies, they were content to express the same ideas in different ways. The most famous of the Divan poets were Baki, Fuzuli, Nedim and Nef'i.


Initially based on two foreign literary traditions, Arab and Persian, literature gradually stopped being merely imitative and took on Ottoman national characteristics.


To a certain extent, the Turkish folk literature which has survived till our day, reflects the influence of Islam and the new life style and form of the traditional literature of Central Asia after the adoption of Islam. Turkish folk literature comprised anonymous works of bard poems and Tekke (mystical religious retreats) literature. Yunus Emre who lived in the second half of the 13th and early 14th centuries was an epoch making poet and sufi (mystical philosopher) expert in all three areas of folk literature as well as divan poetry. Important figures of poetic literature were Karacaoglan, Atik Ömer, Erzurumlu Emrah and Kayserili Seyrani. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Ottoman Shadow Plays

The Turkish tradition of shadow play called Karagöz and Hacivat was performed by a single puppet master, who voiced all of the characters, and accompanied by a classical Ottoman music ensemble. Some believe that the first Karagöz-Hacivat play was performed for sultan Selim I in Egypt after his conquest of the Mamluks, but 17th century writer Evliya Çelebi stated that it had been performed in the Ottoman palace as early as the reign of Bayezid I. The tradition of Shadow plays are still famous today, mainly in Turkey, however is also used in celebrations throughout the Turkish diaspora Hacivat (left) and Karagöz (right) Karagöz (meaning blackeye in Turkish) and Hacivat (also written Hacivad) are the lead characters of the traditional Turkish shadow play, popularized during the Ottoman period. ... Selim I (Ottoman: سليم الأول, Turkish:) (also known as the Grim or the Brave, Yavuz in Turkish, the long name is Yavuz Sultan Selim)(October 10, 1465 – September 22, 1520) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. ... Mamluk Flag Eastern Mediterranean 1450 Capital Cairo Language(s) Arabic, Kipchak Turkic[1] Religion Islam Government Monarchy History  - As-Salih Ayyubs death 1250  - Battle of Ridanieh 1517 Today part of Egypt Saudi Arabia Syria Palestine Israel Lebanon Jordan Turkey Libya A Mamluk cavalryman, drawn in 1810 A mamluk (Arabic... Evliya Çelebi (اوليا چلبي; also known as DerviÅŸ Mehmed Zılli) (March 25, 1611–1682) was the most famous Ottoman traveler, having journeyed throughout the territories of the Ottoman Empire and the neighbouring lands over a period of forty years. ... Entrance of Topkapı Palace, Bab-üs Selam The Topkapı Palace (Topkapı Sarayı in Turkish, literally the Cannongate Palace - named after a nearby gate), is located at the tip of a spit of land in the European part of Istanbul. ... // Bayezid I (Ottoman: بايزيد الأول, Turkish: Beyazıt, nicknamed Yıldırım (Ottoman: ییلدیرم), the Thunderbolt; 1354–1403) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1389 to 1402. ... The term Turkish diaspora refers to the estimated population of Turkish people in the world living outside of Turkey. ...


Shadow Theater gained great popularity among the people and the Turkish puppeteers much improved the techniques they had inherited from others. The colorless and motionless presentations of the Egyptian shadow play gained much rich coloring and mobility in the Turkish form of the art.


Poetry

Main article: Turkish poetry

// [edit] National Literature (1911-1923) Mehmet Emin Yurdakul (1869-1944) Ziya Gökalp (1876-1924) [edit] Garip Movement For more details on this topic, see Garip. ...

Prose

See also: Prose of the Republic of Turkey
A painting by Nazmi Ziya Guran (1881–1937)
A painting by Nazmi Ziya Guran (1881–1937)

The backgrounds of current novelists can be traced back to "Young Pens" (Genç Kalemler) journal in Ottoman period. Young Pens was published in Selanik under the Ömer Seyfettin, Ziya Gökalp ve Ali Canip Yontem. They covered the social and political concepts of their time with the nationalistic perspective. They became the core of a movement which will be called national literature. // National Literature (1911-1923) Ömer Seyfettin, short story author (1884-1920) Halide Edip Adıvar, novelist (1884-1964) ReÅŸat Nuri Güntekin, novelist (1889-1956) Yakup Kadri KaraosmanoÄŸlu, short story author (1889-1974) Fuat Köprülü, writer (1890-1966) Republican Period Literature (1923- ) novel Cevat Åžakir Kabaa... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Nazmi Ziya Güran (1881 – 1937) was a Turkish impressionist painter. ...


With the declaration of republic, Turkish literature becomes interested in folkloric styles. This was also the first time the literature was escaping from the western influence and begin to mix western forms with others. During the 1930s Yakup Kadri Karaosmanoglu and Vedat Nedim Tor begin to publish KADRO. KADRO was revolutionary in its look at the life.


Orhan Pamuk is a Turkish novelist of post-modern literature. He is hugely popular in his homeland, but also with a growing readership around the globe. As one of Europe's most prominent novelists, his work has been translated into more than twenty languages. He is the recipient of major Turkish and international literary awards. His most recent novel is "Snow". Pamuk won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 2006, with his melancholic point of view to various cultures in Istanbul. However, a big debate is going on in Turkey about Pamuk winning; many Turks think that he won the prize because of his political ideas. Ferit Orhan Pamuk (born on June 7, 1952 in Istanbul) is a Nobel Prize-winning Turkish novelist. ... A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ... Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated Po-mo[1]) is a term originating in architecture, literally after the modern, denoting a style that is more ornamental than modernism, and which borrows from previous architectural styles, often in a playful or ironic fashion. ... The Nobel Prize in literature is awarded annually to an author from any country who has produced the most outstanding work of an idealistic tendency. The work in this case generally refers to an authors work as a whole, not to any individual work, though individual works are sometimes... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ...


Religion

See also: Religion in Turkey

Contacts between the Turks and Islam commenced at the beginning of the 8th century and some of the Turks began to favour Islam. However the pro-Arab policies of the Umayyads (661-750 A.D.) restricted these relations somewhat. Later, many Muslem Turks took office in the Abbside government and because of this, great interest in the Islamic world spread among the Turks beyond the River Ceyhun. The Turks became fully Muslem by the 10th century, and this resulted in the achievement to political unity. Following these developments, the first Muslem Turkish state was formed by the Karahans.[40] Interior of the Selimiye Mosque, Edirne Nominally, 99. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... The Islamic world is the world-wide community of those who identify with Islam, known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The vast majority of Turks are, at least in a nominal sense, Muslim. The most popular sect is the Hanafite school of Sunni Islam, which was officially espoused by the Ottoman Empire. There is, however, a significant number that adheres to the Alevi sect of Shia Islam. The presence of Alevis is estimated at 25-35% of the population,[41] though some reports indicate only 10%.[42] Religion has taken a shift towards more of a cultural identity amongst Turks rather than a set of fixed, theological beliefs due to secularization. Generally, a Muslim is defined by faith in the religion of Islam; however, in the modern world there are religiously unobservant, agnostic or atheist individuals who still identify with the Muslim culture due to family background or personal experiences. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Hanafi is one of the four schools (madhabs) of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. ... Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Alevis (Turkish: Aleviler Kurdish: ) are a religious, sub-ethnic and cultural community in Turkey numbering in the millions. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Atatürks Revolutions (Turkish: Atatürk Devrimleri or Atatürk İnkılapları) were a series of significant political, legal, cultural, social and economic revolutions that were implemented to transform the young Republic of Turkey into a modern, democratic and secular nation-state. ...


In addition, there are small groups that adhere to Christianity. Although they are primarily Eastern Orthodox, there are Roman Catholics and Protestants as well. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


Sciences and technology

Surviving fragment of the Piri Reis map(1513)
Surviving fragment of the Piri Reis map(1513)

From the sixteenth century onwards, noteworthy geographical works were produced by Piri Reis, In 1511, Pîrî Reis drew his first map. This map is part of the world map prepared on a large scale. It was drawn on the basis of his rich and detailed drafts an in addition, European maps including Columbus' map of America. This first Ottoman map which included preliminary information about the New World represents south western Europe, north western Africa, south eastern and Central America. It is a portalano, without latitude and longitude lines but with lines delineating coasts and islands. Pîrî Reis drew his second map and presented it to Süleyman the Magnificent in 1528. Only the part which contains the North Atlantic Ocean and the then newly discovered areas of Northern and Central America is extant. Studies on scientific, cultural and intellectual aspects of Ottoman history is very new area. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 457 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (829 × 1087 pixel, file size: 205 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Piri Reis World Map Map of the world by Ottoman admiral Piri Reis, drawn in 1513. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 457 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (829 × 1087 pixel, file size: 205 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Piri Reis World Map Map of the world by Ottoman admiral Piri Reis, drawn in 1513. ... The Piri Reis map The Piri Reis map is a famous premodern world map created by 16th century Ottoman-Turkish admiral and cartographer Piri Reis. ... Piri Reis (originally Hadji Muhammad) was an Ottoman admiral born around 1465, in Gallipoli on the Dardanelles. ... Physical world map (2004) with country borders and capitals A world map is a map of the surface of the Earth, which may be made using any of a number of different map projections. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Suleiman the Magnificent Suleiman I (Modern Turkish: Süleyman; Arabic: Sulaymān) (November 6, 1494-September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth Osmanli sultan of the Ottoman Empire, and its longest-serving, reigning from 1520 to 1566. ...


Symbols

The most widely used symbol by Turkish people is the crescent moon and a star. The Turkish flag is also widely used by the Turkish Cypriot community in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. The flag of Turkey consists of a white crescent moon and a star on a red background. ... Turkish Cypriots are those inhabitants of Cyprus who are ethnically Turkish, as opposed to those who are of Greek (the Greek Cypriots) or other ethnicities. ... Anthem Ä°stiklâl Marşı(Turkish) Independence March Capital Nicosia Official languages Turkish Government Representative democratic republic1  -  President Mehmet Ali Talat  -  Prime Minister Ferdi Sabit Soyer Sovereignty from Cyprus   -  Proclaimed November 15, 1983   -  Recognition By Turkey   -  Independence from Cyprus   -  Declared November 15, 1983  Area  -  Total 3,355 km² (not ranked) 1...

Turkish Timeline

See also: Timeline of the Ottoman Empire
See also: Chronology of the Turkish War of Independence
See also: Timeline of the Republic of Turkey

Throughout history the Turks have established numerous states in different geographical areas on the continents of Asia, Europe and Africa. Therefore, they encountered different cultures, influenced these cultures and have also been influenced by them. This list consists of the main events of the ancient turks to todays modern turks. Timeline 1813-1914 1813: Revolt of the Serbs. ... Chronology of the Turkish War of Independence is a timeline of events for the Turkish War of Independence (including the background starting with the end of the First World War). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...

c.552-744 Gokturk Empire/ Confederation in Central Asia
732-735 Orkhon Inscriptions, first discovered records in Turkish
c.620-1016 Khazar Kingdom in Western Central Asia, (today's southern Russia and Eastern Ukraine)
9th Century Oguz Confederation of tribes north of the Jaxartes (Syr Darya) and in Transoxania
830-850 Turkish mercenaries from Central Asia found in service of Abbasid caliphs
850-905 Tulunids (Turkish generals) rule Egypt virtually independently of the Abbasids
900 Samanids rule in eastern Persia and borderlands of Turkistan; Turks are exposed to Persianate Islamic culture; preparation far incorporation of Turks into main body of Middle Eastern Islamic civilization
10thc. Term ‘sultan’ (Arabic abstract noun meaning ”sovereign authority”) begins to be used to designate rulers
c.1000 Ghaznavids establish rule in Afghanistan, break Samanid power, and expand into Persia below Oxus River; champions of Sunni Islam within a predominantly Persian cultural context
1040 Seljuks take Khorasan from Ghaznavids; soon control most of Persia with center at Isfahan; from there advance to defeat Buwayhids (Shi’i Persians) who had dominated Abbasid caliphs in Baghdad for a century
1055 Seljuk sultans become de facto rulers in Abbasid Baghdad; two centuries of turmoil is ended and unity restored in eastern Islamic region; Persia and Mesopotamia are reunited and northern Syria added to the ”Great Seljuk” state
1071 Battle of Manzikert ( Malazgirt ) a decisive victory for Seljuk Sultan Alp Arslan over Byzantines; break Byzantine line of defense in Eastern Anatolia; Turkish-speaking Muslims raid and settle in area now known as ”Turkey”; much of the Greek/ Christian veneer of indigenous Anatolian population gradually replaced by a Turkish/Muslim veneer
1092 Death of Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah and his great vizier, Nizam al-Mulk; dynastic strife ensues
1118 Seljuk Empire splits into principalities ruled by princes of the family, often over- shadowed by their ”atabeys” ( tutor guardians )
12th century Seljuks of Rum (Konya, Anatolia) rule centra1 Anatolian plateau with center at Konya (Iconium).
1204 Byzantium fatally weakened by 4th. Crusade and Latin occupation
c.1200 high point of Seljuk’s of Rum; by absorption of smaller Turkish principalities (Beyliks), Seljuk’s extend their jurisdiction to south coast of Anatolia; Turkish nomads (‘Gazis’) active in western border/march region adjacent to Byzantium
1243 Mongols under Hulagu Khan’s move west, defeat Seljuk Sultan Kaykhusrav II, and establish over lordship in Seljuk Anatolia
Time Events
1258 Mongols conquer Baghdad and bring Abbasid Caliphate to an end
13th c. Turkish Anatolia fragmented as Mongol control weakens and is withdrawn; many small principalities ( Beyliks ) emerge, one of them led by Osman (Turkish form of the Arabic/Muslim name, Uthmm; European corruption of Osman is Ottoman) in northwest Anatolia (around Iznik and Bursa) adjacent to Byzantine territories.
1071-1300 Anatolia witnesses swift military penetration, ragged political conquest, partial and superficial cultural/linguistic conquest by Muslim Turks who, in their upper ranks were carriers of Persianate Muslim culture. That group was small in number but powerful. Below them, Turkish-speaking Muslims mix with indigenous population. Folk culture and folk religion often at odds with high culture and Islamic orthodoxy represented by the religious and political elite in the society.
1288 Foundation of the Ottoman state by a warrier chieftain named Osman, at Sögüt near Bursa.
1453 Conquest of Constantinople (Istanbul) by Sultan Mehmet II 'the Conqueror'.
1520-1566 Reign of Sultan Süleyman the Magnificent, the great age of the Ottoman Empire. The sultan rules most of North Africa, most of Eastern Europe and all of the Middle East. His navies patrol the Mediterranean and Red seas and the Indian Ocean.
1699 Treaty of Karlowitz, the first time in over 400 years that the Ottomans were decisively defeated and forced to sign a peace treaty as the clear losers. The mighty empire was clearly in decline.
1876-1909 Reign of Abdülhamid II, a ruthless despot who was the last of the powerful sultans.
1914-1918 The Ottoman Empire enters World War I in alliance with Germany. Australian, British, French and New Zealand troops invade Gallipoli which is successfully defended by Ottoman forces led by Mustafa Kemal. Eventual defeat of the Ottomans, loss of most of the empire's territory, and occupation of parts of Anatolia by victorious foreign troops.
1919-1923 Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) organizes remaining Ottoman military units into an army of resistance, and establishes a government of resistance at Ankara.
1922 Encouraged by Great Britain, Greece invades Anatolia through Izmir and presses eastward, threatening the fledgling government in Ankara.
1923 Defeat and expulsion of the invading armies. Abolishment of the last vestiges of the Ottoman Empire and Proclamation of the Turkish Republic by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, its founder and first president. Most ethnic Greeks in Turkey, and ethnic Turks in Greece, migrate to the opposite country.
1923-1938 Atatürk's reforms: equal rights for women, secular government, prohibition of the fez and the veil, substitution of the Latin alphabet for the Arabic, Turkification of city names, everyone adopts a surname, etc.
1938 Death of Atatürk, continuation of one-party rule.
1939-1945 Turkey maintains a precarious neutrality during World War II.
1946-1950 Institution of multi-party democracy.

The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia. ... Orhon aymag (Орхон аймаг) is one of the 21 aymags (provinces) of Mongolia. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... The Tulunids were the first independent dynasty in Islamic Egypt (868-905). ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Türkistan (also spelled Turkistan or Turkestan) is a region in Central Asia, largely inhabited by Turkic people. ... Islam â–¶(?) (Arabic: الإسلام al-islām) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, the worlds second-largest religion, and said by some sources to be the fastest growing religion in some parts of the world. ... For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that occupied parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ... Seljuk Prince with Mongoloid features. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Muhammed ben Daud (1029 – December 15, 1072), the second sultan of the dynasty of Seljuk Turks, in Persia, and great-grandson of Seljuk, the founder of the dynasty. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Anatolia lies east of the Bosphorus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Anatolia or Anatolian Peninsula is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion, (Eastern) Thrace; tr:Trakya. ... Malik Shah was the name of a number of rulers in the Middle East and Persia. ... ik ben jaaapie A Vizier (Persian,وزير - wazÄ«r) (sometimes also spelled Vazir, Vizir, Vasir, Wazir, Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages), literally burden-bearer or helper, is a term, originally Persian, for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or minister, often to... The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that occupied parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ... The Sultanate of Rûm was a Seljuk sultanate in Anatolia from 1077 to 1307. ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Anatolian beyliks (also Turkmen beyliks, Tevâif-i mülûk (in Ottoman Turkish) were small Turkish emirates or muslim principalities governed by tribal beys, which were founded in several locations of Anatolia at the end of the 13th century. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Anatolian beyliks (also Turkmen beyliks, Tevâif-i mülûk (in Ottoman Turkish) were small Turkish emirates or muslim principalities governed by tribal beys, which were founded in several locations of Anatolia at the end of the 13th century. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Osman is the Turkish spelling of the male Arabic given name Uthman (Arabic: عثمان). Some Turkish people who shared this name: Osman I, the founder of the Ottoman Empire Osman II, an Ottoman sultan Osman III, an Ottoman sultan Tanburi Büyük Osman Bey (1816-1885), Ottoman composer and tanbur... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Mehmed II (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) (Arabic: محمد الثاني) was first the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... A conquest is the act of conquering a foreign land, usually for its assimilation into a larger federation or empire. ... Suleiman the Magnificent Suleiman I (Modern Turkish: Süleyman; Arabic: Sulaymān) (November 6, 1494-September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth Osmanli sultan of the Ottoman Empire, and its longest-serving, reigning from 1520 to 1566. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... The Treaty of Karlowitz was signed in 1699 in Sremski Karlovci (a city in modern-day Serbia and Montenegro) (German: Karlowitz, Turkish:Karlofça), concluding the Austro-Ottoman War of 1683–1697 in which the Ottoman side was defeated. ... Sultan Abdul Hamid II Abd-ul-Hamid II also Abdulhamid, Abdülhemit, Abdul Hamid, Abd al-Hamid II, or Abdul-Hamid (Arabic: عبد الحميد الثاني) (September 21, 1842 – February 10, 1918) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire, from August 31, 1876 – April 27, 1909. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Gallipoli (disambiguation). ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881 – November 10, 1938), Turkish soldier and statesman, was the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey. ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881–November 10, 1938), Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and anti-imperialist statesman, was the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey. ... The military of the Ottoman Empire was divided in three organizational structures: the Army, Navy, and Air Force. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ... This page has been protected from editing to deal with vandalism. ... “Mustafa Kemal” redirects here. ... Atatürks Revolutions (Turkish: Atatürk Devrimleri or Atatürk Ä°nkılapları) were a series of significant political, legal, cultural, social and economic revolutions that were implemented to transform the young Republic of Turkey into a modern, democratic and secular nation-state. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... Fez may refer to: Fez (clothing), a brimless felt skullcap of Morroccan origin. ... This article is about the article of clothing, or a religious item. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... Turkification is a term used to describe a cultural change in which something or someone non-Turkish is made to become Turkish. ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881–November 10, 1938), Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and anti-imperialist statesman, was the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Possible genetic links

Meyers Blitz-Lexikon (Leipzig, 1932) shows a Turkish man as an example of the ethnic Turkish type.
Meyers Blitz-Lexikon (Leipzig, 1932) shows a Turkish man as an example of the ethnic Turkish type.

Turkey is situated on the bridgehead between Europe and Asia. The data on the DNA of Turkish people suggests that a human demographic expansion occurred sequentially in the Middle East, through Anatolia, and finally to the rest of Europe. The estimated time of this expansion is roughly 50,000 years ago, which corresponds to the arrival of anatomically modern humans in Europe.[43] During antiquity Anatolia was a cradle for a wide variety of numerous indigenous peoples as Armenians, Assyrians, Hattians, Hittites, Hellenes, Pelasgians, Phrygians, Thracians, Medes and others. It is concluded that aboriginal Anatolian groups (older than 2000 BCE) may have given rise to present-day Turkish population.[44] DNA results suggests the lack of strong genetic relationship between the Mongols and the Turks despite the close relationship of their languages and shared historical neighborhood.[45] Anatolians do not significantly differ from other Mediterraneans, indicating that while the ancient Asian Turks carried out an invasion with cultural significance (language), it is not genetically detectable.[46] Recent genetic research has suggested the local, Anatolian origins of the Turks and that genetic flow between Turks and Asiatic peoples might have been marginal.[47] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... Turkey is situated in Anatolia and Southeastern Europe (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe, and Anatolia is part of Southwestern Asia), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Antiquity means different things: Generally it means ancient history, and may be used of any period before the Middle Ages. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... It has been suggested that Assyrian people be merged into this article or section. ... The Hattians were an ancient people who inhabited the land of Hatti in Asia Minor in the 3rd to 2nd millennia BC. They spoke a non-Indo-European language of uncertain affiliation called Hattic (now believed by some to be related to the Northwest Caucasian language group). ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from KaneÅ¡ who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... This article or section should include material from Greeks According to Thucydides, Hellenes were the people of Hellas. ... The name Pelasgians (Ancient Greek: Πελασγοί - Pelasgoí, s. ... In antiquity, Phrygia was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolian highlands, part of modern Turkey. ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... Mede nobility. ... The term indigenous peoples has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... Anatolian can refer to: Someone or something from Anatolia The Anatolian Shepherd Dog This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning to cultivate, generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... Look up Genetic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


According to a 1998 study:

Whereas the historical and cultural consequences of the Turkic invasion of Anatolia were profound, the genetic contribution of he Turkic people to the modern Turkish population seems less significant. Previous studies ... have shown that the mtDNA pool found in Turkey can be interpreted as the result of upper Paleolithic and/or Neolithic expansions from the Middle East to Europe, with a small contribution by Asian sequences. The present results show that those sequences were found in the Turkic central Asian peoples, whose ancestors may have brought the Asian mtDNA sequences to Anatolia. [48]

The major components, 94.1% (haplogroups E3b, G, J, I, L, N, K2, and R1), are shared with European and Near Eastern populations. In contrast, only a minor share of haplogroups are attributed to Central Asian (C, Q and O; 3.4%), Indian (H, R2; 1.5%), and African (A, E3*, E3a; 1%) affinity.[49] The comprehensive high resolution SNP analysis of 513 individuals provides evidence of slight paternal gene flow (<9%) from Central Asia. Various estimates exist of the proportion of gene flow associated with the arrival of Central Asian Turkic speaking people to Anatolia. One study based on an analysis of Y-chromosomes from Turkey suggested that Central Asians have only made a 10% genetic contribution (Rolf et al. 1999). Another study suggests roughly 30% based upon mtDNA control region sequences and one STR Y-chromosome (Di Benedetto et al.[50] 2001). While it is likely that genetic flow from Central Asia to Anatolia has occurred repeatedly throughout prehistory, uncertainties exist with respect to the source populations and the number of such episodes between Central Asia and Europe. These uncertainties confound any assessment of the genetic contribution of the 11th century AD Oghuz nomads responsible for the Turkic language replacement. The recent Y-chromosome data provides candidate haplogroups to differentiate lineages specific to the postulated source populations, thus overcoming potential artifacts caused by indistinguishable overlapping gene flows. In the study of molecular evolution, a haplogroup is a large group of haplotypes, which are series of alleles at specific locations on a chromosome. ... The European peoples are the various nations and ethnic groups of Europe. ... The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing the Levant (modern Israel, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Anatolia (modern Turkey), Mesopotamia (Iraq and eastern Syria), and the Iranian Plateau (Iran). ... Central Asia is a region of Asia. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... SNP may refer to: The Scottish National Party The Slovak National Uprising A single nucleotide polymorphism Sodium nitroprusside The Solar neutrino problem Sentinel node procedure (oncological surgery) A Microsoft Access Report Snapshot file This page expands a three-character combination which might be any or all of: an abbreviation, an... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... This is the disambiguation page for the terms Turk, Turkey, Turkic, and Turkish. ... ... Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is DNA which is not located in the nucleus of the cell but in the mitochondria. ... For all Turkic groupings and Turkic history, see Turkic peoples. ... The Turkic languages are a group of closely related languages that are spoken by a variety of people distributed across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China. ...


Using Central Asian Y-chromosome data from either 13 populations and 149 samples (Underhill et al. 2000) or 49 populations and 1,935 samples (Wells et al. 2001) where these diagnostic lineages occur at 33% and 18%, respectively, their estimated contribution is 8.5%. During the Bronze Age, the population of Anatolia expanded and reached an estimated level of 12 million people during the late Roman Period (Russell 1958). Such a large preexistent Anatolian population would have reduced the impact of the subsequent arrival of the Turkic-speaking Seljuk and Osmanlı groups from Central Asia. Although the genetic research of Anatolia still remains somewhat inchoate, the excavations of these new levels of shared Y-chromosome heritage and subsequent diversification provide new clues to Anatolian prehistory, as well as a substantial foundation for comparisons with other populations. The results demonstrate Anatolia’s role as a buffer between culturally and genetically distinct populations, being both an important source and recipient of gene flow.(see the plot:). According to Spencer Wells:[51] The Y chromosome is one of the sex-determining chromosomes in humans and most other mammals (the other is the X chromosome). ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Roman or Romans may refer to: A thing or person of or from the city of Rome. ... Seljuk Prince with Mongoloid features. ... Look up substance in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Foundation on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Foundation may refer to: A type of makeup. ... Spencer Wells (born April 6, 1969 in Georgia, USA) is a geneticist and anthropologist, and an Explorer-in-Residence at the National Geographic Society. ...

The Turkish and Azeri populations are atypical among Altaic speakers in having low frequencies of M130, M48, M45, and M17 haplotypes. Rather, these two Turkic-speaking groups seem to be closer to populations from the Middle East and Caucasus, characterized by high frequencies of M96- and/or M89-related haplotypes. This finding is consistent with a model in which the Turkic languages, originating in the Altai-Sayan region of Central Asia and northwestern Mongolia, were imposed on the Caucasian and Anatolian peoples with relatively little genetic admixture---another possible example of elite dominance-driven linguistic replacement.

The question to what extent a gene flow from Central Asia to Anatolia has contributed to the current gene pool of the Turkish people, and what the role is in this of the 11th century invasion by Oghuz Turks, has been the subject of several studies. A factor that makes it difficult to give reliable estimates, is the problem of distinguishing between the effects of different migratory episodes. Per Chinese records, Kyrgyz Turks were the last Turks left ancient Mongolia due to massive Mongol settlement from east 600 A.D. Kyrgyz Turks possessed lighter hair color (including reddish), lighter eye colors and they were taller in height and strong people. Recent genetics research dated 2003[52] confirms the studies[53] indicating that the Turkic peoples[54] originated from Central Asia and therefore are possibly related with Xiongnu. According to the study, Turkish Anatolian tribes may have some ancestors who originated in an area north of Mongolia at the end of the Xiongnu period (3rd century BCE to the 2nd century CE), since modern Anatolian Turks appear to have some common genetic markers with the remains found at the Xiongnu period graves in Mongolia: Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... A Seljuk Prince. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Kyrgyz language. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... A Xiongnu belt buckle. ...

The researchers found that interbreeding between Europeans and Asians occurred much earlier than previously thought. They also found DNA sequences similar to those in present-day Turks, supporting the idea that most of the Turks originated in Central Asia. Interestingly, this paternal lineage has been, at least in part (6 of 7 STRs), found in a present-day Turkish individual (Henke et al. 2001). Moreover, the mtDNA (female linkeage) sequence shared by four of these paternal relatives (from graves 46, 52, 54, and 57) were also found in a Turkish individuals (Comas et al. 1996), suggesting a possible Turkish origin of these ancient specimens. Two other individuals buried in the B sector (graves 61 and 90) were characterized by mtDNA sequences found in Turkish people (Calafell 1996; Richards et al. 2000).[55][56]

See also

The Turks (Turkish people), whose name was first used in history in the 6th century AD by the Chinese [1], are a society whose language belongs to the Turkic language family (which in turn some classify as a subbranch of Altaic linguistic family. ... The history of the Turkic peoples (Turkic speaking peoples). ... The Military history of Turkey is a listing of ancient or previous history of military actions or information. ... The Republic of Turkey is a country located in Southwest Asia with a small part of its territory (3%) in southeastern Europe. ... // Güllü Agop Tarık Akan - Actor Azra Akın - Model, Miss World 2002 Barış Akarsu Filiz Akın – Actress Fatih Akın, film director Bülent Akinci, actor Metin Akpınar – Actor Derya Alabora‎ – Actress Mazhar Alanson Sadri Alışık Emre AltuÄŸ Müjde Ar – Actress Thomas Arslan, film... // Azerbaijan Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Turkmenistan Turkey Uzbekistan Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus [1] Bashkortostan Chuvashia Sakha (Yakutia) Republic Tatarstan Tuva These republics have a small Turkic minority and official language is a Turkic language. ... The term Turkish diaspora refers to the estimated population of Turkish people in the world living outside of Turkey. ... Turkish people in Australia are either Turkish people who live in Australia even though having been born outside Australia, or are Australian-born, but have Turkish roots (Turkish-Australian). ... Language(s) Turkish Religion(s) Sunni Muslim Turks in Azerbaijan are either Turkish people who live in Azerbaijan. ... Turks in Bulgaria The settlement of Turks in Bulgaria began in the 14th century and in the 2001 Census, the size of the community was estimated at 746,664. ... // Turks in Germany are people of Turkish descent with varying identity as part of a wider German society and who maintain a connection to the Turkish sociology, through cultural and historical affiliation. ... Turks in Japan refer to Japanese citizens who also hold citizenship of Turkey. ... The Turks in the post-communist Balkans were faced with one of two difficult experiences in the 1990s. ... The Turks (Turkish: Türkler, Dutch: Turken) are an ethnic minority in the Netherlands, numbering 357,900 people in 2006 according to the Dutch Census Bureau and hence making up 2. ... There are 97,500 Turks in the Republic of Macedonia, who live mainly in the cities of Uskup, Manastır, Gostivar,Kalkandelen, Ohri, andResne. ... The Turks (Türkler in Turkish, turci in Romanian) are an ethnic minority in Romania, numbering 32,596 people according to the 2002 census and hence making up 0. ... Turks of the Dodecanese is a 5,000-strong [citation needed] community of ethnic Turks inhabiting the Dodecanese islands of Rhodes and Kos (Ä°stanköy in Turkish) who had not been affected by the 1923 Exchange of populations between Greece and Turkey since the islands were under Italian rule at... Turks of Thrace executing a folk dance in Echinos - Åžahin [1] Turks of Western Thrace (Batı Trakya Türkleri in Turkish, Τούρκοι Δυτικής Θράκης Turki Dhitikis Thrakis in Greek, Западнотракийски турци Zapadnotrakiyski turtsi in Bulgarian) is a minority group in Greece, traditionally settled in the Western Thrace region of Greece, which is composed of the... Turkish Cypriots are those inhabitants of Cyprus who are ethnically Turkish[1], as opposed to those who are of Greek (the Greek Cypriots) or other ethnicities. ... Jews have lived in the geographic area of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) for more than 2,400 years. ... Turkish Americans (Turkish: ) are people of Turkish descent who live in the United States. ... Afro-Turks, African Turks, or Turkish Africans are people of African descent in Turkey. ... The freighter Giresun which carried thousands of exchanged Turkish Cretans from the ports of Crete to Turkey in the summer of 1923. ... Language(s) Turkish, Russian, Georgian,Azerbaijanian Religion(s) Sunni Islam Related ethnic groups Turks, Terekeme, other Muslims of Meskheti Meskhetian Turks are the former Muslim inhabitants of Meskheti (Georgia), along the border with Turkey. ... The Iraqi Turkmen (also spelled Turkomen, Turcoman, and Turkman) (Turkish:Irak Türkmenleri) are a distinct Turkic ethnic group living in Iraq, notably in the cities of Arbil, Tal Afar, Kirkuk, and Mosul. ... Main areas inhabited by Yoruk tribes in Anatolia The Yörük are a Turkic-speaking people primarily inhabiting the mountains of the southeast European Balkan peninsula and Anatolia. ...

References and notes

  1. ^ a b The World Factbook - Turkey
  2. ^ Helen Chapin Metz, ed. Turkey: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1995. Turks
  3. ^ DeutscheWelle - New rules for Muslims in German state
  4. ^ National Statistical Institute - Population by districts and ethnos as of 1-03-2001 (census figures)
  5. ^ a b c Gulcan, Nilgun. "Population of Turkish Diaspora", 2006-04-16. 
  6. ^ http://www.recensement.insee.fr/EN/ST_ANA/F2/NATTABNAT1BNAT1B2F2EN.html
  7. ^ 2005 (see Demographics of the Netherlands)
  8. ^ US demographic census
  9. ^ Turkish Embassy in London
  10. ^ ATCA news:National census held on 01/05/06 records a population of 264,172
  11. ^ Großer Türkenanteil in Österreich
  12. ^ 1999 Azerbaijani census
  13. ^ Statistik Schweiz - Wohnbevölkerung nach Nationalität (2000)
  14. ^ 2002 Macedonian census
  15. ^ 2002 Russian census - Nationality report
  16. ^ pdf document
  17. ^ 2002 census in Serbia (excluding Kosovo)
  18. ^ Immigrant Turks and their socio-economic structure in European countries
  19. ^ 2006 Census
  20. ^ Danmarks Statistik
  21. ^ Turkish Canadian Relations
  22. ^ Greek MFA Census Data on Thrace Minorities
  23. ^ Census 2002
  24. ^ Statistiche demografiche ISTAT
  25. ^ Turks, The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-07.
  26. ^ van Schendel, Willem; Erik Jan Zürcher (2001). Identity Politics in Central Asia and the Muslim World. I.B. Tauris. 
  27. ^ Note: the Serbian province of Kosovo is under UN administration since the 1999 Kosovo War.
    See also: United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK).
  28. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Central Asia (The Middle Ages) History of the Turks Article
  29. ^ The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05. Turks.
  30. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, Oguz Article
  31. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Seljuq Article
  32. ^ Medieval Sourcebook, Anna Comnena, The Alexiad: Complete Text
  33. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, Seljuq Article
  34. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica Battle of Manzikert Article
  35. ^ Seljuk Turks Period (1071-1243 AD)
  36. ^ Turkish origins
  37. ^ Georg, S., Michalove, P.A., Manaster Ramer, A., Sidwell, P.J.: "Telling general linguists about Altaic", Journal of Linguistics 35 (1999): 65-98 Online abstract and link to free pdf
  38. ^ Altaic Family Tree
  39. ^ Linguistic Lineage for Turkish
  40. ^ The History of Turkey
  41. ^ Shankland, David (2003). The Alevis in Turkey: The Emergence of a Secular Islamic Tradition. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-7007-1606-8. 
  42. ^ Henri J. Barkey, Graham E. Fuller. Turkey's Kurdish Question pg.67
  43. ^ Calafell, F (2006-01). "From Asia to Europe: mitochondrial DNA sequence variability in Bulgarians and Turks.". Annals of Human Genetics 60 (1): 35-49. doi:10.1111/j.1469-1809.1996.tb01170.x. 
  44. ^ (2001) HLA alleles and haplotypes in the Turkish population: relatedness to Kurds, Armenians and other Mediterraneans Tissue Antigens 57 (4), 308–317
  45. ^ Tissue Antigens. Volume 61 Issue 4 Page 292-299, April 2003. Genetic affinities among Mongol ethnic groups and their relationship to Turks
  46. ^ Tissue Antigens Volume 60 Issue 2 Page 111-121, August(2002) Population genetic relationships between Mediterranean populations determined by HLA allele distribution and a historic perspective. Tissue Antigens 60 (2), 111–121
  47. ^ Y-chromosomal diversity in Europe is clinal and influenced primarily by geography, rather than by language.
  48. ^ Comas, David; Francesc Calafell, Eva Mateu, Anna Pérez-Lezaun, Elena Bosch, Rosa Martínez-Arias, Jordi Clarimon, Fiorenzo Facchini, Giovanni Fiori, Donata Luiselli, Davide Pettener & Jaume Bertranpetit (1998), "Trading Genes along the Silk Road: mtDNA Sequences and the Origin of Central Asian Populations", The American Journal of Human Genetics 63 (6): 1824–1838, DOI 10.1086/302133 .
  49. ^ Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia. Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, CA 94305-5120, USA.
  50. ^ American Journal Of Physical Anthropology 115:144–156 (2001) - "DNA Diversity and Population Admixture in Anatolia". pdf document
  51. ^ The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity
  52. ^ Keyser-Tracqui C., Crubezy E., Ludes B. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA analysis of a 2,000-year-old necropolis in the Egyin Gol Valley of Mongolia American Journal of Human Genetics 2003 August; 73(2): 247–260.
  53. ^ The Gök Türk Empire All Empires
  54. ^ Nancy Touchette Ancient DNA Tells Tales from the Grave "Skeletons from the most recent graves also contained DNA sequences similar to those in people from present-day Turkey. This supports other studies indicating that Turkic tribes originated at least in part in Mongolia at the end of the Xiongnu period."
  55. ^ Christine Keyser-Tracqui, Eric Crubézy, and Bertrand Ludes. Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of a 2,000-Year-Old Necropolis in the Egyin Gol Valley of Mongolia American Journal of Human Genetics 73:247–260, 2003.
  56. ^ Nancy Touchette. Ancient DNA Tells Tales from the Grave, Genome News Network.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The population of the Netherlands is concentrated on a limited territory. ... Ethnic map of Serbia Demographics of Serbia Population of Serbia (including Kosovo) Serbs 66% Albanians 17% Hungarians 3. ... The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and sold by the Gale Group. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... UN redirects here. ... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... The United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo or UNMIK is an interim civilian administration in Kosovo, under the authority of the United Nations. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... The Columbia Encyclopedia is a one-volume encyclopedia produced by Columbia University Press and sold by the Gale Group. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... This is the disambiguation page for the terms Turk, Turkey, Turkic, and Turkish. ...

External links

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This is a list of Turkey-related articles. ... // Güllü Agop Tarık Akan - Actor Azra Akın - Model, Miss World 2002 Barış Akarsu Filiz Akın – Actress Fatih Akın, film director Bülent Akinci, actor Metin Akpınar – Actor Derya Alabora‎ – Actress Mazhar Alanson Sadri Alışık Emre AltuÄŸ Müjde Ar – Actress Thomas Arslan, film... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881–November 10, 1938), Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and anti-imperialist statesman, was the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey. ... For other uses, see Ä°nönü. Mustafa Ä°smet Ä°nönü (September 24, 1884–December 25, 1973) was a Turkish soldier, statesman and the second President of Turkey. ... Mustafa Bülent Ecevit (May 28, 1925–November 5, 2006; pronounced ), was a Turkish politician, poet, writer and journalist. ... Turkey is a successor state of the Ottoman Empire, a multi-ethnic empire consolidated by gradual conquest during medieval and early modern times (1300-1700). ... Sultanate controlling virtually all of Anatolia Capital Ä°znik Konya Political structure Empire Sultans  - 1060-1077 Kutalmish  - 1303-1308 Mesud II History  - Division from the Great Seljuk Empire 1077  - Internal struggles 1307 The Seljuk Sultanate of Rum was the Seljuk Turkish sultanate that ruled in direct lineage from 1077 to 1307... Anatolian beyliks (also Turkmen beyliks, Tevâif-i mülûk (in Ottoman Turkish) were small Turkish emirates or muslim principalities (beylik) governed by tribal beys, which were founded in several locations of Anatolia as of the end of the 13th century. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... In the late 13th century the Seljuq empire had collapsed and Anatolia was divided into many small states. ... This article is in need of attention. ... The Battle of Vienna of 1683 was the real point at which the Empire began its decline. ... Graphical timeline Decline of the Ottoman Empire covers the military and political events between 1828 to 1908. ... This article describes the process of dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, in particular its final years in the early part of the 20th century. ... History of Turkey redirects here. ... Combatants   Turkish Revolutionaries United Kingdom Greece France Italy Armenia Ottoman Empire Georgia Commanders Mustafa Kemal Ä°smet Ä°nönü Kazım Karabekir Ali Fuat Cebesoy Fevzi Çakmak George Milne Henri Gouraud Papoulas Georgios Hatzianestis Drastamat Kanayan Movses Silikyan Süleyman Åžefik Pasha The Turkish War of Independence (Turkish: KurtuluÅŸ Savaşı or... Atatürk, modern Turkeys founder and first President The history of modern Turkey begins with the foundation of the republic on October 29, 1923 (the Republic was declared on January 20, 1921), with Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) as its first president. ... This page summarizes the history after the Multi-party period. ... The Military history of Turkey is a listing of ancient or previous history of military actions or information. ... // Over the centuries, Turkey has had many constitutions and can be caracterized by the steady establishment of a nation-state, democratization and internationalisation. ... At the time of the collapse of the Ottoman Empire (see Economy of the Ottoman Empire) during World War I, the Turkish economy was underdeveloped: agriculture depended on outmoded techniques and poor-quality livestock, and the few factories producing basic products such as sugar and flour were under foreign control. ... A graphical timeline is available here: History of the Republic of Turkey This is a timeline of Turkish history. ... Politics of Turkey takes place in a framework of a secular parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Turkey is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... The Republic of Turkey is a country located in Southwest Asia with a small part of its territory (3%) in southeastern Europe. ... Presidential flag of Turkey. ... This is a chronological list of every government formed by the Prime Ministers of the Republic of Turkey. ... The Grand National Assembly (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi in Turkish) is the unicameral parliament of Turkey which carries out legislative functions. ... The cabinet (Council of Ministers) of Turkey comprises the heads of the major ministries. ... Political parties in Turkey lists political parties in Turkey. ... Elections in Turkey gives information on election and election results in Turkey. ... Foreign relations of the Republic of Turkey refers to the policies pursued by the Turkish government in its external relations with the international community. ... Over the last century, there has been a strong tradition of secularism in Turkey. ... // Overview Part Four, Section Two of the Turkish Constitution has established the Constitutional Court of Turkey that statutes on the conformity of laws and decrees to the Constitution, and it can be seized by the President of the Republic, the government, the members of Parliament or any judge before whom... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... — Other Turkish Topics Culture - Education Geography - History - Politics Turkey Portal Tourism in Turkey is focused largely on a variety of archaeological and historical sites, and on seaside resorts along its Aegean and Mediterranean coasts. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Below each region you will find associated Cities with the region. ... Provinces of Turkey are called iller in Turkish (singular is il, see Turkish alphabet for capitalization of i). ... The provinces of Turkey are divided into 923 districts (ilçeler; sing. ... This is a list of cities in Turkey by population (according to the 2000 census). ... Map showing the Turkish Riviera The Turkish Riviera (also known as The Turquoise Coast) is a popular term used to define an area of southwest Turkey encompassing Antalya, MuÄŸla and to a lesser extent Aydın and Ä°zmir provinces. ... Other Turkish Topics Culture - Education Geography - History - Politics Turkey Portal This is a list of companies from Turkey. ... As of September 2006, the size of the banking industry is 88. ... On 31 December 1995 the customs union between Turkey and the European Union came into effect. ... Other Turkish Topics Culture - Education Geography - History - Politics Turkey Portal The Southeastern Anatolia Project (Turkish: GüneydoÄŸu Anadolu Projesi, GAP) is a multi-sector integrated regional development project based on the concept of sustainable development for the 9 million people[1] living in a region. ... TRY banknotes and coins The Turkish new lira is the current currency of Turkey and of the de facto state Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. ... As of 2005, the population of Turkey stood at 72. ... Turkish ( IPA ) is a language spoken by 65–73 million people worldwide, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. ... The term Turkish diaspora refers to the estimated population of Turkish people in the world living outside of Turkey. ... It has been suggested that Human rights of Kurdish people in Turkey be merged into this article or section. ... Traditional Turkish coffee The culture of Turkey is a diverse one, derived from various elements of the Ottoman Empire, European, and the Islamic traditions. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Turkish art is a term referring to the visual arts and plastic arts (often including architecture, woodwork, textiles and ceramics) originating from the geographical area of what is present day Turkey. ... Turkish cuisine inherited its Ottoman heritage which could be described as a fusion and refinement of Turkic, Arabic, Greek, Armenian and Persian cuisines. ... Turkish dances include Halay, Zeybek, Horon, and Karsilama. ... More than 100 festivals are held in Turkey every year. ... Ahi Evren Ahriyan Al Basti Alaturbi Ancomah Bardi Cazi Germakoçi Karakoncolos Karakura Kolot Tavara // Breaking vine In Trabzon region folklore (ÇarşıbaÅŸi town) For testing whether the new bride is propitious, when she comes to the house, she is asked to break a vine from three points and... The official holidays in Turkey are established by the Act 2429 of March 19, 1981 that replaced the Act 2739 of May 27, 1935. ... A page from the Dîvân-ı Fuzûlî, the collected poems of the 16th-century Ottoman poet Fuzûlî Turkish literature (Turkish: Türk edebiyatı or Türk yazını) is the collection of written and oral texts composed in the Turkish language, either in its Ottoman form or... Genres: Alternative - Classical - Dance - Folk - Hip hop - Jazz - Military - Ottoman - Opera - Pop - Religious - Rock Awards Kral MV, MÃœ-YAP, MGD Charts Billboard Charts Music Festivals Istanbul International Music Festival, Istanbul International Jazz Festival, Izmir European Jazz Festival, Aspendos International Opera and Ballet Festival Media Rolling Stone (Türkiye), MTV (T... Turkish theatre can be observed under two main titles: Traditional Turkish theatre and Westernized Turkish theatre. ... This is a list of radio stations in Turkey. ... List of television stations in Turkey // Actionmax (Digiturk) Akdeniz TV Alo Arkadas (Chat) Animal Planet Turkey Aquavision ART (Avrasya Radyo Televizyonu) ASTV [1] ATV (owned by Turgay Ciner, who also owns the newspaper, Sabah) ATV Avrupa BJK TV[2] (Channel of BeÅŸiktaÅŸ J.K. sports club) Çay TV (Regional... Logo used by several Turkish institutions Coat of Arms of Turkey designed in 1925, never approved The Republic of Turkey is one of the states that do not have an official coat of arms. ... The flag of Turkey consists of a white crescent moon and a star on a red background. ... The Ä°stiklâl Marşı (i. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Afshar or Afshari, is a Turkic language spoken in parts of Afghanistan and Iran. ... Altay is a language of the Turkic group of languages. ... ... The Bashkir language is a Turkic language. ... Bulgar (also BolÄŸar), also Proto-Bulgarian is the language of the Bulgars, now extinct, whose classification is unclear. ... The Chagatai language is an extinct Turkic language which was once widely spoken in Central Asia. ... Chulyum also known as Chulym-Turkic , Chulym Tatar (not at all related to the Tatar language), or Küerik is a language of Chulyms. ... Chuvash (Chuvash: Чӑвашла, ČăvaÅ¡la, IPA: ; also known as Chăvash, Chuwash, Chovash, Chavash, ÇuvaÅŸ or ÇuaÅŸ) is a Turkic language spoken to the west of the Ural Mountains in central Russia. ... Crimean Tatar language (Qırımtatar tili, Qırımtatarca), also known as Crimean (Qırım tili, Qırımca) and Crimean Turkish (Qırım Türkçesi) is the language of the Crimean Tatars. ... Cuman language was a Turkic language spoken by the Kipchaks (also known as the Cumans) similar to todays Crimean Tatar language. ... The Dolgan Language, is a Turkic language with around 5,000 speakers that is spoken in the Taymyr Peninsula in the Russian Federation. ... Fuyü Gïrgïs or Fu-Yu Kirgiz is the easternmost Turkic language. ... The Gagauz language (Gagauz dili) is a Turkic language, used by Gagauz people, official language of Gagauzia, Republic of Moldova. ... The Hunnic language is an extinct language of the Huns. ... Ili Turki is a language spoken primarily in China. ... The Karachay-Balkar language (Къарачай-Малкъар /Qarachay-Malqar/) is a Turkic language of the Karachays and Balkars. ... The Karaim language is a Turkic language with Hebrew influences, in a similar manner to Yiddish or Ladino. ... Karakalpak is a Turkic language mainly spoken by Karakalpaks in Karakalpakstan (Uzbekistan), as well as by Bashkirs and Nogay. ... Kazakh (also Qazaq and variants[2], natively , , ‎; pronounced ) is a Turkic language closely related to Nogai and Karakalpak. ... Khakas is a Turkic language spoken by the Khakas people, who mainly live in the southern Siberian Khakas Republic, or Khakassia, in Russia. ... Khalaj is a language spoken primarily in Iran and Afghanistan. ... Language spoken by the medieval Khazar tribe. ... Khorasani Turkic (تركي خراساني / Xorasan TürkçeÉ™sı) is variety of speech belonging to the Turkic language family. ... The Kipchak language was an extinct Turkic language of Kipchak-Bolghar group. ... Krymchak is the Crimean Tatar language dialect spoken by the Krymchaks - Rabbanite Jews of the Crimea. ... Kyrgyz or Kirghiz (Kyrgyz tili, Кыргыз тили, قىرعىز ٴتىلى) is a Turkic language, and, together with Russian, an official language of Kyrgyzstan. ... Kumyk (also Qumuq, Kumuk, Kumuklar, and Kumyki) is a Turkic language, spoken by about 200 thousands speakers (the Kumyks) in the Dagestan republic of Russian Federation. ... The Kypchak languages (also known as the Kipchak, Qypchaq, or Northeastern Turkic languages), are a major branch of the Turkic language family spoken by more than 12 million people in an area spanning from Lithuania to China. ... Nogai (also Nogay or Nogai Tatar), is a Turkic language spoken in southwestern Russia. ... Old Tatar language (Iske imla: يسكى تاتار تلى (translit. ... The Turkic language spoken by the Gokturks and used on the Orkhon inscriptions. ... Ottoman Turkish (Turkish: or , Ottoman Turkish: ‎ ) was the variant of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire. ... Pecheneg language is the extinct Turkic language spoken by the Pechenegs in Eastern Europe, similar to Cuman. ... Qashqai (also spelled Ghashghai, Qashqai, Qashqay, and Kashkai) is a Turkic language. ... Sakha, or Yakut, is a Turkic language with around 363,000 speakers spoken in the Sakha Republic in the Russian Federation. ... Salar is a Turkic language spoken by the Salar people, who mainly live in the provinces of Qinghai and Gansu in China, some also live in Ghulja, Xinjiang. ... The Shor language is one of the Turkic languages. ... The Tatar language (Tatar tele, Tatarça, Татар теле, Татарча) is a Turkic language spoken by the Tatars. ... Tofa, also known as Tofalar or Karagas, is one of the Turkic languages. ... Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... Tuvan (Tuvan: Тыва дыл Tyva dyl), also known as Tuvinian, Tyvan, or Tuvin, is one of the Turkic languages. ... Urum is a Turkic language spoken by several thousand people who inhabit a few villages in the Southeastern Ukraine and in Georgia. ... Uyghur (‎/Uyghurche//, or ‎/Uyghur tili//)[1] is a Turkic language spoken by the Uyghur people in Xinjiang (also called East Turkestan or Uyghurstan), formerly also “Sinkiang” and “Chinese Turkestan,” a Central Asian region administered by China. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... The Altay or Altai are a Turkic people living in the Siberian Altai Republic and Altai Krai and surrounding areas of Tuva and Mongolia. ... The Balkars (Karachay-Balkar: sg. ... The Bashkirs, a Turkic people, live in Russia, mostly in the republic of Bashkortostan. ... Not to be confused with Bulgarians. ... The Chulyms (Чулымцы in Russian; self-designation: Чулымские люди, or Chulymian people) are a Turkic people in the Tomsk Oblast and Krasnoyarsk Krai in Russia. ... The Chuvash (Chuvash ; Russian: Чуваши; Tatar: ÇuaÅŸlar, Чуашлар) are a Turkic people usually associated with Chuvashia. ... The Crimean Tatars (sg. ... Cuman, also called Polovtsy, Polovtsian, or the Anglicized Polovzian (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Turkish: , Bulgarian: , Romanian: , Hungarian: ), is a Western European exonym for the western Kipchaks. ... The Dolgans (Russian: ; self-designation: долган, тыа-кихи, саха) are a Turkic people, who inhabit Taymyr Autonomous Okrug in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. ... The Gagauz are a minority Turkic people in southern Moldova (in Gagauzia) and southwestern Ukraine (in Budjak) that numbers around 250,000. ... The Iraqi Turkmen (also spelled Turkomen, Turcoman, and Turkman) (Turkish:Irak Türkmenleri) are a distinct Turkic ethnic group living in Iraq, notably in the cities of Arbil, Tal Afar, Kirkuk, and Mosul. ... The Karachays (Къарачайлыла, Qaraçaylıla) are a Turkic people of the Ciscaucasus, mostly situated in the Russian Karachay-Cherkess Republic. ... The Crimean Karaites (Crimean Karaim: sg. ... The Karakalpaks are ethnic group of Turkic people who mainly live in the lower reaches of the Amu Darya and in the (former) delta of Amu Darya on the southern shore of the Aral Sea. ... The Karapapak are a small ethnic group of Turkic people who mainly live in north west province of West Azerbaijan (Azarbaijan-e-Gharbi) in and around the Sulduz area and North West of Turkey near the border with Georgia. ... Language(s) Kazakh, Russian (and/or languages in country of residence) Religion(s) Sunni Islam The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар IPA: ; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of... The Khakas, or Khakass, are a Turkic people, who live in Russia, in the republic of Khakassia in the southern Siberia. ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... Kmek or Kimak was a nomadic tribe lived in modern Astrakhan Oblast of Russia in 9th-13th century. ... Kipchaks in Eurasia circa 1200 C.E. Kipchaks (also spelled as Kypchaks, Qipchaqs, Qypchaqs) (Ukrainian: (polovtsy), Crimean Tatar: , Karachay-Balkar: Къыпчакъ, Uzbek: , Kazakh: Қыпшақ, Kumyk: Къыпчакъ, Kyrgyz: Кыпчак, Nogai: Кыпчак, Turkish: Kıpçak) were an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. The western... The Krymchaks (Krymchak: sg. ... Flag of the Kumyks Kumyks are a Turkic people occupying the Kumyk plateau in north Dagestan and south Terek, and the lands bordering the Caspian Sea. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Kyrgyz language. ... Language(s) Turkish, Russian, Georgian,Azerbaijanian Religion(s) Sunni Islam Related ethnic groups Turks, Terekeme, other Muslims of Meskheti Meskhetian Turks are the former Muslim inhabitants of Meskheti (Georgia), along the border with Turkey. ... NaÄŸaybäk (; plural NaÄŸaybäklär; Russian: нагайбаки) is a group of Keräşen Tatars, frequently viewed as one of indigenous peoples of Russia. ... The Nogais, also spelled Nogay, Noghai, and often called the Caucasian Mongols (Caucasian refers to their geographic position, in the Caucasus mountains, not to their ethnicity), are a Turkic people, and an important ethnic group in the Daghestan region who speak the Turkic Nogai language. ... A Seljuk Prince. ... For the language, see Qashqai language. ... The Salar people (Chinese: 撒拉族, Pinyin: Sālāzú) are one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... Syrian Turkmen or Syrian Turkomen[1] are Syrian citizens of Oghuz Turkish descent, who had been living in the Syrian province of the Ottoman Empire before its dissolution and continue to live in the modern country of Syria. ... This article is about the people. ... The Finnish Tatar community, about 800 people, is recognized as a national minority by the government of Finland, which considers their language as a non-territorial language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. ... The Lipka Tatars were a noble military caste of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth who followed the Sunni branch of the Islamic religion and whose origins can be traced back to the Mongol Empire of Ghengis Khan, through the Khanate of the White Horde of Siberia. ... The Native Western Siberian Tatars (200,000) are an ethnic group or a sub-group of the Tatars. ... Volga Tatars are a Turkic people who live in the central and Eastern European parts of Russia. ... A Telengit is a member of an ethnic group in Russia. ... According to the 2002 census, there were 2650 Teleuts in Russia. ... Tofalars (Тофалары, тофа (tofa) in Russian; formerly known as карагасы, or karagas) are a Turkic-speaking people in the Irkutsk Oblast in Russia. ... Turkish Cypriots are those inhabitants of Cyprus who are ethnically Turkish[1], as opposed to those who are of Greek (the Greek Cypriots) or other ethnicities. ... Tuvans or Tuvinians (Tuvan: Тывалар, Tyvalar) are a group of Turkic people who make up about two thirds of the population of Tuva, Russia. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Uyghur language. ... Yakuts, self-designation: Sakha, are a Turkic people associated with the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. ... Main areas inhabited by Yoruk tribes in Anatolia The Yörük are a Turkic-speaking people primarily inhabiting the mountains of the southeast European Balkan peninsula and Anatolia. ... The Yugur people are an ethnic group. ... The history of the Turkic peoples (Turkic speaking peoples). ... Turkic peoples listed geographically. ... Turanism, or Pan-Turanism, is a political movement for the union of all Turanian peoples. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... // Azerbaijan Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Turkmenistan Turkey Uzbekistan Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus [1] Bashkortostan Chuvashia Sakha (Yakutia) Republic Tatarstan Tuva These republics have a small Turkic minority and official language is a Turkic language. ... Anthem: Ä°stiklâl Marşı(Turkish) Independence March Capital Nicosia (LefkoÅŸa in Turkish) Official languages Turkish Government Representative democratic republic1  -  President Mehmet Ali Talat  -  Prime Minister Ferdi Sabit Soyer Independence from Cyprus   -  Proclaimed November 15, 1983   -  Recognition By Turkey only  Area  -  Total 3,355 km² (167th ranked together with Cyprus... // Azerbaijan Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Turkmenistan Turkey Uzbekistan Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus [1] Bashkortostan Chuvashia Sakha (Yakutia) Republic Tatarstan Tuva These republics have a small Turkic minority and official language is a Turkic language. ... The Altai Republic (Russian: ; Altay: Алтай Республика) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... The Republic of Bashkortostan, or Bashkiria (Russian: or ; Bashkir: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... , Chuvash Republic (Russian: ; ), or Chuvashia () is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) located in central Russia. ... Anthem Gagauziya Milli Marşı Location of Gagauzia (purple) Capital (and largest city) Comrat Official languages Gagauz, Moldovan (Romanian), Russian Government  -  Governor Mihail Formuzal  -  Chairman of the Peoples Assembly Stepan Esir Autonomous region of Moldova  -  Created April 23, 1994  Area  -  Total 1,832 km²  707 sq mi  Population  -  19961 estimate... Karakalpakstan (Uzbek: Qoraqalpogiston Respublikasi or Қорақалпоғистон Республикаси; Karakalpak: Қарақалпақстан Республикасы or Qaraqalpaqstan Respublikası) is an autonomous republic of Uzbekistan. ... Khakassia or Khakasiya (Russian: or ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) located in south central Siberia. ... This article is about the autonomous region. ... The Sakha (Yakutia) Republic (Russian: ; Sakha: Саха Республиката) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Republic of Tatarstan (Russian: ; Tatar Cyrillic: Татарстан Республикасы, Latin: Tatarstan Respublikası) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Tyva Republic IPA: (Russian: IPA: ; Tuvan: ), or Tuva (), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Nomadic Empires, sometimes also called Steppe Empires, Central or Inner Asian Empires, are the empires erected by the bow wielding, horse riding, Eurasian nomads, from Classical Antiquity (Scythia) to the Early Modern era (Dzungars). ... The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia and China. ... The Turkic people are any of various peoples whose members speak languages in the Turkic family of languages. ... The Proto-Turkic language is the proto-language of the family of Turkic languages that predates the separation of the Turkic peoples in the course of the Turkic expansion from ca. ... The Turkic people are any of various peoples whose members speak languages in the Turkic family of languages. ...

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Turkish people - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2100 words)
The Turks, (Turkish: Türkler), or the Turkish people (Türk Halkı), are a nation (millet) in the meaning an ethnos (Halk in Turkish), defined more by a sense of sharing a common Turkish culture and having a Turkish mother tongue, than by citizenship, religion or by being subjects to any particular country.
The Turkish language is a member of the Oghuz subdivision of Turkic languages, which in turn is thought by some to be a branch of the proposed Altaic language family.
Modern Turkish differs greatly from the Ottoman Turkish language that was used officially in the Ottoman Empire.
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