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Encyclopedia > Turkish literature
A page from the Dîvân-ı Fuzûlî, the collected poems of the 16th-century Ottoman poet Fuzûlî
Turkish Literature
By category
Epic Tradition

Orhon
Dede Korkut - Köroğlu Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1072x1783, 2563 KB) Summary Source: Åžentürk, Ahmet Atilla. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1072x1783, 2563 KB) Summary Source: Åžentürk, Ahmet Atilla. ... Fuzûlî (1494?–1556), a Divan poet of Azeri origin Mehmed bin Süleyman Fuzuli, most commonly referred to as Fuzuli, was born around 1494 in Iran (Safavid era), although his actual date of birth is unknown. ... Orkhon tablet Inscription in Kyzyl using Orkhon script Orkhon script The Orkhon script (also spelled Orhon script, also Orkhon-Yenisey script, Old Turkic script, Göktürk script, Turkish: Orhon Yazıtları) is the alphabet used by the Göktürk from the 8th century to record the Old Turkic... The Book of Dede Korkut is one of the most famous epics of the Turkmens or the Oghuz Turks. ... The Epic of KöroÄŸlu (Turkish: KöroÄŸlu destanı) is a legend prominent in the oral traditions of the Turkic peoples. ...

Folk Tradition

Folk literature
Folklore ... Ahi Evren Ahriyan Al Basti Alaturbi Ancomah Bardi Cazi Germakoçi Karakoncolos Karakura Kolot Tavara // Breaking vine In Trabzon region folklore (Çarşıbaşi town) For testing whether the new bride is propitious, when she comes to the house, she is asked to break a vine from three points and...

Ottoman Era

Poetry | Prose For other uses, see Ottoman (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The prose of the Ottoman Empire can, roughly, be divided along the lines of two broad periods: early Ottoman prose, written prior to the 19th century CE and exclusively nonfictional in nature; and later Ottoman prose, which extended from the mid-19th century Tanzimat period of reform to the final...

Republican Era

Poetry | Prose This article is about the Republic of Turkey. ... // National Literature (1911-1923) Mehmet Emin Yurdakul (1869-1944) Ziya Gökalp (1876-1924) Garip Movement For more details on this topic, see garip. ... // National Literature (1911-1923) Ömer Seyfettin, short story author (1884-1920) Halide Edip Adıvar, novelist (1884-1964) Reşat Nuri Güntekin, novelist (1889-1956) Yakup Kadri Karaosmanoğlu, short story author (1889-1974) Fuat Köprülü, writer (1890-1966) Republican Period Literature (1923- ) novel Cevat Şakir Kabaa...

Turkish literature (Turkish: Türk edebiyatı or Türk yazını) is the collection of written and oral texts composed in the Turkish language, either in its Ottoman form or in less exclusively literary forms, such as that spoken in the Republic of Turkey today. The Ottoman Turkish language, which forms the basis of much of the written corpus, was heavily influenced by Persian and Arabic and used a variant of the Perso-Arabic script. Turkish (, ) is a language spoken by 65–73 million people worldwide, predominantly in Turkey, with smaller communities of speakers in Cyprus, Greece and Eastern Europe, as well as by several million immigrants in Western Europe, particularly Germany, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. ... Ottoman Turkish (Turkish: or , Ottoman Turkish: ‎ ) was the variant of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire. ... It has been suggested that Scripts used for Persian be merged into this article or section. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing the Arabic language, which is the language of the Quran, the holy book of Islam. ...


The history of Turkish literature spans a period of nearly 1,500 years. The oldest extant records of written Turkic are the Orhon inscriptions, found in the Orhon River valley in central Mongolia and dating to the 8th century. Subsequent to this period, between the 9th and 11th centuries, there arose among the nomadic Turkic peoples of Central Asia a tradition of oral epics, such as the Book of Dede Korkut of the Oghuz Turks—the linguistic and cultural ancestors of the modern Turkish people—and the Manas epic of the Kyrgyz people. The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Orkhon tablet Inscription in Kyzyl using Orkhon script Orkhon script The Orkhon script (also spelled Orhon script, also Orkhon-Yenisey script, Old Turkic script, Göktürk script, Turkish: Orhon Yazıtları) is the alphabet used by the Göktürk from the 8th century to record the Old Turkic... Orkhon Valley Cultural Landscape sprawls along the banks of the Orhon River in Central Mongolia, some 360 km west from the capital Ulaanbaatar. ... Kazakh nomads in the steppes of the Russian Empire, ca. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Oral literature corresponds in the sphere of the spoken (oral) word to literature as literature operates in the domain of the written word. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of narrative poetry, characterized by great length, multiple settings, large numbers of characters, or long span of time involved. ... The Book of Dede Korkut is one of the most famous epics of the Turkmens or the Oghuz Turks. ... The Oghuz Turks (also with various alternate spellings, including Oguz, OÄŸuz, Ouz, Okuz, Oufoi, Guozz, Ghuzz and Uz) are regarded as one of the major branches of Turkic peoples. ... For a specific analysis of the population of Turkey, see People of Turkey and Demographics of Turkey. ... Manas is a traditional epic poem of the Kyrgyz people and the name of the epics eponymous hero. ... Languages Kyrgyz Religions Sunni Islam Related ethnic groups other Turkic peoples Kyrgyz (also spelled Kirghiz) are a Turkic ethnic group found primarily in Kyrgyzstan. ...


Beginning with the victory of the Seljuks at the Battle of Manzikert in the late 11th century, the Oghuz Turks began to settle in Anatolia, and in addition to the earlier oral traditions there arose a written literary tradition issuing largely—in terms of themes, genres, and styles—from Arabic and Persian literature. For the next 900 years, until shortly before the fall of the Ottoman Empire in 1922, the oral and written traditions would remain largely separate from one another. With the founding of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, the two traditions came together for the first time. The Seljuqs (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuk, sometimes also Seljuq Turks; in Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian: á¹¢aljÅ«qÄ«yān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a Sunni Muslim dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Seljuk Turks Commanders Romanus IV #, Nikephoros Bryennios, Theodore Alyates, Andronikos Doukas Alp Arslan Strength ~ 20,000 [1] (40,000 initial) ~ 20,000 [2] - 70,000[1] Casualties ~ 8,000 [3] Unknown The Battle of Manzikert, or Malazgirt was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk Turkic forces... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... Arabic literature (Arabic ,الأدب العربي ) Al-Adab Al-Arabi, is the writing produced, both prose and poetry, by speakers of the Arabic language. ... Persian literature (in Persian: ‎ ) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. ... For other uses, see Ottoman (disambiguation). ...

Contents

The two traditions of Turkish literature

Throughout most of its history, Turkish literature has been rather sharply divided into two rather different traditions, neither of which exercised much influence upon the other until the 19th century. The first of these two traditions is Turkish folk literature, and the second is Turkish written literature.


For most of the history of Turkish literature, the salient difference between the folk and the written traditions has been the variety of language employed. The folk tradition, by and large, was oral and remained free of the influence of Persian and Arabic literature, and consequently of those literatures' respective languages. In folk poetry—which is by far the tradition's dominant genre—this basic fact led to two major consequences in terms of poetic style: Look up genre in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  • the poetic meters employed in the folk poetic tradition were different, being quantitative (i.e., syllabic) verse, as opposed to the qualitative verse employed in the written poetic tradition;
  • the basic structural unit of folk poetry became the quatrain (Turkish: dörtlük) rather than the couplets (Turkish: beyit) more commonly employed in written poetry.

Furthermore, Turkish folk poetry has always had an intimate connection with song—most of the poetry was, in fact, expressly composed so as to be sung—and so became to a great extent inseparable from the tradition of Turkish folk music. Meter (British English spelling: metre) describes the linguistic sound patterns of a verse. ... Syllabic verse is a poetic form having a fixed number of syllables per line or stanza regardless of the number of stresses that are present. ... A quatrain is a poem or a stanza within a poem that consists of four lines. ... A couplet is a pair of lines of verse. ... A song is a relatively short musical composition. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


In contrast to the tradition of Turkish folk literature, Turkish written literature—prior to the founding of the Republic of Turkey in 1923—tended to embrace the influence of Persian and Arabic literature. To some extent, this can be seen as far back as the Seljuk period in the late 11th to early 14th centuries, where official business was conducted in the Persian language, rather than in Turkish, and where a court poet such as Dehhanî—who served under the 13th century sultan Ala ad-Din Kay Qubadh I—wrote in a language highly inflected with Persian. Atatürk, modern Turkeys founder and first President The history of modern Turkey begins with the foundation of the republic on October 29, 1923 (the Republic was declared on January 20, 1921), with Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) as its first president. ... The Sultanate of Rûm was a Seljuk sultanate in Anatolia from 1077 to 1307. ... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ...


When the Ottoman Empire arose early in the 14th century, in northwestern Anatolia, it continued this tradition. The standard poetic forms—for poetry was as much the dominant genre in the written tradition as in the folk tradition—were derived either directly from the Persian literary tradition (the gazel غزل; the mesnevî مسنوى), or indirectly through Persian from the Arabic (the kasîde قصيده). However, the decision to adopt these poetic forms wholesale led to two important further consequences:[1] Information in this article or section has not been verified against sources and may not be reliable. ... The masnavi (Persian: معنوی, also transcribed as mathnawi; Turkish: mesnevî) is a poetic form in Persian and Ottoman literature. ... Qasida (also spelled qasidah) in Arabic قصيدة, in Persian قصیده, is a form of poetry from pre-Islamic Arabia. ...

  • the poetic meters (Turkish: aruz) of Persian poetry were adopted;
  • Persian- and Arabic-based words were brought into the Turkish language in great numbers, as Turkish words rarely worked well within the system of Persian poetic meter.

Out of this confluence of choices, the Ottoman Turkish language—which was always highly distinct from standard Turkish—was effectively born. This style of writing under Persian and Arabic influence came to be known as "Divan literature" (Turkish: divan edebiyatı), dîvân (ديوان) being the Ottoman Turkish word referring to the collected works of a poet. Meter (British English spelling: metre) describes the linguistic sound patterns of a verse. ... Deewan, sometimes spelt Divan, is the word for either a collection of the works, or the whole body of work of an Urdu, Persian or Ottoman Turkish poet. ...


Just as Turkish folk poetry was intimately bound up with Turkish folk music, so did Ottoman Divan poetry develop a strong connection with Turkish classical music, with the poems of the Divan poets often being taken up to serve as song lyrics. Ottoman classical music (Türk Sanat Müziği) is a kind of music that developed parallel with the Ottoman Empire. ...


Folk literature

Turkish folk literature is an oral tradition deeply rooted, in its form, in Central Asian nomadic traditions. However, in its themes, Turkish folk literature reflects the problems peculiar to a settling (or settled) people who have abandoned the nomadic lifestyle. One example of this is the series of folktales surrounding the figure of Keloğlan, a young boy beset with the difficulties of finding a wife, helping his mother to keep the family house intact, and dealing with the problems caused by his neighbors. Another example is the rather mysterious figure of Nasreddin, a trickster who often plays jokes, of a sort, on his neighbors. ... Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Nasreddin (disambiguation). ... The trickster figure Reynard the Fox as depicted in an 1869 childrens book by Michel Rodange. ...

An aşık performing in Anatolia, from an 18th-century Western engraving
An aşık performing in Anatolia, from an 18th-century Western engraving

Nasreddin also reflects another significant change that had occurred between the days when the Turkish people were nomadic and the days when they had largely become settled in Anatolia; namely, Nasreddin is a Muslim imam. The Turkic peoples had first become an Islamic people sometime around the 9th or 10th century, as is evidenced from the clear Islamic influence on the 11th century Karakhanid work the Kutadgu Bilig ("Wisdom of Royal Glory"), written by Yusuf Has Hajib. The religion henceforth came to exercise an enormous influence on Turkish society and literature, particularly the heavily mystically oriented Sufi and Shi'a varieties of Islam. The Sufi influence, for instance, can be seen clearly not only in the tales concerning Nasreddin but also in the works of Yunus Emre, a towering figure in Turkish literature and a poet who lived at the end of the 13th and beginning of the 14th century, probably in the Karamanid state in south-central Anatolia. The Shi'a influence, on the other hand, can be seen extensively in the tradition of the aşıks, or ozans,[2] who are roughly akin to medieval European minstrels and who traditionally have had a strong connection with the Alevi faith, which can be seen as something of a homegrown Turkish variety of Shi'a Islam. It is, however, important to note that in Turkish culture, such a neat division into Sufi and Shi'a is scarcely possible: for instance, Yunus Emre is considered by some to have been an Alevi, while the entire Turkish aşık/ozan tradition is permeated with the thought of the Bektashi Sufi order, which is itself a blending of Shi'a and Sufi concepts. The word aşık (literally, "lover") is in fact the term used for first-level members of the Bektashi order. Image File history File links Ozan. ... Image File history File links Ozan. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Kutadgu Bilig, or QutadÄŸu Bilig (English: IPA: , Middle Turkic IPA, proposed: //), is a Karakhanid work from the 11th century written by of Balasagun for the prince of Kashgar. ... Yusuf Has Hajib, as shown on the Kyrgyz 1000 som note. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam and encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... Yunus Emre (1238?–1320?) was a Turkish poet and Sufi mystic. ... Flag of Karaman according to the Catalan Atlas c. ... Anatolian beyliks (also Turkmen beyliks, Tevâif-i mülûk (in Ottoman Turkish) are small Turkish emirates or muslim principalities governed by tribal beys, which were founded in several locations of Anatolia at the end of the 13th century. ... For the 18th century American form of music and performance known as minstrelsy, see minstrel show. ... Alevis or Alevi-Bektashis (Kurdish: Alevi, Turkish: Aleviler or Alevilik) are a religious community in Turkey, and they make up some 20% of the population of the country. ... The Bektashi order (Turkish: BektaÅŸi) is a syncretic religious order related to Shia Alevi faith, and is generally considered to be a Shia Sufi sect (Tarika). ... Tariqah ( transliteration: ; pl. ...


Because the Turkish folk literature tradition extends in a more or less unbroken line from about the 10th or 11th century to today, it is perhaps best to consider the tradition from the perspective of genre. There are three basic genres in the tradition: epic; folk poetry; and folklore.


The epic tradition

The Turkish epic has its roots in the Central Asian epic tradition that gave rise to the Book of Dede Korkut, which is in a language recognizably similar to modern Turkish and which developed from the oral traditions of the Oghuz Turks, that branch of the Turkic peoples which migrated towards western Asia and eastern Europe through Transoxiana beginning in the 9th century. The Book of Dede Korkut continued to survive in the oral tradition after the Oghuz Turks had, by and large, settled in Anatolia. The Book of Dede Korkut is one of the most famous epics of the Turkmens or the Oghuz Turks. ... The Oghuz Turks (also with various alternate spellings, including Oguz, OÄŸuz, Ouz, Okuz, Oufoi, Guozz, Ghuzz and Uz) are regarded as one of the major branches of Turkic peoples. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... Map showing modern Transoxiana. ...


The Book of Dede Korkut was the primary element of the Turkish epic tradition in Anatolia for several centuries. Another epic circulating at the same time, however, was the so-called Epic of Köroğlu, which concerns the adventures of Rüşen Ali ("Köroğlu", or "son of the blind man") to exact revenge for the blinding of his father. The origins of this epic are somewhat more mysterious than those of the Book of Dede Korkut: many believe it to have arisen in Anatolia sometime between the 15th and 17th centuries; more reliable testimony,[3] though, seems to indicate that the story is nearly as old as that of the Book of Dede Korkut, dating from around the dawn of the 11th century. Complicating matters somewhat is the fact that Köroğlu is also the name of a poet of the aşık/ozan tradition. The Epic of KöroÄŸlu (Turkish: KöroÄŸlu destanı) is a legend prominent in the oral traditions of the Turkic peoples. ...


That the epic tradition in Turkish literature may not have died out entirely can be seen from the Epic of Shaykh Bedreddin (Şeyh Bedreddin Destanı), published in 1936 by the poet Nâzım Hikmet Ran (1901–1963). This long poem—which concerns an Anatolian shaykh's rebellion against the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed I—is a sort of modern, written epic that nevertheless draws upon the same independent-minded traditions of the Anatolian people that can be seen in the Epic of Köroğlu. Also, many of the works of the 20th-century novelist Yaşar Kemal (1923– ), such as his long 1955 novel Memed, My Hawk (İnce Memed), can be considered modern prose epics. Shaikh (Arabic: شيخ ),(also rendered as Sheik, Shaykh or Sheikh) is a word in the Arabic language meaning elder of tribe, lord or a revered old man. ... Bedreddin was a revolutionary sheikh from Anatolia. ... Nazım Hikmet Ran (IPA:nazɨm hikmet) (November 20, 1901 – June 3, 1963) was a Turkish poet, dramatist and communist, who is widely regarded as the best-known Turkish poet in the West and his works have been translated into several languages. ... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Sultan Mehmet I Mehmed I Çelebi (nicknamed Kirisci, the Executioner) (1389 – May 26, 1421) was a sultan of the Ottoman Empire. ... YaÅŸar Kemal (born Kemal Sadık Gökçeli) is one of the best known writers in Turkey. ... Memed, My Hawk (Turkish: ) is a 1955 novel by YaÅŸar Kemal. ... Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to the patterns of everyday speech. ...


Folk poetry

The folk poetry tradition in Turkish literature, as indicated above, was strongly influenced by the Islamic Sufi and Shi'a traditions. Furthermore, as partly evidenced by the prevalence of the still existent aşık/ozan tradition, the dominant element in Turkish folk poetry has always been song. The development of folk poetry in Turkish—which began to emerge in the 13th century with such important writers as Yunus Emre, Sultan Veled, and Şeyyâd Hamza—was given a great boost when, on 13 May 1277, Karamanoğlu Mehmet Bey declared Turkish the official state language of Anatolia's powerful Karamanid state;[4] subsequently, many of the tradition's greatest poets would continue to emerge from this region. is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The philosophical doctrine Averroism is banned from Paris by bishop Etienne Tempier Burmas Pagan empire begins to disintegrate after being defeated by Kublai Khan at Ngasaungsyan, near the Chinese border. ...


There are, broadly speaking, two traditions of Turkish folk poetry:

  • the aşık/ozan tradition, which—although much influenced by religion, as mentioned above—was for the most part a secular tradition;
  • the explicitly religious tradition, which emerged from the gathering places (tekkes) of the Sufi religious orders and Shi'a groups.

Much of the poetry and song of the aşık/ozan tradition, being almost exclusively oral until the 19th century, remains anonymous. There are, however, a few well-known aşıks from before that time whose names have survived together with their works: the aforementioned Köroğlu (16th century); Karacaoğlan (1606?–1689?), who may be the best-known of the pre-19th century aşıks; Dadaloğlu (1785?–1868?), who was one of the last of the great aşıks before the tradition began to dwindle somewhat in the late 19th century; and several others. The aşıks were essentially minstrels who travelled through Anatolia performing their songs on the bağlama, a mandolin-like instrument whose paired strings are considered to have a symbolic religious significance in Alevi/Bektashi culture. Despite the decline of the aşık/ozan tradition in the 19th century, it experienced a significant revival in the 20th century thanks to such outstanding figures as Aşık Veysel Şatıroğlu (1894–1973), Aşık Mahzuni Şerif (1938–2002), Neşet Ertaş (1943– ), and many others. A Tekke (Turkish: تكيه tekke, tekye; Arabic زاوية zāwiya, pl. ... The baÄŸlama is a stringed musical instrument shared by various cultures in the Eastern Mediterranean. ... A mandolin is a small, stringed musical instrument which is plucked, strummed or a combination of both. ... Aşık Veysel ÅžatıroÄŸlu (1894-1973), also known as just Aşık Veysel, is a Turkish minstrel who was born in Sivas in 1894, and due to an illness he became blind at the age of 7 due to smallpox outbreak in Sivas. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...

Kaygusuz Abdal
Kaygusuz Abdal

The explicitly religious folk tradition of tekke literature shared a similar basis with the aşık/ozan tradition in that the poems were generally intended to be sung, generally in religious gatherings, making them somewhat akin to Western hymns (Turkish ilahi). One major difference from the aşık/ozan tradition, however, is that—from the very beginning—the poems of the tekke tradition were written down. This was because they were produced by revered religious figures in the literate environment of the tekke, as opposed to the milieu of the aşık/ozan tradition, where the majority could not read or write. The major figures in the tradition of tekke literature are: Yunus Emre (1240?–1320?), who is one of the most important figures in all of Turkish literature; Süleyman Çelebi (?–1422), who wrote a highly popular long poem called Vesîletü'n-Necât (وسيلة النجاة "The Means of Salvation", but more commonly known as the Mevlid), concerning the birth of the Islamic prophet Muhammad; Kaygusuz Abdal (1397–?), who is widely considered the founder of Alevi/Bektashi literature; and Pir Sultan Abdal (?–1560), whom many consider to be the pinnacle of that literature. Image File history File links Kaygusuz_Abdal. ... Image File history File links Kaygusuz_Abdal. ... A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of praise, adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a god or other religiously significant figure. ... Milad, Milad an-Nabi or Mawlid un-Nabi (Arabic: ) is the celebration of the birthday of Muhammad. ... For other senses of this word, see Prophet (disambiguation). ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Pir Sultan Abdal Pir Sultan Abdal (ca. ...


Folklore

Main article: Turkish Folklore
Nasreddin Hoca

The tradition of folklore—folktales, jokes, legends, and the like—in the Turkish language is very rich. Perhaps the most popular figure in the tradition is the aforementioned Nasreddin (known as Nasreddin Hoca, or "teacher Nasreddin", in Turkish), who is the central character of thousands of jokes. He generally appears as a person who, though seeming somewhat stupid to those who must deal with him, actually proves to have a special wisdom all his own: Ahi Evren Ahriyan Al Basti Alaturbi Ancomah Bardi Cazi Germakoçi Karakoncolos Karakura Kolot Tavara // Breaking vine In Trabzon region folklore (ÇarşıbaÅŸi town) For testing whether the new bride is propitious, when she comes to the house, she is asked to break a vine from three points and... Image File history File links Nasreddin. ... Image File history File links Nasreddin. ... For other uses, see Nasreddin (disambiguation). ...

One day, Nasreddin's neighbor asked him, "Teacher, do you have any forty-year-old vinegar?"—"Yes, I do," answered Nasreddin.—"Can I have some?" asked the neighbor. "I need some to make an ointment with."—"No, you can't have any," answered Nasreddin. "If I gave my forty-year-old vinegar to whoever wanted some, I wouldn't have had it for forty years, would I?"

Similar to the Nasreddin jokes, and arising from a similar religious milieu, are the Bektashi jokes, in which the members of the Bektashi religious order—represented through a character simply named Bektaşi—are depicted as having an unusual and unorthodox wisdom, one that often challenges the values of Islam and of society.


Another popular element of Turkish folklore is the shadow theater centered around the two characters of Karagöz and Hacivat, who both represent stock characters: Karagöz—who hails from a small village—is something of a country bumpkin, while Hacivat is a more sophisticated city-dweller. Popular legend has it that the two characters are actually based on two real persons who worked either for Osman I—the founder of the Ottoman dynasty—or for his successor Orhan I, in the construction of a palace or possibly a mosque at Bursa in the early 14th century. The two workers supposedly spent much of their time entertaining the other workers, and were so funny and popular that they interfered with work on the palace, and were subsequently beheaded. Supposedly, however, their bodies then picked up their severed heads and walked away. Shadow puppet from Java. ... Karagiozis (Greek: Καραγκιόζης, from Turkish: Karagöz) is a shadow puppet and fictional character of Greek traditional folklore inspired from an Ottoman Turkish counterpart who was known as Karagöz. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... The Ottoman Dynasty (or the Imperial House of Osman) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1281 to 1923, beginning with Osman I (not counting his father, ErtuÄŸrul), though the dynasty was not proclaimed until 1383 when Murad I declared himself sultan. ... Orhan (Turkish: also Orhan Gazi or Orkhan) (1284–1359), was the second bey (chief) of the newborn Ottoman Empire (at the time known as the Osmanli tribe) from 1326 to 1359. ... Bursa (formerly known as Brusa, Greek Prusa, Προύσσα) is a city in northwestern Turkey and the capital of Bursa Province. ... Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head), or beheading, is the removal of a living organisms head. ...


Ottoman literature

The two primary streams of Ottoman written literature are poetry and prose. Of the two, poetry—specifically, Divan poetry—was by far the dominant stream. Moreover, it should be noted that, until the 19th century, Ottoman prose did not contain any examples of fiction; that is, there were no counterparts to, for instance, the European romance, short story, or novel (though analogous genres did, to some extent, exist in both the Turkish folk tradition and in Divan poetry). Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to the patterns of everyday speech. ... An illustration from Lewis Carrolls Alices Adventures in Wonderland, depicting the fictional protagonist, Alice, playing a fantastical game of croquet. ... As a literary genre, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ... This article is in need of attention. ... A novel (from French nouvelle Italian novella, new) is an extended, generally fictional narrative, typically in prose. ...


Divan poetry

Further information: Poetry of the Ottoman Empire
An Ottoman garden party, with poet, guest, and winebearer; from the 16th-century Dîvân-ı Bâkî
An Ottoman garden party, with poet, guest, and winebearer; from the 16th-century Dîvân-ı Bâkî

Ottoman Divan poetry was a highly ritualized and symbolic art form. From the Persian poetry that largely inspired it, it inherited a wealth of symbols whose meanings and interrelationships—both of similitude (مراعات نظير mura'ât-i nazîr / تناسب tenâsüb) and opposition (تضاد tezâd)—were more or less prescribed. Examples of prevalent symbols that, to some extent, oppose one another include, among others: To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (608x1232, 782 KB) Summary Source: Åžentürk, Ahmet Atilla. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (608x1232, 782 KB) Summary Source: Åžentürk, Ahmet Atilla. ... A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. ...

  • the nightingale (بلبل bülbül) — the rose (ﮔل gül)
  • the world (جهان cihan; عالم ‘âlem) — the rosegarden (ﮔﻠﺴﺘﺎن gülistan; ﮔﻠﺸﻦ gülşen)
  • the ascetic (زاهد zâhid) — the dervish (درويش derviş)

As the opposition of "the ascetic" and "the dervish" suggests, Divan poetry—much like Turkish folk poetry—was heavily influenced by Sufi thought. One of the primary characteristics of Divan poetry, however—as of the Persian poetry before it—was its mingling of the mystical Sufi element with a profane and even erotic element. Thus, the pairing of "the nightingale" and "the rose" simultaneously suggests two different relationships: This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam and encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ...

  • the relationship between the fervent lover ("the nightingale") and the inconstant beloved ("the rose")
  • the relationship between the individual Sufi practitioner (who is often characterized in Sufism as a lover) and God (who is considered the ultimate source and object of love)

Similarly, "the world" refers simultaneously to the physical world and to this physical world considered as the abode of sorrow and impermanence, while "the rosegarden" refers simultaneously to a literal garden and to the garden of Paradise. "The nightingale", or suffering lover, is often seen as situated—both literally and figuratively—in "the world", while "the rose", or beloved, is seen as being in "the rosegarden". Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Divan poetry was composed through the constant juxtaposition of many such images within a strict metrical framework, thus allowing numerous potential meanings to emerge. A brief example is the following line of verse, or mısra (مصراع), by the 18th-century judge and poet Hayatî Efendi: Qadi (قاضى) is an Arabic term meaning judge. ...

بر گل مى وار بو گلشن ﻋالمدﻪ خارسز
Bir gül mü var bu gülşen-i ‘âlemde hârsız[5]
("Does any rose, in this rosegarden world, lack thorns?")

Here, the nightingale is only implied (as being the poet/lover), while the rose, or beloved, is shown to be capable of inflicting pain with its thorns (خار hâr). The world, as a result, is seen as having both positive aspects (it is a rosegarden, and thus analogous to the garden of Paradise) and negative aspects (it is a rosegarden full of thorns, and thus different to the garden of Paradise).


As for the development of Divan poetry over the more than 500 years of its existence, that is—as the Ottomanist Walter G. Andrews points out—a study still in its infancy;[6] clearly defined movements and periods have not yet been decided upon. Early in the history of the tradition, the Persian influence was very strong, but this was mitigated somewhat through the influence of poets such as the Azerbaijani Nesîmî (?–1417?) and the Uyghur Ali Şîr Nevâî (1441–1501), both of whom offered strong arguments for the poetic status of the Turkic languages as against the much-venerated Persian. Partly as a result of such arguments, Divan poetry in its strongest period—from the 16th to the 18th centuries—came to display a unique balance of Persian and Turkish elements, until the Persian influence began to predominate again in the early 19th century. Nesîmî (نسيمى) was the pen name (Ottoman Turkish: ﻡﺨﻠﺺ mahlas) of one of the greatest poets of the Azerbaijani and Divan traditions, and was the first to write using the Azerbaijani language in its modern form. ... The Uyghur (also spelled Uighur; Uyghur: ئۇيغۇر; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) are a Turkic people of Central Asia. ... Nizām al-Din Ali ShÄ«r Navāi (1441-1501) Nizām al-Din Ali ShÄ«r (Heravi) (Persian: مير على شير نوائى - Mir Ali ShÄ«r Nawāi), known by his pen-name Navāi (Persian: the weeper), * February 9th 1441 in Herat; † January 3rd 1501, was a Central Asian politician, mystic...


Despite the lack of certainty regarding the stylistic movements and periods of Divan poetry, however, certain highly different styles are clear enough, and can perhaps be seen as exemplified by certain poets:

Fuzûlî (1483?–1556), a Divan poet of Turkmen origin
Fuzûlî (1483?–1556), a Divan poet of Turkmen origin
  • Fuzûlî (1483?–1556); a unique poet who wrote with equal skill in Ottoman Turkish, Persian, and Arabic, and who came to be as influential in Persian as in Divan poetry
  • Bâkî (1526–1600); a poet of great rhetorical power and linguistic subtlety whose skill in using the pre-established tropes of the Divan tradition is quite representative of the poetry in the time of Süleyman the Magnificent
  • Nef‘î (1570?–1635); a poet considered the master of the kasîde (a kind of panegyric), as well as being known for his harshly satirical poems, which led to his execution
  • Nâbî (1642–1712); a poet who wrote a number of socially oriented poems critical of the stagnation period of Ottoman history
  • Nedîm (1681?–1730); a revolutionary poet of the Tulip Era of Ottoman history, who infused the rather élite and abstruse language of Divan poetry with numerous simpler, populist elements
  • Şeyh Gâlib (1757–1799); a poet of the Mevlevî Sufi order whose work is considered the culmination of the highly complex so-called "Indian style" (سبك هندى sebk-i hindî)

The vast majority of Divan poetry was lyric in nature: either gazels (which make up the greatest part of the repertoire of the tradition), or kasîdes. There were, however, other common genres, most particularly the mesnevî, a kind of verse romance and thus a variety of narrative poetry; the two most notable examples of this form are the Leylî vü Mecnun (ليلى و مجنون) of Fuzûlî and the Hüsn ü Aşk (حسن و عشق; "Beauty and Love") of Şeyh Gâlib. Image File history File links Fuzuli. ... Image File history File links Fuzuli. ... Fuzûlî (1494?–1556), a Divan poet of Azeri origin Mehmed bin Süleyman Fuzuli, most commonly referred to as Fuzuli, was born around 1494 in Iran (Safavid era), although his actual date of birth is unknown. ... Bâkî (1526–1600) Bâkî (باقى) was the pen name (Ottoman Turkish: ﻡﺨﻠﺺ mahlas) of the poet Mahmud Abdülbâkî (محمود عبد الباقى) . Considered one of the greatest contributors to Turkish literature, Bâkî came to be known as Sultânüş-ÅŸuarâ (سلطانوششعرا), or Sultan of poets. Life Bâkî was born to a... In linguistics, trope is a rhetorical figure of speech that consists of a play on words, i. ... Suleyman I (Ottoman Turkish: Sulaymān, Turkish: ; formally Kanuni Sultan Süleyman in Turkish) (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth and longest‐serving Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1520 to 1566. ... A Panegyric is a formal public speech delivered in high praise of a person or thing, a generally high studied and undiscriminating eulogy. ... The Battle of Vienna of 1683 was the real point at which the Empire began its decline. ... Nedîm (ﻥﺪیﻢ) was the pen name (Ottoman Turkish: ﻡﺨﻠﺺ mahlas) of one of the most celebrated Ottoman poets. ... The Tulip Era is an important period for the Ottoman Empire. ... Whirling Dervishes perform near the Mevlevi Museum in Konya, Turkey. ... Tariqah ( transliteration: ; pl. ... omg holy crap| cellpadding=4 cellspacing=0 style=width:270px; margin: 0 0 1em 1em; background:#FFFFFF; border: 0px #aaaaaa solid; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 85%; float:right; | // |- |} Lyric be excepted. ... The courtly romance or roman courteois was a genre of aristocratic entertainment in narrative verse popular in the Middle ages. ... Narrative poetry is poetry that tells a story. ... Categories: Pages needing attention | Persian literature | Stub ...


Early Ottoman prose

Further information: Prose of the Ottoman Empire

Until the 19th century, Ottoman prose never managed to develop to the extent that contemporary Divan poetry did. A large part of the reason for this was that much prose was expected to adhere to the rules of sec' (سجع, also transliterated as seci), or rhymed prose,[7] a type of writing descended from the Arabic saj' and which prescribed that between each adjective and noun in a sentence, there must be a rhyme. The prose of the Ottoman Empire can, roughly, be divided along the lines of two broad periods: early Ottoman prose, written prior to the 19th century CE and exclusively nonfictional in nature; and later Ottoman prose, which extended from the mid-19th century Tanzimat period of reform to the final... Rhymed prose is a literary form and literary genre, written in unmetrical rhymes. ... Saj is a peom usualy talking about islamic religon, and islamic fundimental beliefs. ... A rhyme is a repetition of identical or similar terminal sounds in two or more different words (i. ...


Nevertheless, there was a tradition of prose in the literature of the time. This tradition was exclusively nonfictional in nature—the fiction tradition was limited to narrative poetry.[8] A number of such nonfictional prose genres developed: For the book by Chuck Palahniuk titled Non-fiction, see Stranger Than Fiction: True Stories. ... An illustration from Lewis Carrolls Alices Adventures in Wonderland, depicting the fictional protagonist, Alice, playing a fantastical game of croquet. ...

Evliya Çelebi (1611–1682?), an Ottoman travel writer
Evliya Çelebi (1611–1682?), an Ottoman travel writer
  • the târih (تاريخ), or history, a tradition in which there are many notable writers, including the 15th-century historian Aşıkpaşazâde and the 17th-century historians Kâtib Çelebi and Naîmâ
  • the seyâhatnâme (سياحت نامه), or travelogue, of which the outstanding example is the 17th-century Seyahâtnâme of Evliya Çelebi
  • the sefâretnâme (سفارت نامه), a related genre specific to the journeys and experiences of an Ottoman ambassador, and which is best exemplified by the 1718–1720 Paris Sefâretnâmesi of Yirmisekiz Mehmed Çelebi, ambassador to the court of Louis XV of France
  • the siyâsetnâme (سياست نامه), a kind of political treatise describing the functionings of state and offering advice for rulers, an early Seljuk example of which is the 11th-century Siyāsatnāma, written in Persian by Nizam al-Mulk, vizier to the Seljuk rulers Alp Arslan and Malik Shah I
  • the tezkîre (تذکره), a collection of short biographies of notable figures, some of the most notable of which were the 16th-century tezkiretü'ş-şuarâs (تذكرة الشعرا), or biographies of poets, by Latîfî and Aşık Çelebi
  • the münşeât (منشآت), a collection of writings and letters similar to the Western tradition of belles-lettres
  • the münâzara (مناظره), a collection of debates of either a religious or a philosophical nature

Image File history File links Evliya_Celebi. ... Image File history File links Evliya_Celebi. ... The title page to The Historians History of the World. ... A historian is an individual who studies history and who writes on history. ... Travel literature is literature which records the people, events, sights and feelings of an author who is touring a foreign place for the pleasure of travel. ... Seyahatname is the Turkish name of Evliya Celebis seventeenth century travelogue through Istanbul (his native city), Anatolia, Persia, Ottoman Europe, North Africa, Austria and Cairo. ... Evliya Çelebi (اوليا چلبي; also known as DerviÅŸ Mehmed Zılli) (March 25, 1611–1682) was the most famous Ottoman traveler, having journeyed throughout the territories of the Ottoman Empire and the neighbouring lands over a period of forty years. ... Sefaretnâme (سفارت نامه), literally the book of embassy, was a genre in the Turkish literature which was closely related to seyahatname, but which was specific to the recounting of journeys and experiences of an Ottoman ambassador in a foreign, usually European, land and capital. ... An ambassador, rarely embassador, is a diplomatic official accredited to a foreign sovereign or government, or to an international organization, to serve as the official representative of his or her own country. ... Tulip Era in the Ottoman Empire: Huntscene -visibly a break during the hunting- in Ä°stanbuls Sadabad Gardens by Jean-Baptiste van Mour Yirmisekiz Mehmed Çelebi was an Ottoman statesman who was delegated as ambassador by the Sultan Ahmed III to Louis XVs France in 1720. ... Louis XV of France (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1715 until his death. ... Siyāsatnāma (Book of Kingship or Book of Politics), also known as Siyar al-muluk, is the most famous work by Nizam al-Mulk, the founder of Nizamiyyah schools in medieval Persia. ... Abu Ali al-Hasan al-Tusi Nizam al-Mulk (نظام الملك، ابو علي الحسن الطوسي in Arabic; 1018 - 14 October 1092) was a celebrated Persian vizier of the Seljuk... A Vizier (Arabic,وزير - wazÄ«r) (sometimes also spelled Vazir, Vizir, Vasir, Wazir, Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages), literally burden-bearer or helper, is a term, originally Persian, for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or minister, often to a Muslim monarch... Muhammed ben Daud (1029 – December 15, 1072), the second sultan of the dynasty of Seljuk Turks, in Persia, and great-grandson of Seljuk, the founder of the dynasty. ... Jalal ad-Dawlah Malik Shah was the Seljuk sultan from 1072 to 1092. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Belles lettres literary works, esp essays and poetry, valued for their aesthetic qualities (i. ... Debate (North American English) or debating (British English) is a formal method of interactive and position representational argument. ...

The 19th century and Western influence

Further information: Poetry of the Ottoman Empire, Prose of the Ottoman Empire

By the early 19th century, the Ottoman Empire had become moribund. Attempts to right this situation had begun during the reign of Sultan Selim III, from 1789 to 1807, but were continuously thwarted by the powerful Janissary corps. As a result, only after Sultan Mahmud II had abolished the Janissary corps in 1826 was the way paved for truly effective reforms (Ottoman Turkish: تنظيمات tanzîmât). To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The prose of the Ottoman Empire can, roughly, be divided along the lines of two broad periods: early Ottoman prose, written prior to the 19th century CE and exclusively nonfictional in nature; and later Ottoman prose, which extended from the mid-19th century Tanzimat period of reform to the final... The term Sick Man of Europe is a nickname associated with a European country experiencing a time of economic difficulty and/or poverty. ... Sultan Selim III Selim III (December 24, 1761 – July 28/29, 1808) was a sultan of the Ottoman Empire (1789–1807). ... The Janissaries comprised infantry units that formed the Ottoman sultans household troops and bodyguard. ... The stylized signature of Mahmud II was written in an expressive calligraphy. ...


These reforms finally came to the empire during the Tanzimat period of 1839–1876, when much of the Ottoman system was reorganized along largely French lines. The Tanzimat reforms "were designed both to modernize the empire and to forestall foreign intervention".[9] The Tanzimat (Ottoman Turkish: تنظيمات), meaning reorganization of the Ottoman Empire, was a period of reformation that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876. ... Civil law or Continental law or Romano-Germanic law is the predominant system of law in the world. ...


Along with reforms to the Ottoman system, serious reforms were also undertaken in the literature, which had become nearly as moribund as the empire itself. Broadly, these literary reforms can be grouped into two areas:

  • changes brought to the language of Ottoman written literature;
  • the introduction into Ottoman literature of previously unknown genres.

The reforms to the literary language were undertaken because the Ottoman Turkish language was thought by the reformists to have effectively lost its way. It had become more divorced than ever from its original basis in Turkish, with writers using more and more words and even grammatical structures derived from Persian and Arabic, rather than Turkish.[10] Meanwhile, however, the Turkish folk literature tradition of Anatolia, away from the capital Constantinople, came to be seen as an ideal. Accordingly, many of the reformists called for written literature to turn away from the Divan tradition and towards the folk tradition; this call for change can be seen, for example, in a famous statement by the poet and reformist Ziya Pasha (1829–1880): Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Pasha, pascha or bashaw (Turkish: paÅŸa) was a high rank in the Ottoman Empire political system, typically granted to governors and generals. ...

Ziya Pasha (1829–1880), Ottoman poet and reformist
Ziya Pasha (1829–1880), Ottoman poet and reformist

Our language is not Ottoman; it is Turkish. What makes up our poetic canon is not gazels and kasîdes, but rather kayabaşıs, üçlemes, and çöğürs[11], which some of our poets dislike, thinking them crude. But just let those with the ability exert the effort on this road [of change], and what powerful personalities will soon be born![12] Image File history File links Ziya. ... Image File history File links Ziya. ...

At the same time as this call—which reveals something of a burgeoning national consciousness—was being made, new literary genres were being introduced into Ottoman literature, primarily the novel and the short story. This trend began in 1861, with the translation into Ottoman Turkish of François Fénelon's 1699 novel Les aventures de Télémaque, by Yusuf Kâmil Pasha, Grand Vizier to Sultan Abdülaziz. What is widely recognized as the first Turkish novel, Taaşuk-u Tal'at ve Fitnat (تعشق طلعت و فطنت; "Tal'at and Fitnat In Love") by Şemsettin Sami (1850–1904), was published just ten years later, in 1872.[13] The introduction of such new genres into Turkish literature can be seen as part of a trend towards Westernization that continues to be felt in Turkey to this day. Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... François de Salignac de la Mothe, more commonly known as François Fénelon (1651 - 1715), was a French Roman Catholic theologian, poet and writer. ... The Adventures of Telemachus, Son of Ulysses is a novel by Francois Fénelon, first published in 1699. ... A Vizier (Arabic,وزير - wazÄ«r) (sometimes also spelled Vazir, Vizir, Vasir, Wazir, Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many oriental languages), literally burden-bearer or helper, is a term, originally Persian, for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or minister, often to a Muslim monarch... Sultan Abd-ul-Aziz Abd-ul-aziz (Arabic: عبد العزيز ) (February 9, 1830 – 1876) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1861 to May 30, 1876. ... For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ...


Due to historically close ties with France—strengthened during the Crimean War of 1854–1856—it was French literature that came to constitute the major Western influence on Turkish literature throughout the latter half of the 19th century. As a result, many of the same movements prevalent in France during this period also had their equivalents in the Ottoman Empire: in the developing Ottoman prose tradition, for instance, the influence of Romanticism can be seen during the Tanzimat period, and that of the Realist and Naturalist movements in subsequent periods; in the poetic tradition, on the other hand, it was the influence of the Symbolist and Parnassian movements that became paramount. Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought... French literature is, generally speaking, literature written in the French language, particularly by citizens of France; it may also refer to literature written by people living in France who speak other traditional non-French languages. ... Wanderer above the sea of fog by Caspar David Friedrich Romanticism is an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in 18th century Western Europe, during the Industrial Revolution. ... Realism in the visual arts and literature is the depiction of subjects as they appear in everyday life, without embellishment or interpretation. ... Naturalism is a movement in theater, film, and literature that seeks to replicate a believable everyday reality, as opposed to such movements as Romanticism or Surrealism, in which subjects may receive highly symbolic, idealistic, or even supernatural treatment. ... La mort du fossoyeur (The death of the gravedigger) by Carlos Schwabe is a visual compendium of Symbolist motifs. ... The Parnassians were a group of 19th-century French poets, so called from their journal, the Parnasse contemporain, itself named after Mount Parnassus, home of the Muses in Greek mythology. ...


Many of the writers in the Tanzimat period wrote in several different genres simultaneously: for instance, the poet Nâmık Kemal (1840–1888) also wrote the important 1876 novel İntibâh (انتباه; "Awakening"), while the journalist Şinasi (1826–1871) is noted for writing, in 1860, the first modern Turkish play, the one-act comedy "Şair Evlenmesi" (شاعر اولنمسى; "The Poet's Marriage"). In a similar vein, the novelist Ahmed Midhat Efendi (1844–1912) wrote important novels in each of the major movements: Romanticism (حسن ملاح ياخود سر ايچيكده اسرار Hasan Mellâh yâhud Sırr İçinde Esrâr, 1873; "Hasan the Sailor, or The Mystery Within the Mystery"), Realism (هﻨﻮز اون يدى يشکده Henüz On Yedi Yaşında, 1881; "Just Seventeen Years Old"), and Naturalism (مشاهدات Müşâhedât, 1891; "Observations"). This diversity was, in part, due to the Tanzimat writers' wish to disseminate as much of the new literature as possible, in the hopes that it would contribute to a revitalization of Ottoman social structures.[14] Namik Kemal (December 2, 1840 - December 2, 1888) was a Turkish nationalist poet, translator, journalist, and social reformer. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A one act play, or more commonly one act, or one-act, is a short play that takes place in one act or scene, as opposed to plays that take place over a number of scenes in one or more acts. ... The word comedy has a classical meaning (comical theatre) and a popular one (the use of humor with an intent to provoke laughter in general). ... See Social structure of the United States for an explanation of concepts exsistance within US society. ...


Early 20th-century Turkish literature

Further information: Poetry of the Ottoman Empire, Prose of the Ottoman Empire

Most of the roots of modern Turkish literature were formed between the years 1896—when the first collective literary movement arose—and 1923, when the Republic of Turkey was officially founded. Broadly, there were three primary literary movements during this period: To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The prose of the Ottoman Empire can, roughly, be divided along the lines of two broad periods: early Ottoman prose, written prior to the 19th century CE and exclusively nonfictional in nature; and later Ottoman prose, which extended from the mid-19th century Tanzimat period of reform to the final...

  • the Edebiyyât-ı Cedîde (ادبيات جدیده; "New Literature") movement
  • the Fecr-i Âtî (فجر آتى; "Dawn of the Future") movement
  • the Millî Edebiyyât (ملى ادبيات; "National Literature") movement

The New Literature movement

Tevfik Fikret (1867–1915), poet and editor of Servet-i Fünûn
Tevfik Fikret (1867–1915), poet and editor of Servet-i Fünûn

The Edebiyyât-ı Cedîde, or "New Literature", movement began with the founding in 1891 of the magazine Servet-i Fünûn (ﺛﺮوت ﻓﻨﻮن; "Scientific Wealth"), which was largely devoted to progress—both intellectual and scientific—along the Western model. Accordingly, the magazine's literary ventures, under the direction of the poet Tevfik Fikret (1867–1915), were geared towards creating a Western-style "high art" in Turkey. The poetry of the group—of which Tevfik Fikret and Cenâb Şehâbeddîn (1870–1934) were the most influential proponents—was heavily influenced by the French Parnassian movement and the so-called "Decadent" poets. The group's prose writers, on the other hand—particularly Halid Ziya Uşaklıgil (1867–1945)—were primarily influenced by Realism, although the writer Mehmed Rauf (1875–1931) did write the first Turkish example of a psychological novel, 1901's Eylül (ايلول; "September"). The language of the Edebiyyât-ı Cedîde movement remained strongly influenced by Ottoman Turkish. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (583x786, 328 KB)Source: Théma Larousse Tematik Ansiklopedisi. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (583x786, 328 KB)Source: Théma Larousse Tematik Ansiklopedisi. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... See also Decadent movement Decadence refers to a personal trait and, much more commonly, to a state of society. ... The psychological novel is a type of novel supposed to have originated with Giovanni Boccaccio in 1344 CE, in La Fiammetta. ...


In 1901, as a result of the article "Edebiyyât ve Hukuk" (ادبيات و ﺣﻘﻮق; "Literature and Law"), translated from French and published in Servet-i Fünûn, the pressure of censorship was brought to bear and the magazine was closed down by the government of the Ottoman sultan Abdülhamid II. Though it was closed for only six months, the group's writers each went their own way in the meantime, and the Edebiyyât-ı Cedîde movement came to an end. It has been suggested that Suppression of dissent be merged into this article or section. ... Abdülhamid II (Ottoman Turkish: عبد الحميد ثانی , Turkish: ) (September 21, 1842 – February 10, 1918) was the 34th sultan of the Ottoman Empire. ...


The Dawn of the Future movement

In the 24 February 1909 edition of the Servet-i Fünûn magazine, a gathering of young writers—soon to be known as the Fecr-i Âtî ("Dawn of the Future") group—released a manifesto in which they declared their opposition to the Edebiyyât-ı Cedîde movement and their adherence to the credo, "Sanat şahsî ve muhteremdir" (صنعت شخصى و محترمدر; "Art is personal and sacred").[15] Though this credo was little more than a variation of the French writer Théophile Gautier's doctrine of "l'art pour l'art", or "art for art's sake", the group was nonetheless opposed to the blanket importation of Western forms and styles, and essentially sought to create a recognizably Turkish literature. The Fecr-i Âtî group, however, never made a clear and unequivocal declaration of its goals and principles, and so lasted only a few years before its adherents each went their own individual way. The two outstanding figures to emerge from the movement were, in poetry, Ahmed Hâşim (1884–1933), and in prose, Yakup Kadri Karaosmanoğlu (1889–1974). is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Look up manifesto in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pierre Jules Théophile Gautier (August 30, 1811 – October 23, 1872) was a French poet, dramatist, novelist, journalist, and literary critic. ... Art for arts sake is the usual English rendition of a French slogan, lart pour lart, which is credited to Théophile Gautier (1811–1872). ... Ahmed HaÅŸim (1884?–1933) Ahmet HaÅŸim, also written as Ahmed Hâşim (احمد هاشم, // Life Ahmed Hâşim was born in Baghdad, probably in the year 1884, though this is not known for certain. ... Turkish poet, novelist and diplomat (then senator). ...


The National Literature movement

Cover page from an issue of Genç Kalemler
Cover page from an issue of Genç Kalemler

In 1908, Sultan Abdülhamid II had instituted a constitutional government, and the parliament subsequently elected was composed almost entirely of members of the Committee of Union and Progress (also known as the "Young Turks"). The Young Turks (ژون تورکلر Jön Türkler) had opposed themselves to the increasingly authoritarian Ottoman government, and soon came to identify themselves with a specifically Turkish national identity. Along with this notion developed the idea of a Turkish and even pan-Turkish nation (Turkish: millet), and so the literature of this period came to be known as "National Literature" (Turkish: millî edebiyyât). It was during this period that the Persian- and Arabic-inflected Ottoman Turkish language was definitively turned away from as a vehicle for written literature, and that literature began to assert itself as being specifically Turkish, rather than Ottoman. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (576x896, 248 KB)Source: Théma Larousse Tematik Ansiklopedisi. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (576x896, 248 KB)Source: Théma Larousse Tematik Ansiklopedisi. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Public Demonstration The Second Constitutional Era in the Ottoman Empire began with the 1908 Young Turk Revolution, shortly after which Sultan Abdul Hamid II restored the 1876 Constitution suspended since 1878. ... The Young Turks (Turkish Jön Türkler (plural), from French Jeunes Turcs, Arabic: تركيا الفتاة) was a coalition of various reform groups in favor of reforming the administration of the Ottoman Empire. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article applies to political and organizational ideologies. ... Turkic peoples listed geographically. ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ...


At first, this movement crystallized around the magazine Genç Kalemler (کنج قلملر; "Young Pens"), which was begun in the city of Selânik in 1911 by the three writers who were most representative of the movement: Ziya Gökalp (1876–1924), a sociologist and thinker; Ömer Seyfettin (1884–1920), a short-story writer; and Ali Canip Yöntem (1887–1967), a poet. In Genç Kalemler's first issue, an article entitled "New Language" (Turkish: "Yeni Lisan") pointed out that Turkish literature had previously looked for inspiration either to the East as in the Ottoman Divan tradition, or to the West as in the Edebiyyât-ı Cedîde and Fecr-i Âtî movements, without ever turning to Turkey itself.[16] This latter was the National Literature movement's primary aim. Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: Θεσσαλονίκη) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia. ... Ziya Gökalp (1875 or March 23, 1876, Diyarbakır—October 25, 1924, Ä°stanbul) was a prominent Turkish ideologue of Pan-Turkism or Turanism. ... Ömer Seyfettin is a Turkish nationalist writer from early late 19th, early 20th century. ... The term Eastern world refers very broadly to the various cultures, social structures and philosophical systems of the East, namely Asia (including China, India, Japan, and surrounding regions). ... The term Western world, the West or the Occident (Latin occidens -sunset, -west, as distinct from the Orient) [1] can have multiple meanings dependent on its context (e. ...


The intrinsically nationalistic character of Genç Kalemler, however, quickly took a decidedly chauvinistic turn,[17] and other writers—many of whom, like Yakup Kadri Karaosmanoğlu, had been a part of the Fecr-i Âtî movement—began to emerge from within the matrix of the National Literature movement to counter this trend. Some of the more influential writers to come out of this less far-rightist branch of the National Literature movement were the poet Mehmet Emin Yurdakul (1869–1944), the early feminist novelist Halide Edip Adıvar (1884–1964), and the short-story writer and novelist Reşat Nuri Güntekin (1889–1956). Chauvinism is extreme and unreasoning partisanship on behalf of a group to which one belongs, especially when the partisanship includes malice and hatred towards a rival group. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into far right. ... Feminists redirects here. ... Halide Edip Adıvar Halide Edip Adıvar Halide Edip Adıvar Halide Edip Adıvar Halide Edip Adivar (1884–1964) was a Turkish novelist and feminist political leader. ...


Post-independence literature

Following the Ottoman Empire's defeat in the First World War of 1914–1918, the victorious Entente Powers began the process of carving up the empire's lands and placing them under their own spheres of influence. In opposition to this process, the military leader Mustafa Kemal (1881–1938), in command of the growing Turkish national movement whose roots lay partly in the Young Turks, organized the 1919–1923 Turkish War of Independence. This war ended with the official ending of the Ottoman Empire, the expulsion of the Entente Powers, and the founding of the Republic of Turkey. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... A sphere of influence (SOI) is an area or region over which an organization or state exerts some kind of indirect cultural, economic, military or political domination. ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881–10 November 1938), until 1934 Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha, Turkish army officer and revolutionist statesman, was the founder and the first President of the Republic of Turkey. ... Turkish National Movement is the political and military activities of Turkish revolutionaries aftermath of the World War I that resulted in decleration of the Republic of Turkey. ... Combatants   Turkish Revolutionaries United Kingdom Greece France Italy Armenia Ottoman Empire Georgia Commanders Mustafa Kemal Ä°smet Ä°nönü Kazım Karabekir Ali Fuat Cebesoy Fevzi Çakmak George Milne Henri Gouraud Papoulas Georgios Hatzianestis Drastamat Kanayan Movses Silikyan Süleyman Åžefik Pasha The Turkish War of Independence (Turkish: KurtuluÅŸ Savaşı or...


The literature of the new republic emerged largely from the pre-independence National Literature movement, with its roots simultaneously in the Turkish folk tradition and in the Western notion of progress. One important change to Turkish literature was enacted in 1928, when Mustafa Kemal initiated the creation and dissemination of a modified version of the Latin alphabet to replace the Arabic-based Ottoman script. Over time, this change—together with changes in Turkey's system of education—would lead to more widespread literacy in the country.[18] The Turkish alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, a certain number of which (Ç, Äž, I, Ä°, Ö, Åž, and Ãœ) have been adapted or modified for the phonetic requirements of the language. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... This article is about the ability to read and write. ...


Prose

Memed, My Hawk (1955), by Yaşar Kemal
Memed, My Hawk (1955), by Yaşar Kemal

Stylistically, the prose of the early years of the Republic of Turkey was essentially a continuation of the National Literature movement, with Realism and Naturalism predominating. This trend culminated in the 1932 novel Yaban ("The Wilds"), by Yakup Kadri Karaosmanoğlu. This novel can be seen as the precursor to two trends that would soon develop:[19] social realism, and the "village novel" (köy romanı). // National Literature (1911-1923) Ömer Seyfettin, short story author (1884-1920) Halide Edip Adıvar, novelist (1884-1964) ReÅŸat Nuri Güntekin, novelist (1889-1956) Yakup Kadri KaraosmanoÄŸlu, short story author (1889-1974) Fuat Köprülü, writer (1890-1966) Republican Period Literature (1923- ) novel Cevat Åžakir Kabaa... Image File history File links InceMemed. ... Image File history File links InceMemed. ... YaÅŸar Kemal (born Kemal Sadık Gökçeli) is one of the best known writers in Turkey. ... A Diego Rivera mural depicting factory workers in Detroit Social Realism is an artistic movement, expressed in the visual and other realist arts, which depicts working class activities as heroic. ...


The social realist movement is perhaps best represented by the short-story writer Sait Faik Abasıyanık (1906–1954), whose work sensitively and realistically treats the lives of cosmopolitan Istanbul's lower classes and ethnic minorities, subjects which led to some criticism in the contemporary nationalistic atmosphere.[20] The tradition of the "village novel", on the other hand, arose somewhat later. As its name suggests, the "village novel" deals, in a generally realistic manner, with life in the villages and small towns of Turkey. The major writers in this tradition are Kemal Tahir (1910–1973), Orhan Kemal (1914–1970), and Yaşar Kemal (1923– ). Yaşar Kemal, in particular, has earned fame outside of Turkey not only for his novels—many of which, such as 1955's İnce Memed ("Memed, My Hawk"), elevate local tales to the level of epic—but also for his firmly leftist political stance. In a very different tradition, but evincing a similar strong political viewpoint, was the satirical short-story writer Aziz Nesin (1915–1995). Sait Faik Abasıyanık (18 November 1906 - 11 May 1954) was one of the greatest Turkish writers of short stories and poetry. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... The definition of a minority group can vary, depending on specific context, but generally refers to either a sociological sub-group that does not form either a majority or a plurality of the total population, or a group that, while not necessarily a numerical minority, is disadvantaged or otherwise has... 1867 edition of the satirical magazine Punch, a British satirical magazine, ground-breaking on popular literature satire. ... Aziz Nesin (December 20, 1915—July 6, 1995) was a popular Turkish humorist and author of more than 100 books. ...

Another novelist contemporary to, but outside of, the social realist and "village novel" traditions is Ahmet Hamdi Tanpınar (1901–1962). In addition to being an important essayist and poet, Tanpınar wrote a number of novels—such as Huzur ("Tranquillity", 1949) and Saatleri Ayarlama Enstitüsü ("The Time Regulation Institute", 1961)—which dramatize the clash between East and West in modern Turkish culture and society. Similar problems are explored by the novelist and short-story writer Oğuz Atay (1934–1977). Unlike Tanpınar, however, Atay—in such works as his long novel Tutunamayanlar ("Losers", 1971–1972) and his short story "Beyaz Mantolu Adam" ("Man in a White Coat", 1975)—wrote in a more modernist and existentialist vein. On the other hand, Onat Kutlar's İshak ("Isaac", 1959), comprised of nine short stories which are written mainly from a child's point of view and are often surrealistic and mystical, represent a very early example of magic realism. Image File history File linksMetadata Orhan_Pamuk3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Orhan_Pamuk3. ... Ferit Orhan Pamuk (born on June 7, 1952 in Istanbul) is a Nobel Prize-winning Turkish novelist. ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... Ahmet Hamdi Tanpinar was one of the most important modern novelists and essayists of Turkish literature. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Modernist literature is the literary form of Modernism and especially High modernism; it should not be confused with modern literature, which is the history of the modern novel and modern poetry as one. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement which claims that individual human beings create the meanings of their own lives. ... Onat Kutlar (Alanya, 1936-Istanbul, 1995) Mehmet Arif Onat Kutlar. ... In literature and storytelling, a point of view is the related experience of the narrator — not that of the author. ... Magic realism (or magical realism) is an artistic genre in which magical elements appear in an otherwise realistic setting. ...


The tradition of literary modernism also informs the work of novelist Adalet Ağaoğlu (1929– ). Her trilogy of novels collectively entitled Dar Zamanlar ("Tight Times", 1973–1987), for instance, examines the changes that occurred in Turkish society between the 1930s and the 1980s in a formally and technically innovative style. Orhan Pamuk (1952– ), winner of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Literature, is another such innovative novelist, though his works—such as 1990's Beyaz Kale ("The White Castle") and Kara Kitap ("The Black Book") and 1998's Benim Adım Kırmızı ("My Name is Red")—are influenced more by postmodernism than by modernism. This is true also of Latife Tekin (1957– ), whose first novel Sevgili Arsız Ölüm ("Dear Shameless Death", 1983) shows the influence not only of postmodernism, but also of magic realism. Ferit Orhan Pamuk (born on June 7, 1952 in Istanbul) is a Nobel Prize-winning Turkish novelist. ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... The White Castle is a novel by Turkish author Orhan Pamuk. ... The Black Book (Kara Kitap in Turkish) is a novel by Turkish author Orhan Pamuk. ... My Name is Red (Benim Adım Kırmızı) is a Turkish novel by Orhan Pamuk. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Latife Tekin is one of the most influential Turkish female authors. ...


Poetry

In the early years of the Republic of Turkey, there were a number of poetic trends. Authors such as Ahmed Hâşim and Yahyâ Kemâl Beyatlı (1884–1958) continued to write important formal verse whose language was, to a great extent, a continuation of the late Ottoman tradition. By far the majority of the poetry of the time, however, was in the tradition of the folk-inspired "syllabist" movement (Beş Hececiler), which had emerged from the National Literature movement and which tended to express patriotic themes couched in the syllabic meter associated with Turkish folk poetry. // National Literature (1911-1923) Mehmet Emin Yurdakul (1869-1944) Ziya Gökalp (1876-1924) Garip Movement For more details on this topic, see garip. ... Defence of the fatherland is a commonplace of patriotism: The statue in the courtyard of École polytechnique, Paris, commemorating the students involvement in defending France against the 1814 invasion of the Coalition. ...


The first radical step away from this trend was taken by Nâzım Hikmet Ran, who—during his time as a student in the Soviet Union from 1921 to 1924—was exposed to the modernist poetry of Vladimir Mayakovsky and others, which inspired him to start writing verse in a less formal style. At this time, he wrote the poem "Açların Gözbebekleri" ("Pupils of the Hungry"), which introduced free verse into the Turkish language for, essentially, the first time.[21] Much of Nâzım Hikmet's poetry subsequent to this breakthrough would continue to be written in free verse, though his work exerted little influence for some time due largely to censorship of his work owing to his Communist political stance, which also led to his spending several years in prison. Over time, in such books as Simavne Kadısı Oğlu Şeyh Bedreddin Destanı ("The Epic of Shaykh Bedreddin, Son of Judge Simavne", 1936) and Memleketimden İnsan Manzaraları ("Human Landscapes from My Country", 1939), he developed a voice simultaneously proclamatory and subtle. Nazım Hikmet Ran (IPA:nazɨm hikmet) (November 20, 1901 – June 3, 1963) was a Turkish poet, dramatist and communist, who is widely regarded as the best-known Turkish poet in the West and his works have been translated into several languages. ... Portrait of Vladimir Mayakovsky Vladimir Vladimirovich Mayakovsky (Влади́мир Влади́мирович Маяко́вский) (July 19 [O.S. July 7] 1893 – April 14, 1930) was a Russian poet, among the foremost representatives of early-20th century Futurism. ... Free verse (also at times referred to as vers libre) is a term describing various styles of poetry that are not written using strict meter or rhyme, but that still are recognizable as poetry by virtue of complex patterns of one sort or another that readers will perceive to be... It has been suggested that Suppression of dissent be merged into this article or section. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ...

Garip (1941) revolutionized modern Turkish poetry
Garip (1941) revolutionized modern Turkish poetry

Another revolution in Turkish poetry came about in 1941 with the publication of a small volume of verse preceded by an essay and entitled Garip ("Strange"). The authors were Orhan Veli Kanık (1914–1950), Melih Cevdet Anday (1915–2002), and Oktay Rifat (1914–1988). Explicitly opposing themselves to everything that had gone in poetry before, they sought instead to create a popular art, "to explore the people's tastes, to determine them, and to make them reign supreme over art".[22] To this end, and inspired in part by contemporary French poets like Jacques Prévert, they employed not only a variant of the free verse introduced by Nâzım Hikmet, but also highly colloquial language, and wrote primarily about mundane daily subjects and the ordinary man on the street. The reaction was immediate and polarized: most of the academic establishment and older poets vilified them, while much of the Turkish population embraced them wholeheartedly. Though the movement itself lasted only ten years—until Orhan Veli's death in 1950, after which Melih Cevdet Anday and Oktay Rifat moved on to other styles—its effect on Turkish poetry continues to be felt today. Image File history File links Garip. ... Image File history File links Garip. ... Garip (Turkish: strange or peculiar) was a group of Turkish poets. ... Orhan Veli Kanık (born on April 13, 1914 in Istanbul, died on November 14, 1950) was a Turkish poet. ... Oktay Rifat Horozcu (10 July 1914 – 18 April 1988), Turkish poet, writer and play writer who has been one of the forefront poets of modern Turkish poetry since late 1930s. ... Jacques Prévert was a French poet and screenwriter who was born on February 4, 1900 in Neuilly-sur-Seine and died on April 11, 1977 in Omonville-la-Petite. ... Look up Colloquialism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Academia is a collective term for the scientific and cultural community engaged in higher education and research, taken as a whole. ...


Just as the Garip movement was a reaction against earlier poetry, so—in the 1950s and afterwards—was there a reaction against the Garip movement. The poets of this movement, soon known as İkinci Yeni ("Second New"[23]), opposed themselves to the social aspects prevalent in the poetry of Nâzım Hikmet and the Garip poets, and instead—partly inspired by the disruption of language in such Western movements as Dada and Surrealism—sought to create a more abstract poetry through the use of jarring and unexpected language, complex images, and the association of ideas. To some extent, the movement can be seen as bearing some of the characteristics of postmodern literature. The most well-known poets writing in the "Second New" vein were Turgut Uyar (1927–1985), Edip Cansever (1928–1986), Cemal Süreya (1931–1990), Ece Ayhan (1931–2002), Sezai Karakoç (1933- ) and İlhan Berk (1918– ). Cover of the first edition of the publication, Dada. ... Max Ernst. ... Cemal Süreya (1931 in Erzincan - 1990 in Ä°stanbul) was a Turkish poet and writer. ... Ä°lhan Berk (18 November 1918, Manisa) is a contemporary Turkish poet. ...


Outside of the Garip and "Second New" movements also, a number of significant poets have flourished, such as Fazıl Hüsnü Dağlarca (1914– ), who wrote poems dealing with fundamental concepts like life, death, God, time, and the cosmos; Behçet Necatigil (1916–1979), whose somewhat allegorical poems explore the significance of middle-class daily life; Can Yücel (1926–1999), who—in addition to his own highly colloquial and varied poetry—was also a translator into Turkish of a variety of world literature; and İsmet Özel (1944– ), whose early poetry was highly leftist but whose poetry since the 1970s has shown a strong mystical and even Islamist influence. Allegory of Music by Filippino Lippi. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... Ä°smet Özel (Kayseri,1944) is a Turkish poet. ... “Leftism” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Islamist is sometimes also used for a scholar who studies Islam and Muslim societies. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Tanpınar, 2–3
  2. ^ Originally, the term ozan referred exclusively to the bards of the Oghuz Turks, but after their settlement in Anatolia and the rise of Shi'a Islam, ozan and aşık became interchangeable terms.
  3. ^ Belge, 374
  4. ^ Karamanoğlu Mehmet Bey's declaration is as follows: Şimden gerü dîvânda, dergâhta, bârgâhta, mecliste ve meydanda Türkçeden başka dil kullanılmayacaktır ("From this day forward, no language other than Turkish will be used in the court, in the tekke, in the palace, in the government, or in public") (Selçuk Üniversitesi Uzaktan Eğitim Programı (SUZEP). As a measure of the extent of the influence against which Karamanoğlu Mehmet Bey was fighting, his declaration itself contains three words of Arabic origin (دیوان dîvân or "court", مجلس meclis or "government", and ميدان meydân or "public") and two of Persian origin (درگاه dergâh or "tekke" and بارگاه bârgâh or "palace").
  5. ^ Pala, 425
  6. ^ Andrews, Ottoman Lyric Poetry: An Anthology, 22–23
  7. ^ Belge, 389
  8. ^ One apparent exception was the Muhayyelât (مخيّلات "Fancies") of Ali Aziz Efendi of Crete, a collection of stories of the fantastic that was written in 1796, though not published until 1867.
  9. ^ Mansel, 266
  10. ^ This view of Ottoman Turkish and its works as derivative of Arabic and, especially, Persian has begun to be challenged in recent years. In an essay on Şeyh Gâlib, for example, Victoria Holbrook states: "The slur that Ottoman poetry in general imitated the Persian ... is based on a misunderstanding of Ottoman poetical conventions and a confounding of notions of 'imitation'." (Holbrook, 442)
  11. ^ Kayabaşı, üçleme, and çöğür were all seen as part of the Turkish folk tradition: a kayabaşı was a sort of rural ballad or shepherd's song; an üçleme was a three-part tale or narrative song; and a çöğür was a mandolin-like musical instrument associated with the aşık/ozan tradition.
  12. ^ "Bizim dilimiz Osmanlıca değil, Türkçedir. Şiirimizde divanları dolduran gazelle kaside değil, bazılarının vezinsiz diye beğenmedikleri 'kayabaşı', 'üçleme' ve 'çöğür'lerdir. İstidat sahiplerimiz hele bu yola bir kere himmet etsinler, az vakitte ne kudretli şahsiyetler yetişir" (Karaalioğlu, Ziya Paşa, 39).
  13. ^ There had actually been, according to Gonca Gökalp, five other earlier or contemporaneous works of fiction that were clearly distinct from earlier prose traditions in both Divan and folk literature, and that approximate novelistic form. Among these five works is the Muhayyelât of Ali Aziz Efendi, cited above. Another, 1851's Akabi Hikâyesi ("Akabi's Story"), written by the Armenian Vartan Pasha (Hovsep Vartanian) using the Armenian script and for an Armenian audience was, according to Andreas Tietze, "the first genuine modern novel written and published in Turkey" (cited in Gökalp 188).
  14. ^ Moran, 19
  15. ^ Karaalioğlu, Türk Edebiyatı Tarihi, v.3, 216–218
  16. ^ Muhtar, et al.
  17. ^ Viz. Elif Şafak's characterization of Ömer Seyfettin's story "Primo Türk Çocuğu" ("Primo: The Turkish Lad"), Şafak 2005.
  18. ^ Lester 1997; Wolf-Gazo 1996
  19. ^ Bezirci, 105–108
  20. ^ Paskin 2005
  21. ^ Earlier poets, such as Ahmed Hâşim, had experimented with a style of poetry called serbest müstezâd ("free müstezâd"), a type of poetry which alternated long and short lines of verse, but this was not a truly "free" style of verse insofar as it still largely adhered to prosodic conventions (Fuat 2002).
  22. ^ Quoted in Halman 1997.
  23. ^ The Garip movement was considered to be the "First New" (Birinci Yeni).

The Bard (ca. ... One example of a medieval khanqah, this one in Isfahan. ... Muhayyelât of Giritli Ali Aziz Efendi Giritli Ali Aziz Efendi was a Turkish author of the 18th century, notable for his sefaretname relating his mission as the ambassador of the Ottoman Empire in Prussia in 1796, and for his novel Muhayyelât (Imaginations), a unique work of fiction blending... Crete (Greek Κρήτη — classical transliteration Krētē, modern Greek transliteration Kríti; Ottoman Turkish گريد (Girit); Classical Latin Crēta, Vulgar Latin Candia) is the largest of the Greek islands at 8,336 km² (3,219 square miles) and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean. ... The Fantastic is a literary genre of writing or art which intrudes fantasy elements into a story (or picture) that is basically representational or real-feeling. ... Akabis Story (Vartan Pasha, 1851, İstanbul) Vartan Pasha (Hovsep Vartanian or Osep Vartanian) was an Ottoman Armenian statesman, author and journalist of the 19th century, promoted to the rank of Pasha after three decades in the service of the state. ... The Armenian alphabet is an alphabet that has been used to write the Armenian language since the 5th century. ... Andreas Tietze was a world-renowned Austrian Turcologist and one of the founders of Turkic studies in the United States. ...

References

  • Andrews, Walter G. Ottoman Lyric Poetry: An Anthology. ISBN 0-292-70472-0.
  • —. Poetry's Voice, Society's Song. ISBN 0-295-96153-8.
  • Belge, Murat. Osmanlı'da Kurumlar ve Kültür. ISBN 975-8998-03-X.
  • Bezirci, Asım; ed. Seçme Romanlar: Yazarları, Eserleri, Roman Özetleri, Eleştiriler, Kaynaklar. İstanbul: Evrensel Basım Yayın, 1997.
  • Fuat, Mehmet; ed. (2002) "Nâzım Hikmet: Life Story". Tr. Nurgül Kıvılcım Yavuz. Retrieved 1 March 2006.
  • Gökalp, G. Gonca. "Osmanlı Dönemi Türk Romanının Başlangıcında Beş Eser" in Hacettepe Üniversitesi Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi, pp. 185–202.
  • Halman, Talat Sait; ed. tr. "Introduction". Just for the Hell of It: 111 Poems by Orhan Veli Kanık. Multilingual Yabancı Dil Yayınları, 1997.
  • Holbrook, Victoria. "Originality and Ottoman Poetics: In the Wilderness of the New". Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 112, No. 3. (Jul.–Sep. 1992), pp. 440—454.
  • Karaalioğlu, Seyit Kemal. Türk Edebiyatı Tarihi. İstanbul: İnkilâp ve Aka Basımevi, 1980.
  • —; ed. Ziya Paşa: Hayatı ve Şiirleri. İstanbul: İnkılâp ve Aka Basımevi, 1984.
  • Lester, Toby. (1997) "New-Alphabet Disease?". Retrieved 6 March 2006.
  • Mansel, Philip. Constantinople: City of the World's Desire, 1453–1924. ISBN 0-14-026246-6.
  • Moran, Berna. Türk Romanına Eleştirel Bir Bakış. Vol. 1. ISBN 975-470-054-0.
  • Muhtar, İbrahim et al. (2003) "Genç Kalemler". Retrieved 23 February 2006.
  • Pala, İskender. Divân Şiiri Antolojisi: Dîvânü'd-Devâvîn. ISBN 975-338-081-X.
  • Paskin, Sylvia. (2005) "The cloak of love". Retrieved 5 March 2006.
  • Selçuk Üniversitesi Uzaktan Eğitim Programı (SUZEP). "Türk Yazı Dilinin Tarihî Gelişimi". Retrieved 29 May 2006.
  • Şafak, Elif. (2005) "There Is No Clash of Civilizations". Retrieved 24 February 2006.
  • Şentürk, Ahmet Atilla. Osmanlı Şiiri Antolojisi. ISBN 975-08-0163-6.
  • Tanpınar, Ahmet Hamdi. 19'uncu Asır Türk Edebiyatı Tarihi. İstanbul: Çağlayan Kitabevi, 1988.
  • Tietze, Andreas; ed. "Önsöz", Akabi Hikyayesi. pp. IX–XXI. İstanbul: Eren Yayıncılık ve Kitapçılık Ltd. Şti., 1991.
  • Wolf-Gazo, Ernest. (1996) "John Dewey in Turkey: An Educational Mission". Retrieved 6 March 2006.

Belge, Murat Kadri, born in Ä°stanbul, Turkey in 1943, is a renowned Turkish intellectual, translator, literary critic, scholar and civil rights activist. ... Ahmet Hamdi Tanpinar was one of the most important modern novelists and essayists of Turkish literature. ...

See also

The Azerbaijani language is a language of the Oghuz branch of Turkic languages mutually intelligible with the Turkish of Turkey, Turkmenistan, Iran, the Balkans and the Middle East. ... The Chagatai language is an extinct Turkic language which was once widely spoken in Central Asia. ... This is a list of poets who wrote under the auspices of the Ottoman Empire, or—more broadly—who wrote in the tradition of Ottoman Dîvân poetry. ...

External links

In English

  • Encyclopedia of Turkish Authors—a very comprehensive encyclopedia from the Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism
  • Contemporary Turkish Literature—an excellent and well-translated selection of contemporary Turkish literature hosted by Boğaziçi University in Istanbul
  • Turkish Poetry in Translation—a website with a good selection of both contemporary and somewhat older Turkish poems
  • Turkish Cultural Foundation—a website with a great deal of information on a number of Turkish authors and literary genres
  • Selected Literatures and Authors Page: Turkish Literature—a website with a number of Turkish literature-related links

The former Robert College building on South Campus Boğaziçi University is one of the most prominent educational institutions in Turkey, located at the European Side of the Bosphorus, Istanbul (hence the name which means University of Bosphorus). The institution currently known as Boğaziçi University was established... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ...

In Turkish

  • Divan Edebiyatı—a website with many examples of Ottoman Divan poetry
  • Uysal-Walker Archive of Turkish Oral Narrative—a searchable archive of oral literature based at Texas Tech University and containing links to numerous MP3 files

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In contrast to the tradition of Turkish folk literature, Turkish written literature—prior to the founding of the Republic of Turkey in 1923—tended to embrace the influence of Persian and Arabic literature.
Due to historically close ties with France—strengthened during the Crimean War of 1854–1856—it was French literature that came to constitute the major Western influence on Turkish literature throughout the latter half of the 19th century.
Turkish literature - definition of Turkish literature in Encyclopedia (631 words)
The history of Turkish Literature may be divided into three periods, reflecting the history of Turkish civilization as follows: the period up to the adoption of Islam, the Islamic period and the period under western influence.
The oldest known examples of Turkish writings are on obelisks dating from the late 7th and early 8th centuries.
Changes in social, economic and political life were reflected in the literature of the time and the quest for change continued till the proclamation of the Republic.
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