FACTOID # 9: The bookmobile capital of America is Kentucky.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Turkish War of Independence
The Turkish War of Independence
Part of Wars of Independence

Anatolia as partitioned by the Treaty of Sèvres
Date May 19, 1919-October 29, 1923
Location Anatolia
Casus
belli
Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire and the Treaty of Sèvres
Result Decisive Turkish victory, Treaty of Lausanne, recognition of the Republic of Turkey, and the end of the Ottoman Empire.
Combatants
  Turkish Revolutionaries
United Kingdom

Greece
France
Italy
Armenia
Ottoman Empire
Georgia
Image File history File links Circle-question-red. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... The term War of Independence is generally use to describe a war occurring after a territory that has declared independence. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 577 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 738 pixel, file size: 124 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... Casus belli is a modern Latin language expression meaning the justification for acts of war. ... Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire is direct consequence of the World War I with the Ottomans involvement in the Middle Eastern theatre. ... The Treaty of Sèvres is a peace treaty that the Allies of World War I and the Ottoman Empire signed on 10 August 1920 after World War I. Representatives from the governments of the parties involved signed the treaty in Sèvres, France. ... Borders as shaped by the treaty The Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923) was a peace treaty that settle a part of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire that reflected the consequences of the Turkish Independence War between Allies of World War I and Turkish national movement, (Grand National Assembly... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... The people who master mind the Turkish National Movement: Mustafa Kemal Ataturk Ismet Inonu Fevzi Cakmak Kazim Karabekir Ali Fuat Cebesoy ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece_(1828-1978). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946)_crowned. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_Armenia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia_(1990-2004). ...

Commanders
Mustafa Kemal
İsmet İnönü
Kazım Karabekir
Ali Fuat Cebesoy
Fevzi Çakmak
George Milne

Henri Gouraud
Papoulas
Georgios Hatzianestis
Drastamat Kanayan
Movses Silikyan
Süleyman Şefik Pasha
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881 – November 10, 1938) was an army officer, revolutionary statesman, the founder of the Republic of Turkey and its first President. ... Mustafa Ä°smet Ä°nönü (September 24, 1884–December 25, 1973) was a Turkish soldier, statesman and the second President of Turkey. ... Musa Kazım Karabekir (1882, Ä°stanbul – January 26, 1948, Ankara) Kazim Karabekir Pasha was a Turkish general and politician. ... Ali Fuat Cebesoy (born September 1882, Ä°stanbul – death January 10, 1968, Ä°stanbul) is an officer, politician and statesman. ... Mustafa Fevzi Çakmak was a Turkish soldier (Field Marshal) and politician. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... George Francis Milne, 1st Baron Milne, GCB, GCMG, DSO (November 5, 1866 – March 23, 1948), was a British military commander who served as Chief of the Imperial General Staff from 1926 to 1933. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Henri Gouraud (1867–1946) was a French soldier, best known for his leadership of the French Fourth Army at the end of the First World War. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece_(1828-1978). ... Anastasios Papoulas (1859-March 1935) was a Greek general and commander-in-chief during the Graeco-Turkish War of 1919-1922. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece_(1828-1978). ... Georgios Hatzianestis (Greek: Γεώργιος Χατζανέστης) Greek General. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_Armenia. ... General Drastamat Kanayan (Armenian: , known as General Dro, Ô´Ö€Õ¸, May 31, 1884 – March 8, 1956), was an Armenian politician, revolutionary, general and commander of the Armenian Legion of the Wehrmacht, the armed forces of Nazi Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Democratic_Republic_of_Armenia. ... Movses Silikyan Movses Silikyan (Armenian: , Russian: , Movses Silikov) (1862 - 1937) was a famed Armenian general and national hero, Major General in the Russian army and subsequently in the Armenian army. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... The Süleyman Åžefik Pasha was the commander of Kuvâ-i Ä°nzibâtiyye (Ottoman Turkish: , literally Forces of Order; Turkish: Hilafet Ordusu, or Caliphate Army) was an army established on 18 April 1920 by the imperial government of the Ottoman Empire in order to fight against the Turkish National Movement...

The Turkish War of Independence (Turkish: Kurtuluş Savaşı or İstiklâl Savaşı) refers to the political and military events following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire along with the Central Powers in World War I and subsequent Allied occupation of most of its territory; and the resistance to Allied terms by the Turkish National Movement centered in Anatolia, ultimately leading to the foundation of today's Republic of Turkey. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Combatants Turkish revolutionaries France Commanders Ali Fuat Pasha General Henri Gouraud Strength 1 division (legion contained 2000 Armenian volunteer units), 4 Armored battalion, 2 Cavalry battalion, 4 personal armored vehicle. ... Combatants Greece Turkish Revolutionaries Commanders Gen Leonidas Paraskevopoulos, Gen Anastasios Papoulas, Gen Georgios Hatzianestis Ali Fethi Okyar, Ä°smet Ä°nönü, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Fevzi Çakmak Strength 200,000 men 120,000 men (plus village protectors) Casualties 23,500 dead; 20,820 captured 20,540 dead; 10,000 wounded The... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Combatants A detachment from Turkish National Forces Greece Commanders (Efe), Yörük Ali General Nider, Colonel Zafiriou Casualties Both sides=1500 to 2000[1] The Battle of Aydın or The defence of Aydın (tr: Aydın savunması), 27 June 1919 to 4 July 1919, was wide-scale... Combatants Turkish revolutionaries Greece Commanders Ä°smet Ä°nönü Anastasios Papoulas Strength 2 divisions (30,000) among 3 1 division (15,000) among 1 Casualties 95 killed, 183 wounded Unknown The First Battle of Ä°nönü was the first battle of the in the Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922), which is... Combatants Turkish revolutionaries Greece Commanders Ä°smet Ä°nönü Anastasios Papoulas Strength 30,000 37,000-42,000 Casualties Unknown Unknown The Second Battle of Ä°nönü describes the battle that were fought on March 1921 near the Turkish village of Ä°nönü during the Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922), which... Combatants Turkish Revolutionaries Greece Commanders Mustafa Kemal Atatürk King Constantine I of Greece(nominal) Gen. ... Combatants Turkish revolutionaries Greece Commanders Mustafa Kemal Atatürk General Hatzianestis Strength approx. ... Combatants Democratic Republic of Armenia Turkish Revolutionaries Commanders Drastamat Kanayan Movses Silikyan Kazım Karabekir Strength 50,000. ... Combatants Turkish revolutionaries Democratic Republic of Armenia Commanders  ?  ? Strength  ?  ? Casualties  ?  ? Categories: | | | | ... Combatants Democratic Republic of Armenia Turkish revolutionaries Commanders Unknown Kazım Karabekir The Battle of Sarıkamış was a conflict between the Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA) and Turkish Revolutionaries of the Turkish National Movement which was on September 29, 1920 at Sarıkamış. // Main article: Turkish-Armenian War By... Combatants Turkish revolutionaries Democratic Republic of Armenia Commanders Kazim Karabekir  ? Strength  ?  ? Casualties  ?  ? Categories: | | | | ... Combatants Turkish revolutionaries Democratic Republic of Armenia Commanders Kazim Karabekir  ? Strength  ?  ? Casualties  ?  ? Categories: | | | | | ... This page will include the revolts against the Turkish Revolutionaries. ... The Kuvâ-i Ä°nzibâtiyye (Ottoman Turkish: , literally Forces of Order; Turkish: Hilafet Ordusu, or Caliphate Army) was an army established on 18 April 1920 by the imperial government of the Ottoman Empire in order to fight against the Turkish National Movement in the aftermath of World War I. It... Revolt of Ahmet Aznavur was a revolt during Turkish War of Independence. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... European military alliances in 1914. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... Turkish National Movement is the political and military activities of Turkish revolutionaries aftermath of the World War I that resulted in decleration of the Republic of Turkey. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ...


Following the surrender of the Empire, through the Treaty of Sèvres (August 1920), the Ottoman government in Istanbul was placed under control of Allied occupation forces led by the British. The Empire ceded all of its Balkan and Arab provinces to the Allies, and the eastern and southern parts of the Empire's core in Anatolia were occupied, acting on the decisions of the Paris Peace Conference (1919). In 1922, Greek forces captured Izmir and occupied western Anatolia. Prompted by the incapacity of the Istanbul government, the efforts of a nationalist resistance movement in central Anatolia culminated in the formation of a new National Assembly in Ankara, acting independent of the Ottoman government. The nation successfully mobilized its resources under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, driving out the Greek, British, French and Italian occupation forces and effectively invalidating the Treaty of Sèvres. This result was internationally recognized through the Treaty of Lausanne in July 1923, leaving Anatolia and Eastern Thrace to form their own state. This was concluded by the declaration of the Republic of Turkey in October 1923, with Ankara as its capital. The Treaty of Sèvres is a peace treaty that the Allies of World War I and the Ottoman Empire signed on 10 August 1920 after World War I. Representatives from the governments of the parties involved signed the treaty in Sèvres, France. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... The term the Middle East sometimes applies to the peninsula alone, but usually refers to the Arabian Peninsula plus the Levant, Mesopotamia, and Iran. ... Ottoman Empire, 1481-1683 The Ottoman Empire existed from 1299 to 1922 and, at the height of its power in the 16th century, it included nearly 20 million km² in Anatolia (Asia Minor), the Middle East, parts of North Africa, and much of south-eastern Europe, and the Caucasus. ... Map of the World with the Participants in World War I. The Allies are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in grey. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... The Grand National Assembly (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi in Turkish) is the unicameral parliament of Turkey which carries out legislative functions. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881 – November 10, 1938) was an army officer, revolutionary statesman, the founder of the Republic of Turkey and its first President. ... Borders as shaped by the treaty The Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923) was a peace treaty that settle a part of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire that reflected the consequences of the Turkish Independence War between Allies of World War I and Turkish national movement, (Grand National Assembly... Prominent issues in Greek foreign policy include a dispute over the name of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, the enduring Cyprus problem, Greek-Turkish differences over the Aegean, and relations with the USA. The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Greek refusal to recognize the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia...


On the political front, it instituted relationships and ideas among the Turkish revolutionaries that led to the end of the millet system, and the Ottomanism of the Ottoman Empire. This was followed by Atatürk's Reforms in political, legal, cultural, social and economic fronts, defining the newly founded Turkish Republic as a modern, secular nation-state. The people who master mind the Turkish National Movement: Mustafa Kemal Ataturk Ismet Inonu Fevzi Cakmak Kazim Karabekir Ali Fuat Cebesoy ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ottomanism - Belief in an empire founded on comfortable footrests. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ...

Contents

Precursors

Greek and French proposals during the Paris Conference (1919) concerning the partition of western Anatolia.
Zones of French and British influence and control in eastern Anatolia and Arab Peninsula established by the Sykes-Picot Agreement (1916)

With the Armistice of Mudros (Turkish: Mondros Ateşkesi), October 30, 1918, the Allies began to implement their secret agreements over the Ottoman Empire. The competing factions, with differing aims, began to appear inside Anatolia. The reshaping of the Middle East and the mandates were already in place before the Armistice of Mudros. After the armistice, the allies engaged in dismantling the Ottoman military, and began disseminating their own views, but often in competition against one another. The idea of using Bolshevism or the Mandates was first applied in the capital, and then eventually transmitted into the interior where the Turkish National Movement was forming. As a special body of the Paris Conference, "The Inter-Allied Commission on Mandates in Turkey" was established by the allies to pursue the secret treaties they had signed between 1915-1917. Among the visions, was a new Hellenic Empire (Megali Idea), based on the promise of territorial gains by British Prime Minister David Lloyd George to the Greeks. Italians sought the southern part of Anatolia (Mediterranean region) which was promised to them at St.-Jean-de-Maurienne. Under the secret Sykes-Picot Agreement, the French were expecting Hatay, Lebanon and Syria, and also desired a part of South-Eastern Anatolia. The British already had control of Arabia, Palestine, Jordan and Iraq, and were also seeking control over the straits. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (972 × 727 pixel, file size: 518 KB, MIME type: image/png) This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 598 pixelsFull resolution (972 × 727 pixel, file size: 518 KB, MIME type: image/png) This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Map of the World with the Participants in World War I. The Allies are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in grey. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (704x949, 42 KB) Summary Sykes-Picot Agreement 1916. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (704x949, 42 KB) Summary Sykes-Picot Agreement 1916. ... Zones of French and British influence and control established by the Sykes-Picot Agreement The Sykes-Picot Agreement of May 16, 1916 was a secret understanding between the governments of Britain and France defining their respective spheres of post-World War I influence and control in the Middle East (then... Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire is direct consequence of the World War I with the Ottomans involvement in the Middle Eastern theatre. ... Combatants Turkish Revolutionaries Commanders Mustafa Kemal 1 1commander during restoration. ... The Armistice of Mudros (30 October 1918), which ended the hostilities on Middle Eastern theatre of World War I between Ottoman Empire and Allies, was signed by the Minister of Marine Affairs Rauf Bey) and the British Admiral Somerset Arthur Gough-Calthorpe), on the aboard HMS Agamemnon in Moudros port... is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The Armistice of Mudros (30 October 1918), which ended the hostilities on Middle Eastern theatre of World War I between Ottoman Empire and Allies, was signed by the Minister of Marine Affairs Rauf Bey) and the British Admiral Somerset Arthur Gough-Calthorpe), on the aboard HMS Agamemnon in Moudros port... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Mandate can mean: An obligation handed down by an inter-governmental body; see mandate (international law) The power granted by an electorate; see mandate (politics) A League of Nations mandate To some Christians, an order from God; see mandate (theology) The decision of an appeals court; see mandate (law) The... Turkish National Movement is the political and military activities of Turkish revolutionaries aftermath of the World War I that resulted in decleration of the Republic of Turkey. ... Map of the World with the Participants in World War I. The Allies are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in grey. ... The Megali Idea (Greek: Μεγάλη Ιδέα, lit. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who guided Britain and the British Empire through World War I and the postwar settlement as the Liberal Party Prime Minister, 1916-1922. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Agreement of St. ... Zones of French and British influence and control established by the Sykes-Picot Agreement The Sykes-Picot Agreement of May 16, 1916 was a secret understanding between the governments of Britain and France defining their respective spheres of post-World War I influence and control in the Middle East (then... Hatay is a region in the middle east around the town of Iskenderun. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi...


Anatolia was politically fragmented. There were conflicting factions with conflicting visions, but what united the various factions was the view that the Allies' goal was the elimination of sovereignty in their homeland. This perception was the driving force binding the mainly Muslim inhabitants of Anatolia to unite. With the Occupation of Istanbul and the Ottoman state under a military occupation the country was in a state of collapse. Disunity among the allies showed when on April 24, the Italian delegation, angry about the possibility of the Greek occupation of İzmir, left the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 and did not return until May 5. The absence of the Italian delegation from the conference facilitated Lloyd George's efforts to persuade France and the United States to favour Greece’s interest over Italy's, in western Anatolia. Combatants Turkish Revolutionaries Commanders Mustafa Kemal 1 1commander during restoration. ... Belligerent military occupation occurs when the control and authority over a territory belonging to a state passes to a hostile army. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Map of the World with the Participants in World War I. The Allies are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in grey. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM (January 17, 1863–March 26, 1945) was a British statesman and the last Liberal to be Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ...


The Occupation of Istanbul began before the leading officers of the Ottoman Army, such as Mustafa Kemal (Nov 13, 1918), Kazım Karabekir (Nov 28, 1918), İsmet İnönü, and others had returned to Istanbul from their last posts. The sharing of Anatolia among the Allied governments began with the occupation of İzmir on May 15, 1919 by the Greek army. A few days later the Italians landed in Antalya. British units were in the Black Sea region to build a bridge to the Democratic Republic of Armenia. Combatants Turkish Revolutionaries Commanders Mustafa Kemal 1 1commander during restoration. ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881 – November 10, 1938) was an army officer, revolutionary statesman, the founder of the Republic of Turkey and its first President. ... November 13 is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 48 days remaining. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Musa Kazım Karabekir (1882, Ä°stanbul – January 26, 1948, Ankara) Kazim Karabekir Pasha was a Turkish general and politician. ... November 28 is the 332nd day (333rd on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Mustafa Ä°smet Ä°nönü (September 24, 1884–December 25, 1973) was a Turkish soldier, statesman and the second President of Turkey. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Antalya (formerly known as Adalia; from Pamphylian Greek: Αττάλεια Attália) is a large town and tourist destination, situated on the Mediterranean coast of southwestern Turkey. ... National motto: n/a Language Armenian (official) Capital Yerevan Independence From Imperial Russia, 1918 Currency Armenian dram National anthem Mer Hayrenik The Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA; Armenian: Ô´Õ¥Õ´Õ¸Õ¯Ö€Õ¡Õ¿Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Õ€Õ¡ÕµÕ¡Õ½Õ¿Õ¡Õ¶Õ« Õ€Õ¡Õ¶Ö€Õ¡ÕºÕ¥Õ¿Õ¸Ö‚Õ©ÕµÕ¸Ö‚Õ¶, Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun; also known as the First Republic of Armenia), 1918–1922, was the first modern establishment of a Republic of...


The Ottoman government, possibly because of the Occupation of Istanbul, was too weak to enforce its own decisions or restore law and order in many areas. Resistance to this government began soon after the first dictated orders came in from allied sources. The Allies' first goal was to control all munitions and their distribution. The second goal was to disband the various small army units, by either combining them into bigger and more controllable units, or sending them home. In reaction to the policies of the Allies, many Ottoman officials organized secret Outpost Societies (Karakol Cemiyeti). The main goal of Outpost Societies was to thwart the Allied demands, both through passive and active resistance. Many Ottoman officials also did all they could to conceal the details of the movements that were spread throughout the countryside, from the occupation authorities. Small boats from the capital were sent out into the Aegean and the Black Sea. The first resistance movements in Thrace and Constantinople (Istanbul) were organized within the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Combatants Turkish Revolutionaries Commanders Mustafa Kemal 1 1commander during restoration. ... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... After the Armistice of Mudros young and patriotic Ottoman officers found secret organizations in Istanbul. ... After the Armistice of Mudros young and patriotic Ottoman officers found secret organizations in Istanbul. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... A minister for foreign affairs, or foreign minister, is a governmental cabinet minister who helps form the foreign policy of a sovereign nation. ...


Since the southern rim of Anatolia was more or less under the control of British warships and competing Greek and Italian troops, the restoration of law and order had to be carried out in northern Anatolia. Central Anatolia was relatively beyond allied direct control, apart from a few British detachments and some American Committee for Relief in the Near East units. There were also remnants of the Ottoman Forces and gangs of (Ottoman) Greek or Turkish brigands. Northern Anatolia became the initial area organized under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal. American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief after 1918 American Committee for Relief in the Near East (ACRNE) in short Near East Relief was a relief organization (charity) established during the World War One which was specifically promoted by Henry Morgenthau, Sr. ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881 – November 10, 1938) was an army officer, revolutionary statesman, the founder of the Republic of Turkey and its first President. ...

Initial organization (May 1919-March 1920)

See also: Malta exiles

After the armistice, the first group of some thirty former members of the CUP were arrested on January 30, 1919. Mustafa Kemal's trusted friends were among them. The British had exiled them to Malta, see: Malta exiles. The verdicts on these commanders were later decided during the famous Turkish Courts-Martial of 1919-20. In the face of resistance, the sultan and his government bribed major Ottoman Pashas like Mustafa Kemal with important positions in the areas remaining under so-called "direct Ottoman authority". These places were generally not occupied by the Allied armies. The reasons for these new assignments is still a matter of conjecture; one view is that it was to support the national movement, another view was that the Sultan wanted to keep what little forces that were left under his control, a goal which was in total agreement with the aims of the occupation armies. The most prominent idea given for Sultan’s decision was by assigning these officers out of the capital, the Sultan was trying to minimize the effectiveness of these soldiers in the capital. The Sultan was cited as saying that without an organized army, the Allies could not be defeated, and national movement did not have any army in May 1919. Establishment of Turkish national movement explains the initial stages of the alliance that will become Turkish revolutionaries which waged an independence war that resulted in decleration of Republic of Turkey. ... A graphical timeline is available here: Turkish War of Independence Malta exiles (Turkish: Malta sürgünleri) (between March 1919 – October 1920) is the term for men of politics, high ranking soldiers (mainly), administrators and intellectuals of the Ottoman Empire who were sent to exile in Malta after the armistice... Foundation: 1894 Dissolved: 1918, Court Martialed Head: The Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) (Turkish: ) was a political organization, established by Bahaeddin Sakir initially among Young Turks in 1906, during the dissolution period of the Ottoman Empire. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... A graphical timeline is available here: Turkish War of Independence Malta exiles (Turkish: Malta sürgünleri) (between March 1919 – October 1920) is the term for men of politics, high ranking soldiers (mainly), administrators and intellectuals of the Ottoman Empire who were sent to exile in Malta after the armistice... Turkish Courts-Martial of 1919-1920 were court martials of the Ottoman Empire after the armistice of Mudros during the aftermath the World War One, which the leadership of the Committee of Union and Progress and selected former officials had court-martial with/including the charges of subversion of the... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881 – November 10, 1938) was an army officer, revolutionary statesman, the founder of the Republic of Turkey and its first President. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ...

Public demonstration in İstanbul on 23 May 1919 in protest of the Occupation of İzmir, with Sultanahmet Mosque in the background. Halide Edip Adivar was on the platform

Through manipulation and the help of friends and sympathizers, Mustafa Kemal became the Inspector General of virtually all of the Ottoman forces in Anatolia, tasked with overseeing the disbanding process. He and his carefully selected staff left Constantinople (Istanbul) aboard SS Bandırma, an old steamer for Samsun on the evening of May 16, 1919. The inspector general who stepped ashore on May 19, 1919 set up his quarters in the Mintika Palace Hotel. He made the people of Samsun aware of the Greek and Italian landings, staged mass meetings (whilst remaining discreet) and made, thanks to the excellent telegraph network, fast connections with the army units in Anatolia. He started to form links between various nationalists groups. He sent telegrams of protest to foreign embassies and the War Ministry about British reinforcements in the area and about British aid to Greek brigand gangs. After a week in Samsun, Mustafa Kemal and his staff moved to Havza, about 85 kilometers inland. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2069x1298, 2287 KB) Public demonstration for national unity in Sultanahmet, Ä°stanbul This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2069x1298, 2287 KB) Public demonstration for national unity in Sultanahmet, Ä°stanbul This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... The location of Istanbul Province Maiden Tower and Historical Peninsula of Istanbul Istanbul (Turkish: Ä°stanbul) (the former Constantinople, Greek: Κωνσταντινούπολις) is the largest city in Turkey, and arguably the most important. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... The Sultan Ahmed Mosque, Istanbul The Sultan Ahmed Mosque (in Turkish Sultanahmet Camii, in English commonly called the Blue Mosque) is a mosque in Istanbul, the largest city in Turkey and the capital of the Ottoman Empire from 1453 to 1923. ... Halide Edip Adıvar Halide Edip Adıvar Halide Edip Adıvar Halide Edip Adıvar Halide Edip Adivar (1884–1964) was a Turkish novelist and feminist political leader. ... This article is about the Turkish ship SS Bandırma. ... Statue of Atatürk who initiated the Turkish War of Independence in Samsun on May 19, 1919 Samsun (Greek: / Sampsoúnta) is a city in northern Turkey, on the coast of the Black Sea, with a population of 439,000 as of 2006. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Statue of Atatürk who initiated the Turkish War of Independence in Samsun on May 19, 1919 Samsun (Greek: / Sampsoúnta) is a city in northern Turkey, on the coast of the Black Sea, with a population of 439,000 as of 2006. ... Havza is a district of Samsun Province of Turkey. ...


Mustafa Kemal needed national support. The importance of his position, and his status as a hero after the Battle of Gallipoli, gave him some credentials. On the other hand, this was not enough to inspire everyone. While officially occupied with the disarming of the army, he had increased his various contacts in order to build his movement's momentum. He met with Rauf Orbay, Ali Fuat Cebesoy, and Refet Bele on June 21, 1919. Combatants British Empire Australia India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom France Senegal  Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Lord Kitchener John de Robeck Otto von Sanders, Mustafa Kemal Strength 5 divisions (initial) 14 divisions (final) 6 divisions Casualties 252,000 251,309 The Battle of Gallipoli took place at Gallipoli... Huseyin Rauf Orbay (1881–16 July 1964) was a Turkish soldier and statesman, born in Istanbul. ... Ali Fuat Cebesoy (born September 1882, Ä°stanbul – death January 10, 1968, Ä°stanbul) is an officer, politician and statesman. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Decoding Mustafa Kemal, June 1919

The British were alarmed when they learned that Mustafa Kemal had become Inspector General, and his actions during this period didn't make them feel very secure. Mustafa Kemal was coded as a minor thorn. A British detachment entered and search for documents in his mother's house. Britain urged the Sultan to recall Kemal. Thanks to friends and sympathizers in government circles, a compromise was worked out whereby the power of the Inspector General was curbed. The Inspector General becomes a title that had no power, at least on paper. On June 23 High Commissioner Admiral Cathrope began to realize the reality. He sent a report about Mustafa Kemal to the Foreign Office. His remarks were down played by George Kidson of the Eastern Department. Captain Hurst (British army) in Samsun warned Cathrope one more time, but Hurst's units were replaced with Brigade of Gurkhas. The movement of British units alarmed the population of the region and convinced the population that Mustafa Kemal was right. Right after this "The Association for Defense of National Rights" (Müdafaa-i Hukuk Cemiyeti) was founded in Trabzon, and a parallel association in Samsun was also founded, which declared the Black sea region was not safe. The same activities that happened during the Occupation of İzmir were happening in the region. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881 – November 10, 1938) was an army officer, revolutionary statesman, the founder of the Republic of Turkey and its first President. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Admiral of the Fleet the Honourable Sir Somerset Arthur Gough-Calthorpe (1865–1937) was a British Royal Navy admiral. ... Gurkha Soldiers (1896) The Brigade of Gurkhas is the collective term for British Army units that are composed of Nepalese soldiers. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ...


The War Minister Damat Ferid Pasha ordered Refet Bele and Mustafa Kemal to reduce the tensions in the Black sea region. Ferit Pasha promised that the British would not take any action against them. The Muslim population's response to Ferit Pasha was fear and they began creating defensive positions. Mustafa Kemal said to his close friends "Ferit Pasha who does not understand the realities of the region he should resign for the benefit of the Empire". The response given to Ferit Pasha by Mustafa Kemal was "The game is coming to an end." Damat Ferid Pasha (wearing the fez) with the three other signatories of the Treaty of Sevres; to his right, Rıza Tevfik, and to his left, the Ottoman minister of education Bağdatlı Hadi Pasha and the ambassador Reşad Halis; in a photograph with several hidden messages on board...


On 2 July in Erzincan, Kemal received a telegram from the Sultan himself. The Sultan asked "your initiatives had been inspired by patriotic feelings, but the British are very cooperative and everything can be secured from the capital". Mustafa Kemal did not want to return Istanbul. Fearing that the foreign authorities might have designs for him beyond the Sultan's plans, he felt the best course for him was to take a two month leave of absence. is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Erzincan (also Erzingan or Erzinjan, ÔµÖ€Õ¦Õ¶Õ¯Õ¡ (Erznka) in Armenian) is the capital of Erzincan Province in the eastern Anatolian region of Turkey. ...


Representational problem, October 1919

Ali Riza Pasha sent a navy minister Hulusi Salih Pasha, who had not been in World War I, to negotiate with the Turkish National Movement. Salih Pasha and Mustafa Kemal met in Amasya on October 16 1919. Mustafa Kemal put the representational problems of Ottoman Parliament on the agenda. Mustafa Kemal wanted to have a signed protocol between Ali Riza Pasha and what will be named a "representative committee" after the Sivas Congress. On the advice of the British, Ali Riza Pasha rejected any form of recognition or legitimacy claims by this unconstitutional formation in Anatolia. Hulusi Salih Pasha was one the last grand viziers of the Ottoman Empire, under the reign of the last Ottoman sultan Mehmed VI Vahdeddin, between 8 March 1920 and 2 April 1920. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Turkish National Movement is the political and military activities of Turkish revolutionaries aftermath of the World War I that resulted in decleration of the Republic of Turkey. ... Ottoman houses and a Pontic tomb in Amasya Amasya (formerly Amaseia or Amasia from Greek: Αμάσεια) is a town in northern Turkey, the capital of Amasya Province with approximately 80,000 inhabitants. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Establishment of Turkish national movement explains the initial stages of the alliance that will become Turkish revolutionaries which waged an independence war that resulted in decleration of Republic of Turkey. ...


In December 1919, as a result of nationalist pressure, new elections were held for the Ottoman parliament, which assembled in Constantinople (Istanbul). The Grand Vizier Ali Riza Pasha saw a chance to create a national movement. Ali Riza Pasha had to build his own power base and there had to be a new election, as regions of the last election did not exist under Ottoman control anymore. Ali Riza Pasha hoped to build a new and better representative structure. Ottoman Greeks, or a better term Greek millet, with a Greek national force within the Ottoman borders were acting on their own. The Greek members of the parliament constantly blocked the parliament, and also the local Greeks boycotted the new elections. Armenians and Greeks rejected allegiance to the Sultan. World War One ended any chance to form of allegiance to the sultan from his Christian subjects. A Vizier (وزير, sometimes also spelled Wazir) is an Arabic term for a high-ranking religious and political advisor, often to a king or sultan. ... Ali Rıza Pasha was one the last grand viziers of the Ottoman Empire, under the reign of the last Ottoman sultan Mehmed VI Vahdeddin, between 14 October 1919 and 2 March 1920. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The elections were held and a new parliament of the Ottoman State was formed under the Armistice of Mudros. However, Ali Riza Pasha was too hasty in thinking that his parliament could bring him legitimacy. The house of the parliament was under the shadow of the British battalion stationed at Istanbul. Any decision had to have both the signatures of Ali Riza Pasha and British army. The freedom of the new government was limited. It did not take too long for the members of parliament to recognize that any kind of integrity was not possible in this situation. Ali Riza Pasha and his government had become the voice of the Triple Entente. The only laws that passed were those specifically ordered by the British. The Armistice of Mudros (30 October 1918), which ended the hostilities on Middle Eastern theatre of World War I between Ottoman Empire and Allies, was signed by the Minister of Marine Affairs Rauf Bey) and the British Admiral Somerset Arthur Gough-Calthorpe), on the aboard HMS Agamemnon in Moudros port... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Allies shift from de facto to de jure occupation, February 1920

Execution performed by British Forces during Occupation of Istanbul

The national movement prompted the British government to take a very important step. A step that brought these parties face to face. To put an end to this situation the major allied power, Britain, said "If the Ottomans wouldn't do it, we would". If the Allies could not control Anatolia, they could at least control Istanbul. The plan was to step by step dismantle every organization beginning from Istanbul and move deep into Anatolia (British Move). The main problem being the opposition from Mustafa Kemals' national movement. British foreign department was asked to devise a plan to ease this path. That was the only way that Christians could be safe said the British government. The political side of this decision was solidified under the Treaty of Sèvres. Anatolia was to be westernized under Christian government. The Treaty of Sèvres assigned most of the Anatolia under Christian control. This policy of breaking down the authority by separating the Sultan, its government, and opposing Christians to Muslims (for British Intelligence Turkish national movement was registered as Muslim population of Anatolia). Foreign department developed the same plan they used during the Arab revolt, but this time the resources were chaneled to Warlords like Ahmet Anzavur. The details of these covert operations will be correctly summarized under the title Jurisdictional Conflict. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Combatants Turkish Revolutionaries Commanders Mustafa Kemal 1 1commander during restoration. ... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Combatants   Turkish Revolutionaries United Kingdom Greece France Italy Armenia Ottoman Empire Georgia Commanders Mustafa Kemal Ä°smet Ä°nönü Kazım Karabekir Ali Fuat Cebesoy Fevzi Çakmak George Milne Henri Gouraud Papoulas Georgios Hatzianestis Drastamat Kanayan Movses Silikyan Süleyman Åžefik Pasha The Turkish War of Independence (Turkish: KurtuluÅŸ Savaşı or... The Treaty of Sèvres is a peace treaty that the Allies of World War I and the Ottoman Empire signed on 10 August 1920 after World War I. Representatives from the governments of the parties involved signed the treaty in Sèvres, France. ... Combatants   Turkish Revolutionaries United Kingdom Greece France Italy Armenia Ottoman Empire Georgia Commanders Mustafa Kemal Ä°smet Ä°nönü Kazım Karabekir Ali Fuat Cebesoy Fevzi Çakmak George Milne Henri Gouraud Papoulas Georgios Hatzianestis Drastamat Kanayan Movses Silikyan Süleyman Åžefik Pasha The Turkish War of Independence (Turkish: KurtuluÅŸ Savaşı or...


On the night of March 15 British troops began to occupy key buildings and arrest Turkish nationalists. It was a very messy operation. The 10th division and military music school resisted the arrest. At least 10 students died under the gunfire of the British Indian army. The total death toll is unknown even today. Mustafa Kemal was ready for this move. He warned all the nationalist organizations that there would be misleading declarations from the capital. He warned that the only way to stop the British was to organize protests. He said "Today the Turkish nation is called to defend its capacity for civilization, its right to life and independence - its entire future. Mustafa Kemal was extensively familiar with the Arab Revolt and British involvement. He managed to stay one step ahead of the British Foreign Office. His abilities over covert British operations gave Mustafa Kemal a big credential among the revolutionaries. is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On March 18 the Ottoman parliament met. The parliament sent a protest to allies. Remind them that it is unacceptable to arrest five of its members. It was end of the Ottoman Political system. This move had left Sultan as sole controller of the Empire and pushed him to corner with the British. Beginning with March 18 the Sultan become the puppet of the British foreign department. There would be no one left to blame for what will be coming soon, said the Sultan. Parliament will have one more session in the future, which they will be reading a text edited by Mustafa Kemal. is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Jurisdictional Conflict (March 1920 - March 1922)

Efforts for Independence
Efforts for Independence

The new government, hoping to undermine the national movement, passed a fatwa (legal opinion) from Şeyhülislam. The fatwa stated that true believers should not go along with the nationalist (rebels) movement. Along with this religious decree, the government sentenced Mustafa Kemal and prominent nationalists to death in absentia. At the same time, the müfti of Ankara, in defense of the nationalist movement, issued a counteracting fatwa declaring that the capital was under the control of the Entente and the Ferit Pasha government. In this text, nationalist movement's goal was stated as freeing the sultan and Caliphate from its enemies. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2097x1125, 1027 KB) Turkish war effort Photograph with historical significance scanned from a newspaper clipping from Cumhuriyet This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2097x1125, 1027 KB) Turkish war effort Photograph with historical significance scanned from a newspaper clipping from Cumhuriyet This image is in the public domain in the United States. ... A fatwā (Arabic: ; plural fatāwā Arabic: ), is a considered opinion in Islam made by a mufti, a scholar capable of issuing judgments on Sharia (Islamic law). ... Sheikh ul-islam (Sheikhul islam, Shaikh al-Islam, Åžeyhülislam) is a title of superior authority in the issues of Islam. ... A Mufti (Arabic: ‎) is an Islamic scholar who is an interpreter or expounder of Islamic law (Sharia), capable of issuing fataawa (plural of fatwa). Role of a Mufti in governments In theocracies like Saudi Arabia and Iran, and in some countries where the constitution is based on sharia law, such... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ...


Dissolution of the Ottoman parliament, March 1920

Mustafa Kemal expected the Allies neither to accept the Harbord report nor to respect his parliamentary immunity if he went to the Ottoman capital, hence he remained in Anatolia. One thing he did was moving the Representative Committee's capital from Erzurum to Ankara so that he could keep in touch with as many deputies as possible as they traveled to Istanbul to attend the parliament. He also started a newspaper, the Hakimiyet-i Milliye (National Sovereignty), to speak for the movement both in Turkey and the outside world (January 10, 1920). Erzurum (Ô¿Õ¡Ö€Õ«Õ¶ (Karin) in Armenian) is a city in eastern Anatolia, Turkey. ... January 10 is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...


On January 12, 1920 the last Ottoman Chamber of Deputies met in the capital. First the sultan’s speech was presented and then a telegram from Mustafa Kemal, manifesting the claim that the rightful government of Turkey being in Ankara in the name of the Representative Committee. The British began to sense that something had been flourishing that they did not want. The Ottoman government was not doing what it could to suppress the nationalists. Brits to capture the control of the movement, secured the departments of both the minister of war and the chief of the general staff. Chief of the general staff was Fevzi Çakmak. He was an able and relatively conservative officer who was known as one of the army’s oldest field leaders and who soon was become one of the principal military leaders of the national movement. On January 28 the deputies met secretly. Proposals were made to elect Mustafa Kemal president of the Chamber, but this was deferred in the certain knowledge that the British would prorogue the Chamber before it could do what has been planned all along, namely accept the declaration of the Sivas Congress. is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mustafa Fevzi Çakmak was a Turkish soldier (Field Marshal) and politician. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sivas Congress was an assembly of the Turkish National Movement held from 4 September to 11 September 1919 in the city of Sivas, in central-eastern Turkey, that united delegates from all Anatolian provinces of the Ottoman Empire, which was defunct at the time in practical terms. ...


Mustafa Kemal declared that the only legal government of Turkey was the Representative Committee in Ankara and that all civilian and military officials were to obey it rather than the government in Istanbul. This argument gained very strong support, as by that time the fact of the Ottoman Parliament being fully under the Allied control had been established.


Declaration of the national parliament, April 1920

The strong measures taken against the nationalists by the Ottoman government created a distinct new phase. For the first time the nationalists claimed the sole right to rule. However, Mustafa Kemal appealed to the entire Islamic world asking for help against the infidel to make sure that everyone knew he was still fighting in the name of the sultan. He stated he wanted to rescue him from the Allies. Plans were made to organize a new government and parliament in Ankara, and then ask the sultan to accept its authority.


A flood of supporters moved to Ankara just ahead of the Allied dragnets. Included among them were Halide Edip, her husband, Adnan Adıvar, İsmet İnönü, Kemal’s most important allies in the Ministry of War, and the last president of the Chamber of Deputies, Celaleddin Arif. Halide Edip Adıvar Halide Edip Adıvar Halide Edip Adıvar Halide Edip Adıvar Halide Edip Adivar (1884–1964) was a Turkish novelist and feminist political leader. ... Mustafa Ä°smet Ä°nönü (September 24, 1884–December 25, 1973) was a Turkish soldier, statesman and the second President of Turkey. ...


The latter's desertion of the capital was of great significance. As the legally elected president of the Ottoman Parliament, his claim that it had been dissolved illegally, in violation of the Constitution, enabled Kemal to assume full governmental powers for the Ankara regime. On March 1920, he announced that the Turkish nation was establishing its own Parliament in Ankara under the name Grand National Assembly. The Grand National Assembly (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi in Turkish) is the unicameral parliament of Turkey which carries out legislative functions. ...


Some 100 members of the Ottoman Parliament were able to escape the Allied roundup and joined 190 deputies elected around the country by the national resistance group. On April 23, 1920, the new Assembly gathered for the first time, making Mustafe Kemal its first president and Ismet Inonü, now deputy from Edirne, chief of the General Staff. The new regime’s determination to revolt against the government in the capital and not the Sultan was quickly made evident. April 23 is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... “Adrianople” redirects here. ...


Armed conflicts

The organization of an army was a fight against Ottomans (imperial government), feudal lords (tribes) and minorities. All these sources were in a power struggle for the control of the area. The riots have to be analyzed based on which power supported the activities of riots, such as moving guns and ammunitions to the rioters, giving them sources to finance the activities. This kind of analysis would show us the power disputes among the local landlords were behind the religious rhetoric of these riots. The allies were using very effectively the local power sources against each other, such as they did during the Arab Revolt. Combatants Hashemite Arabs Great Britain Ottoman Empire Commanders Faisal T.E. Lawrence Ahmed Djemal Strength 5,000 (?) 25,000 (?) This article is about the Arab Revolt of 1916. ...


Theatres (east-west-south-black sea) of the war sections explain the conflicts that the "National Army" had engaged. Most of the conflicts of national army extend on the initial resistant groups developed regionally, as explaned under "Localized resistance". Some of these regional groups integrated into the command structure of the national army.


National militias

For more details on this topic, see Revolts (Turkish War of Independence).
Nationalist Millitias.
Nationalist Millitias.

The resistance against the Allied occupation consisted of various groups who claimed to be nationalist or partisan. But the Sultan was right in his conclusion that these patriotic movements were useless. Each one would end up fighting the other for what was left of Turkey. The Allies could not be defeated in the long term without an organized army. The accomplishments of Nationalist Militias would be temporary. Mustafa Kemal had to persuade Nationalist Militias to form a single command structure. This page will include the revolts against the Turkish Revolutionaries. ... Image File history File links Kuvai-milliye-Millitias-from_Turkish_wikipedia. ... Image File history File links Kuvai-milliye-Millitias-from_Turkish_wikipedia. ...


Early pressure on nationals, April-June 1920
For more details on this topic, see Revolt of Ahmet Aznavur.

Anatolia had many forces on its soil. British battalions, Ahmet Aznavur forces, Sultans army Kuva-i Inzibatiye (Disciplinary forces) and so on. However these forces were apart of a coordinated effort in the fight against the nationalists. Revolt of Ahmet Aznavur was a revolt during Turkish War of Independence. ... Anzavur, Ahmet (d. ... The Kuvâ-i İnzibâtiyye (Ottoman Turkish: , literally Forces of Order; Turkish: Hilafet Ordusu, or Caliphate Army) was an army established on 18 April 1920 by the imperial government of the Ottoman Empire in order to fight against the Turkish National Movement in the aftermath of World War I. It...


The British being skeptical of how formidable these insurgents were, decided to use irregular power to counter act this rebellion. The nationalist forces were distributed all around Turkey, so many small units were dispatched to face them. In İzmit there were two battalions of the British army. Their commanders were living inside the Ottoman warship Yavuz. These units were to be used to rout the partisans under the command of Ali Fuat Cebesoy and Refet Bele. The Sultan gave 4,000 soldiers from his Kuva-i Inzibatiye. Then using money from the Allies, he raised another army, a force about 2000 strong from non-Muslim inhabitants which were initially deployed in Nicaea. All these forces were united under British command. An irregular is a short name for something that does not follow the expected pattern. ... Ä°zmit (ancient Nicomedia) is a city in [[Turkey], administrative center of Kocaeli Province as well as Kocaeli Metropolitan Municipality . ... Ali Fuat Cebesoy (born September 1882, Ä°stanbul – death January 10, 1968, Ä°stanbul) is an officer, politician and statesman. ... The Kuvâ-i Ä°nzibâtiyye (Ottoman Turkish: , literally Forces of Order; Turkish: Hilafet Ordusu, or Caliphate Army) was an army established on 18 April 1920 by the imperial government of the Ottoman Empire in order to fight against the Turkish National Movement in the aftermath of World War I. It... Iznik tiles inside the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne Ä°znik (which derives from the former Greek name Νίκαια, Nicaea) is a city in Turkey which is known primarily as the site of the First and Second Councils of Nicaea, the first and seventh Ecumenical councils in the early history of the Christian...


Both sides faced each other in a pitched battle near Izmit on June 14, 1920. Ahmet Aznavur's forces along with British units outnumbered the militias. Yet under heavy attack some of the Kuva-i Inzibatiye deserted and joined the opposing ranks. This revealed the Sultan did not have the unwavering support of his men. Meanwhile the rest of these forces withdrew behind the British lines which held. June 14 is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...


The clash outside İzmit brought serious consequences. The British forces opened fire on the nationalists and bombed them from the air. This bombing forced a retreat but there was a panic in Istanbul. The British commander General George Milne, asked for reinforcements. This initiated a chain reaction to determine what was required to handle the Turkish nationalists. Marshal Ferdinand Foch signed the investigative report on the matter. The report ended with the summation that twenty seven divisions would be sufficient. British army did not have twenty seven divisions to spare. Also a deployment this size could have disastrous political consequences. The Great War had just ended and the public back home would not support another lengthy and costly expedition. George Francis Milne, 1st Baron Milne, GCB, GCMG, DSO (November 5, 1866 – March 23, 1948), was a British military commander who served as Chief of the Imperial General Staff from 1926 to 1933. ... Ferdinand Foch OM GCB (October 2, 1851 – March 20, 1929) was a French soldier, military educator and author credited for possessing the most original and subtle mind in the French Army. ...


The British did accept the fact that a nationalist movement can not be faced without deployment of consistent and well trained forces. On June 25 the forces originating from Kuva-i Inzibatiye were dismantled under British supervision. The official stance was that there was no use for them. British realized the best option to overcome these Turkish nationlists, was to use a force which was battle-tested and fierce enough to fight the Turks on their own soil. The British had to look no further than Turkey's neighbor - Greece. is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Establishment of Army, July 1920

Before the Amasya Agreement, Mustafa Kemal met with a Bolshevik delegation headed by Colonel Semyon Budyonny. The Bolsheviks wanted to annex the parts of the Caucasus, including Democratic Republic of Armenia, which were formally part of Czarist Russia. They also saw a Turkish Republic as a buffer state, especially if it turned out to be a communist state. Kemal's official response was "Such questions had to be postponed until Turkish independence was achieved." Having this support was important for the national movement. Establishment of Turkish national movement explains the initial stages of the alliance that will become Turkish revolutionaries which waged an independence war that resulted in decleration of Republic of Turkey. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Semyon Budyonny (also spelled Budennii, Budenny, Budyenny etc, Russian: Семён Михайлович Будённый) (April 25 [O.S. April 13] 1883 – October 26, 1973) was a Soviet military commander and an ally of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... National motto: n/a Language Armenian (official) Capital Yerevan Independence From Imperial Russia, 1918 Currency Armenian dram National anthem Mer Hayrenik The Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA; Armenian: Դեմոկրատական Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն, Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun; also known as the First Republic of Armenia), 1918–1922, was the first modern establishment of a Republic of... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start...


The first objective was the securing of arms from abroad. They obtained these primarily from the Soviet Union, but also Italy and France. These arms, especially the Soviet weapons, allowed the Turks to organize an effective army. The Kemalist Turks enjoyed significant Soviet support, as both countries collaborated to destroy the fledgling Armenian Republic. On August 4th, Turkey's representative in Moscow, Riza Nur, sent a telegram saying that soon 60 Krupp artillery pieces, 30,000 shells, 700,000 grenades, 10,000 mines, 60,000 Romanian swords, 1.5 million captured Ottoman rifles, 1 million Russian rifles, 1 million Manlicher rifles, as well as some more modern Martini-Henry rifles and 25,000 bayonets would be in the possession of the Turkish nationalists.[1] Soviet redirects here. ...


The Turks also received significant arms from Italy and France, who threw in their lot with the Kemalist against Greece which was seen as a British client. The Italians used their base in Antalya to arm and train Turkish troops to assist the Kemalists against the Greeks.[2]


Conflicts at East

For more details on this topic, see Democratic Republic of Armenia.

Before the Armistice of Mudros the border of the Democratic Republic of Armenia was defined with Brest-Litovsk and Treaty of Batum, after the Bolshevik revolution during 1918. With the end of the World War I, it was obvious that the eastern border was not going to stay as it had been. There were talks going on with the Armenian Diaspora and Entente on reshaping the border. The Fourteen Points was seen as an incentive to Democratic Republic of Armenia, if Armenians could prove that they were the majority of the population and that they had military control over the eastern regions. The Armenian movements on the borders were being used as an argument to redraw the border between Ottoman Empire and Armenian Republic. Woodrow Wilson agreed to transfer the territories back to the Democratic Republic of Armenia as given the ideas that they are dominantly controlled by Armenians. The results of these talks were to be reflected on the Treaty of Sèvres that was signed by Ottoman Empire. National motto: n/a Language Armenian (official) Capital Yerevan Independence From Imperial Russia, 1918 Currency Armenian dram National anthem Mer Hayrenik The Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA; Armenian: Ô´Õ¥Õ´Õ¸Õ¯Ö€Õ¡Õ¿Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Õ€Õ¡ÕµÕ¡Õ½Õ¿Õ¡Õ¶Õ« Õ€Õ¡Õ¶Ö€Õ¡ÕºÕ¥Õ¿Õ¸Ö‚Õ©ÕµÕ¸Ö‚Õ¶, Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun; also known as the First Republic of Armenia), 1918–1922, was the first modern establishment of a Republic of... The Armistice of Mudros (30 October 1918), which ended the hostilities on Middle Eastern theatre of World War I between Ottoman Empire and Allies, was signed by the Minister of Marine Affairs Rauf Bey) and the British Admiral Somerset Arthur Gough-Calthorpe), on the aboard HMS Agamemnon in Moudros port... National motto: n/a Language Armenian (official) Capital Yerevan Independence From Imperial Russia, 1918 Currency Armenian dram National anthem Mer Hayrenik The Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA; Armenian: Ô´Õ¥Õ´Õ¸Õ¯Ö€Õ¡Õ¿Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Õ€Õ¡ÕµÕ¡Õ½Õ¿Õ¡Õ¶Õ« Õ€Õ¡Õ¶Ö€Õ¡ÕºÕ¥Õ¿Õ¸Ö‚Õ©ÕµÕ¸Ö‚Õ¶, Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun; also known as the First Republic of Armenia), 1918–1922, was the first modern establishment of a Republic of... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, marking... Treaty of Batum, June 4, 1918, a treaty between Democratic Republic of Armenia and Ottoman Empire. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Map of the Armenian diaspora. ... United States President Woodrow Wilson listed the Fourteen Points in a speech that he delivered to the United States Congress on January 8, 1918. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924), was the 28th President of the United States. ... The Treaty of Sèvres is a peace treaty that the Allies of World War I and the Ottoman Empire signed on 10 August 1920 after World War I. Representatives from the governments of the parties involved signed the treaty in Sèvres, France. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326...


One of the most important fights had taken place on this border. The very early onset of national army was the proof of this, even though there was a pressing Greek danger on the west. There was also a movement of Armenians from southeast with the French support, as the French created an Armenian army to support their claims to Cilicia. The general idea at that time was to integrate Armenian Republic to the French supported southeast Armenian movement. This way Armenian Republic could gain much sought resources to balance the Bolshevik expansionist movements. Cilicia as Roman province, 120 AD In Antiquity, Cilicia (Κιλικία) was the name of a region, now known as Çukurova, and often a political unit, on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey), north of Cyprus. ...


The stage of the east campaign is developed through two reports (May 30 to June 4, 1920) outlining the situation in the region by Kâzım Karabekir Pasha. He was detailing the activities of the Armenian Republic and advising on how to shape the sources at the eastern borders, especially in Erzurum. is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... June 4 is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...


Before the stage was set by Kazım Karabekir Pasha on the east border, Russian government sent a message to settle not only the Democratic Republic of Armenia but also Iranian border through diplomacy under Russian control. The Soviet support was absolutely vital for the Turkish nationalist movement, as Turkey was underdeveloped and had no domestic armaments industry. Bakir Sami Bey was assigned for the talks. Bolsheviks demanded Van and Bitlis to Armenia. This was unacceptable to the Turkish revolutionaries. Revolutionaries were also faced with another dilemma, their hesitation to move forces to prevent the Armenian raids was causing a growing unsettlement among the Turks. The Greek threat and diplomatic connections needed to be balanced. Musa Kazım Karabekir (1882, Ä°stanbul – January 26, 1948, Ankara) Kazim Karabekir Pasha was a Turkish general and politician. ... National motto: n/a Language Armenian (official) Capital Yerevan Independence From Imperial Russia, 1918 Currency Armenian dram National anthem Mer Hayrenik The Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA; Armenian: Ô´Õ¥Õ´Õ¸Õ¯Ö€Õ¡Õ¿Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Õ€Õ¡ÕµÕ¡Õ½Õ¿Õ¡Õ¶Õ« Õ€Õ¡Õ¶Ö€Õ¡ÕºÕ¥Õ¿Õ¸Ö‚Õ©ÕµÕ¸Ö‚Õ¶, Demokratakan Hayastani Hanrapetutyun; also known as the First Republic of Armenia), 1918–1922, was the first modern establishment of a Republic of... Van (Armenian ) is a city in eastern Turkey and the seat of Van Province, and is located on the eastern shore of Lake Van. ... Bitlis is a city in Turkey, capital of Bitlis Province. ... The people who master mind the Turkish National Movement: Mustafa Kemal Ataturk Ismet Inonu Fevzi Cakmak Kazim Karabekir Ali Fuat Cebesoy ...


Active stage

Before more diplomatic exchanges took place, to show a sign of power on the discussion table, Armenia moved its forces to Oltu. This killed the discussions with Russian government and in a couple of days the Treaty of Sèvres was signed by Ottoman Empire. This was followed by occupation of Artvin by Georgian forces on 25 July. Oltu is a district of Erzurum Province of Turkey. ... The Treaty of Sèvres is a peace treaty that the Allies of World War I and the Ottoman Empire signed on 10 August 1920 after World War I. Representatives from the governments of the parties involved signed the treaty in Sèvres, France. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... Artvin is a city in north-eastern Turkey. ...

For more details on this topic, see Turkish-Armenian War.

Combatants Democratic Republic of Armenia Turkish Revolutionaries Commanders Drastamat Kanayan Movses Silikyan Kazım Karabekir Strength 50,000. ...

Resolution

The arms left by the defeated Armenian forces were sent to the west to develop the resistance to the Greeks.


The results of Armenian activities reflected on the Treaty of Sèvres. But as this treaty had never gained effect and the Ottoman Empire was dissolved through activities of Turkish National Movement, Armenian efforts in this region was unfulfilled. Turkish National Movement is the political and military activities of Turkish revolutionaries aftermath of the World War I that resulted in decleration of the Republic of Turkey. ...


Turkish movement against the Armenian forces were coordinated with Bolsheviks. Bolsheviks conquered Azerbaijan while the Armenians were fighting with revolutionnaries. It is only after the peace agreement was reached (Treaty of Alexandropol) that they moved into Yerevan. Armenian Republic was not eliminated by the Turkish revolutionaries, whom Armenians could no longer threaten after being defeated. It is also possible to claim that had Armenian Republic been content with the boundaries as of 1919, she could have shown more resistance to the Bolshevik conquest, both internally and externally. The Treaty of Alexandropol was a peace treaty between the Democratic Republic of Armenia and TBMM ending the Turkish-Armenian War, before decleration of the Republic of Turkey on December 2, 1920. ... Location of Yerevan in Armenia Coordinates: Country Armenia Established 782 BC Government  - Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Area  - City 227 km²  (87. ...


Soon after the Bolsheviks and nationalists signed another agreement March 16, 1921, Treaty of Kars. Nationalists agreed to cede Nachicevan and Batum. In response they received support and gold. For the promised resources nationalist had to wait until the Battle of Sakarya. March 16 is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Soviet-Turkish border as per treaty The Treaty of Kars (Turkish: Kars Antlaşması, Russian: Карсский договор) was a friendship treaty[1] between TBMM, (which was declared Turkey in 1923), and the Soviet Union by the representatives of Russian SFSR, Azerbaijan SSR, Armenian SSR, Georgian SSR. It was signed in Kars on... A view of Batumi, circa, 1911, towards the mountains Batumi (also Batum or Batoum) is a seaside city (population: approximately 137,000) on the Black Sea coast and capital of Ajaria, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia. ... The Battle of Sakarya 1921 was an important engagement in the Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922). ...

For more details on this topic, see Treaty of Kars.

Soviet-Turkish border as per treaty The Treaty of Kars (Turkish: Kars Antlaşması, Russian: Карсский договор) was a friendship treaty[1] between TBMM, (which was declared Turkey in 1923), and the Soviet Union by the representatives of Russian SFSR, Azerbaijan SSR, Armenian SSR, Georgian SSR. It was signed in Kars on...

Conflicts at West

The war arose because the western Allies, particularly British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, had promised Greece territorial gains at the expense of the Ottoman Empire if Greece entered the war on the Allied side. These included Eastern Thrace, the islands of Gökçeada (Imbros) and Bozcaada (Tenedos), and parts of Western Anatolia around the city of İzmir (Smyrna). Greece wanted to occupy Constantinople, the historical capital of the Byzantine Empire, to achieve the Megali Idea, but Entente powers did not give permission. David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who guided Britain and the British Empire through World War I and the postwar settlement as the Liberal Party Prime Minister, 1916-1922. ... Part of the Venetian fortress on Bozcaada island Gökçeada and Bozcaada are two islands in the Aegean Sea which are part of Çanakkale Province in Turkey. ... Gökçeada and Bozcaada are two islands in the Aegean Sea which are part of Canakkale Province in Turkey. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... The Megali Idea (Greek: Μεγάλη Ιδέα, lit. ...


It was decided by Triple Entante that Greece would occupy a zone around İzmir (Smyrna) and Ayvalık in western Asia Minor. The reason for these landings were prior Italian landing on the southern coast of Turkey, including in the city of Antalya. The Allies worried about further Italian expansion and saw Greek landings as a way to avoid this. Ayvalık (Ancient Greek: Κυδωνίαι, Greek: Αϊβαλί or Κυδωνίες) is a seaside town in the northwest Turkey. ... Antalya (formerly known as Adalia; from Pamphylian Greek: Αττάλεια Attália) is a large town and tourist destination, situated on the Mediterranean coast of southwestern Turkey. ...


Active stage

The fight against Greeks began much earlier than any other front. On May 28, Greeks landed on Ayvalık. It was no surprise that this small town was chosen as this town was the Greek speaking strong hold. The problem with this move was Greeks did not consider what happened beginning with Balkan Wars. They pushed out the Turkish inhabitants with their extending boarders. A big migrated population (mainly from Crete) was settled in this area. Under an old Ottoman Lieutenant Colonel Ali Çetinkaya, these people formed a unit. They were very determined to fight against what they consider invading army as there was no other place that they can be pushed. Greek troops first met with these irregulars. Later, these units would join to the ranks of an organized army. What Greeks called as harassment was initiated with these irregulars. Mustafa Kemal asked Rauf Orbay if he can help to build a communication among Ali Çetinkaya, Resit, Tevif and Ethem. Resit, Tevif and Ethem were Circassian origins who were expelled from their ancestral lands in the Caucasus by the Russians and Armenians. They were settled around the Aegean coast. Rauf Orbay, an Circassian origin, managed to link these two population. He asked them to cut the logistic support lines. May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ayvalık (Ancient Greek: Κυδωνίαι, Greek: Αϊβαλί or Κυδωνίες) is a seaside town in the northwest Turkey. ... Combatants  Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Commanders Ottoman Empire: Nizam PaÅŸa, Zeki PaÅŸa, Esat PaÅŸa, Abdullah PaÅŸa, Ali Rıza PaÅŸa Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Serbia:Radomir Putnik, Petar... Crete (Greek Κρήτη — classical transliteration KrÄ“tÄ“, modern Greek transliteration Kríti; Ottoman Turkish گريد (Girit); Classical Latin CrÄ“ta, Vulgar Latin Candia) is the largest of the Greek islands at 8,336 km² (3,219 square miles) and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean. ... Ali Çetinkaya (1878-1949, Ä°stanbul) Turk soldier and politician. ... Ali Çetinkaya (1878-1949, Ä°stanbul) Turk soldier and politician. ... Circassian language is used in a number of ways: as a synonym for the Adyghe language; as a synonym for the Kabardian language; as a term for a distinct language that includes both Adyghe and Kabardian. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Allied decision to let Greek landing in Smyrna was due to earlier Italian lands at Antalya. Faced with Italian annexation of parts of Asia Minor with a significant ethnic Greek population, Venizelos secured Allied permission for Greek troops to land in Smyrna, ostensibly in order to protect the civilian population from turmoil. Turks claim that Venizelos wanted to create a homogeneous Greek settlement to be able to annex it to Greece, but his statements indicated that the Greeks were in Smyrna to protect the locals:"Greece is not making war against Islam, but against the anachronistic Ottoman Government, and its corrupt, ignominious, and bloody administration, with a view to the expelling it from those territories where the majority of the population consists of Greeks."[3]


As soon as Greek forces landed in Smyrna, a Turkish nationalist opened fire prompting brutal reprisals. Greek forces used this as a base for launching attacks deeper into Turkey. Atatürk refused to accept even a temporary Greek presence in Smyrna. Eventually the Turkish revolutionaries would push the Greeks out of Smyrna, including the civilian population which was expelled.

For more details on this topic, see Greco-Turkish War (1919-1922).

Combatants Greece Turkish Revolutionaries Commanders Gen Leonidas Paraskevopoulos, Gen Anastasios Papoulas, Gen Georgios Hatzianestis Ali Fethi Okyar, İsmet İnönü, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Fevzi Çakmak Strength 200,000 men 120,000 men (plus village protectors) Casualties 23,500 dead; 20,820 captured 20,540 dead; 10,000 wounded The...

Resolution
Mustafa Kemal in İzmir
Mustafa Kemal in İzmir

With the borders secured with treaties and agreements at east and south, Kemal was now in a commanding position. The Nationals were then able to insist that unconditionally, the Greeks evacuate east Thrace, Imbros and Tenedos as well as Asia Minor, and the Meriç River to be set as the border at Thrace at its pre-1914 position. Image File history File links Ataturk-(1967)_-_Izmir. ... Image File history File links Ataturk-(1967)_-_Izmir. ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881 – November 10, 1938) was an army officer, revolutionary statesman, the founder of the Republic of Turkey and its first President. ...


France, Italy and Britain called Mustafa Kemal to Venice for cease-fire negotiations. In return, Mustafa Kemal demanded negotiations be started at Mudanya. Negotiations at Mudanya began on October 3, and it was concluded with the Mudanya Armistice. Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venezsia, Latin: Venetia) is a city in northern Italy, the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,251 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Armistice of Mudanya (Mudania) was an agreement between Turkey, Italy, France and Britain on 11 October 1922. ...




Conflicts at south

For more details on this topic, see French Mandate of Syria.

French wanted to settle in Syria. With a pressure against French, Cilicia would be easily left to nationalist. The Taurus Mountains were critical for Mustafa Kemal. French soldiers were foreign to the region and they were using Armenian militia to acquire their intelligence. Turkish nationals had been in cooperation with Arab tribes in this area. Within time Mustafa Kemal said "French army will leave the region". If compared to Greek threat, they were the second for Mustafa Kemal. He proposed that if the Greek threat could be disseminated, French would not resist. His insights all come through. The French Mandate of Syria was a League of Nations Mandate created after the First World War when the Ottoman Empire was split by the Treaty of Versailles. ...


Active stage
For more details on this topic, see Franco-Turkish War.

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Resolution
Soldiers on the way back.
Soldiers on the way back.

The resistance of the national forces was a big surprise to France. They blamed the British forces which did not curb the resistance power of the local sources. The strategic goal of opening a front at the south by moving Armenians against the Turkish National forces was a failure after the defeat of the Greek-British forces on the west. Use of armed local Armenians in the region against the Turkish National forces turned out to be a failure. Most of the Armenians in this region had to migrate alongside the French army. Even though most of the fight was organized alongside the Armenian sources, the loss of French soldiers did generate a large disapproval in France, which tried to mend the results of the continental wars. France asked 1,500,000 gold coins from the Turkish National Government (Mustafa Kemal) for their loss, which was clearly denied. Image File history File links Turkish_Crossroads_(1951). ... Image File history File links Turkish_Crossroads_(1951). ... The Armenian Legion was a foreign legion unit within French Army which was founded during World War I. It was one of the Armenian volunteer units beside the Armenian militia fought against the Ottoman Empire. ...

Stage for Peace (March 1922- April 1923)

The first communication between the sides were during the Conference of London. It was a failure. The stage for peace begins with the recognition of the Entente for a need to make an arrangement with the Turkish nationalists. In 1922, the nationalists already settled their eastern boarders with Soviet Republic and they were ready to push west and south.


Atrocities

There were widespread atrocities committed during the Turkish War of Independence by the Greek army of occupation, Turkish nationalist forces and Armenian forces.


According to Turkish historians and some foreign observers the Greek army massacred or expelled many Turks under its control.[4] [5] Arnold J. Toynbee asserted that there was organised atrocities since the time of the Greek occupation of Smyrna and large scale atrocities of Turkish civilian population had started since June 1921 all over the Greek occupied territories.[6] Arnold Joseph Toynbee (April 14, 1889 - October 22, 1975) was a British historian whose twelve-volume analysis of the rise and fall of civilizations, A Study of History, 1934-1961, was a synthesis of world history, a metahistory based on universal rhythms of rise, flowering and decline. ...


The Turkish nationalist forces also killed numerous Greek and Armenian civilians. The British historian and journalist, Arnold J. Toynbee, stated that when he toured the region he saw Greek villages that had been burned to the ground. Furthermore, Toynbee stated that the Turkish troops had clearly, individually and deliberately burned down each house.[7] It has also been claimed that there was a significant continuity between the organizers of the massacres of 1915-1917 and of 1919-1921 in Eastern Anatolia [8] In the East the advancing Turkish battalions devastated the area and reportedly committed acts of ethnic cleansing against the civilian Armenian population that did not have time or willingness to leave their homes. [9] [10] After the Turks captured the city of Merdeniq, Armenians launched pogroms against local Muslims in Yerevan and Kars in response. [11][10] Arnold Joseph Toynbee (April 14, 1889 - October 22, 1975) was a British historian whose twelve-volume analysis of the rise and fall of civilizations, A Study of History, 1934-1961, was a synthesis of world history, a metahistory based on universal rhythms of rise, flowering and decline. ... Ethnic cleansing refers to various policies or practices aimed at the displacement of an ethnic group from a particular territory in order to create a supposedly ethnically pure society. ... Location of Yerevan in Armenia Coordinates: Country Armenia Established 782 BC Government  - Mayor Yervand Zakharyan Area  - City 227 km²  (87. ...


Many Turkish villages in Western Asia Minor were also burned by the retreating Greek army, in what was a Greek scorched earth policy. [12][13]


Conference of London, March 1921

For more details on this topic, see Conference of London.

Triple Entente through a series of conferences in London forced the Turkish Revolutionaries to agree with the Istanbul government to salvage the Treaty of Sèvres which was signed the treaty. Both stages were failures. However, the conference of London gave Triple Entente an opportunity to reverse their policies. In October, they received a report by Admiral Mark Lambert Bristol, set up to inquire into the bloodshed during the Occupation of Izmir and following activities. The commssion reported that if annexation will not fallow Greece should not be the only occupation force in this area. Admiral Bristol was not so sure how to explain this annexation to Woodrow Wilson as he would insist on 'respect for nationalities' in Fourteen Points. He believed that the sentiments of the Turks 'will never accept this annexation'. The Conference of London (February 21 and March 12 1921 and March 1922, London, Great Britian) of the post-World War I Allied conference to push the conditions of the Treaty of Sèvres to Turkish Revolutionaries. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The people who master mind the Turkish National Movement: Mustafa Kemal Ataturk Ismet Inonu Fevzi Cakmak Kazim Karabekir Ali Fuat Cebesoy ... The Treaty of Sèvres is a peace treaty that the Allies of World War I and the Ottoman Empire signed on 10 August 1920 after World War I. Representatives from the governments of the parties involved signed the treaty in Sèvres, France. ... Mark Lambert Bristol (17 April 1868 – 13 May 1939) was a Rear Admiral in the United States Navy. ... Combatants Greece Turkish Revolutionaries The Occupation of Izmir (Smyrna) by Greek army, part of the War in Asia Minor, and (in Turkey) a part of the Turkish War of Independence, was a conflict between Greece and Turkey fought in the aftermath of World War I. Background After the defeat of... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924), was the 28th President of the United States. ... United States President Woodrow Wilson listed the Fourteen Points in a speech that he delivered to the United States Congress on January 8, 1918. ...


The Conference of London or the Admiral Mark Lambert Bristol report did not change the Triple Entente's plan. February 12, 1921 Triple Entente decided in annexation of the Eagean cost to Greeks. This decision followed with the Greek offensive. General Milne advised the opposite to David Lloyd George as his officer on the ground. David Lloyd George acted with his sentiments that were developed during Battle of Gallipoli. Mark Lambert Bristol (17 April 1868 – 13 May 1939) was a Rear Admiral in the United States Navy. ... February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who guided Britain and the British Empire through World War I and the postwar settlement as the Liberal Party Prime Minister, 1916-1922. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who guided Britain and the British Empire through World War I and the postwar settlement as the Liberal Party Prime Minister, 1916-1922. ... Combatants British Empire Australia India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom France Senegal  Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Lord Kitchener John de Robeck Otto von Sanders, Mustafa Kemal Strength 5 divisions (initial) 14 divisions (final) 6 divisions Casualties 252,000 251,309 The Battle of Gallipoli took place at Gallipoli...


Conference of London was a failure as a medium to persuade Turkish revolutionaries to accept Treaty of Sèvres. The Conference of London (February 21 and March 12 1921 and March 1922, London, Great Britian) of the post-World War I Allied conference to push the conditions of the Treaty of Sèvres to Turkish Revolutionaries. ...


Armistice of Mudanya, October 1922

For more details on this topic, see Armistice of Mudanya.

The Marmara sea resort town of Mudanya host the conference to arrange the armistice on October 3, 1922. Ismet Inonü, commander of the western armies was in front of Allies. The scene was unlike Mondros as the British and the Greeks were on the defense. Greeks were represented by the Allies. The Armistice of Mudanya (Mudania) was an agreement between Turkey, Italy, France and Britain on 11 October 1922. ... The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara denizi, Modern Greek: Μαρμαρα̃ Θάλασσα or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea... MUDANYA(ancient Apamea Myrlea), a town of Turkey, on the south coast of the Sea of Marmora. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ...


The British still expected Ankara, Grand National Assembly, to make concessions. From the first speech, the British were startled as Ankara demanded fulfillment of the National Pact. During the conference the British troops in Constantinople were preparing for a Kemalist attack. There was never any fighting in Thrace, as Greek units withdrew before the Turks crossed the straits, remaining in Asia Minor. The Greeks were willing to give up Eastern Thrace[citation needed] as its population was mostly Turks, Christian Bulgarians and Pomaks, and its only use served as a corridor to Constantinople, and it was now clear that the city would remain in Turkish hands. The only concession that Ismet made to the British was an agreement that his troops would not advance any farther toward the Dardanelles, which gave a safe haven for the British troops as long as the conference continued. The conference dragged on far beyond the original expectations. In the end it was the British who had to yield, with the Ankara's advances. Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... The Pomaks (Помаци, Pomatsi) or Bulgarian Muslims (Българи Мюсюлмани, Bălgari Myusyulmani), also known locally as Ahryani, are Slavs of the Islamic faith. ... Map of the Dardanelles The Dardanelles (Turkish: Çanakkale BoÄŸazı, Greek: Δαρδανέλλια, Dardanellia), formerly known as the Hellespont (Greek: Eλλήσποντος, Hellespontos), is a narrow strait in northwestern Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara. ...


The Armistice of Mudanya was signed on October 11. By its terms the Greek army would move west of the Maritsa, clearing the Thrace to the Allies. This was a method that started an end to hostilities. The famous American author Ernest Hemingway was in Thrace at the time, and he covered the retreat of the time. He has several short stories written about Thrace and Smyrna, which appear in his book In Our Time. The agreement came into force starting October 15. Allied forces would stay in Thrace for a month to assure law and order. In return Ankara would recognize continued British occupation of the Straits zones until the final treaty was signed. This arrangement included also Constantinople, which thus would have to wait a little while longer to be seized by Turkish forces. is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Maritsa or Evros (Bulgarian: Марица, Greek: Εβρος, Romanized as Hebrus, Turkish: Meriç) river is ca . ... Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ... In Our Time can refer to a number of things: In Our Time — the BBC Radio 4 programme hosted by Melvin Bragg In Our Time — a collection of short stories by Ernest Hemingway In Our Time — a collection of cartoons and essays by Tom Wolfe In Our... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Refet Bele was assigned to recovery of Thrace from Allies. He was the first representative to reach the old capital. The British did not allow the hundred gendarmes who came with him. That resistance lasted till the next day.


Conference of Lausanne, November 1922

For more details on this topic, see Conference of Lausanne.

The Conference of Lausanne was a 1922--23 peace conference held in Lausanne, in order to write a new treaty with Turkey, which, under the new government of Kemal Pasha, did not recognise the Treaty of Sèvres. ...

Treaty of Lausanne, July 1923

For more details on this topic, see Treaty of Lausanne.

Borders as shaped by the treaty The Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923) was a peace treaty that settle a part of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire that reflected the consequences of the Turkish Independence War between Allies of World War I and Turkish national movement, (Grand National Assembly...

Establishment of the Republic

See also

Woodrow Wilson and the American peace commissioners during the negotiations on the Treaty of Versailles. ... Chronology of the Turkish War of Independence is a timeline of events for the Turkish War of Independence (including the background starting with the end of the First World War). ... Combatants British Empire Australia India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom France Senegal  Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Lord Kitchener John de Robeck Otto von Sanders, Mustafa Kemal Strength 5 divisions (initial) 14 divisions (final) 6 divisions Casualties 252,000 251,309 The Battle of Gallipoli took place at Gallipoli... Combatants Democratic Republic of Armenia Turkish Revolutionaries Commanders Drastamat Kanayan Movses Silikyan Kazım Karabekir Strength 50,000. ... Soviet-Turkish border as per treaty The Treaty of Kars (Turkish: Kars AntlaÅŸması, Russian: Карсский договор) was a friendship treaty[1] between TBMM, (which was declared Turkey in 1923), and the Soviet Union by the representatives of Russian SFSR, Azerbaijan SSR, Armenian SSR, Georgian SSR. It was signed in Kars on... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Great Fire of Smyrna as on 14 September 1922 The Great Fire of Smyrna is the name commonly given to the fire that ravaged Ä°zmir/Smyrna starting 13 September 1922 and lasted for four days until the 17 September. ... Armenian Genocide photo. ... Bodies of Christians who perished during the Assyrian Genocide 40 Christians dying a day say Assyrian refugees - The Syracuse Herald, 1915. ... The historical Pontus region New York Times headlines which observes that the entire Christian population of Trabzon was wiped out. More relevant headlines[1] Pontic Greek Genocide[2][3][4] is a controversial term used to refer to the fate of Pontic Greeks during and in the aftermath of World... The Istanbul Pogrom, also known as the Istanbul Riots, or the Σεπτεμβριανά in Greek and the 6-7 Eylül Olayları in Turkish (both literally Events of September), was a pogrom directed primarily at Istanbul’s 100,000-strong Greek minority on 6–7 September 1955. ... The Chanak Affair occurred in 1922, when British troops stationed near Chanak, on the Dardanelles, were threatened with attack by the Turks. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Kapur, H Soviet Russia and Asia, 1917-1927
  2. ^ Antalya City Website History, http://www.antalya-ws.com/english/location/antalya/whistory.asp
  3. ^ "Not War Against Islam-Statement by Greek Prime Minister" in The Scotsman, June 29 1920 p.5
  4. ^ Toynbee, Arnold, J.The Western Question in Greece and Turkey
  5. ^ Taner akcam, A Shameful Act, p. 324
  6. ^ Toynbee, Arnold, J.The Western Question in Greece and Turkey, p. 260
  7. ^ Toynbee, Arnold, J.The Western Question in Greece and Turkey, p.152.
  8. ^ Akcam, Taner. A Shameful Act: The Armenian Genocide and the Question of Turkish Responsibility. Metropolitan Books 206 p.326
  9. ^
  10. ^ a b
  11. ^
  12. ^ http://www.hri.org/docs/Horton/hb-12.html George Horton, Blight of Asia
  13. ^ Andrew Mango, Atatürk. p.217.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Turkish War of Independence - All About Turkey (996 words)
Armenian resistance was broken by the summer of 1921, and the Kars region was occupied by the Turks.
Ismet Pasha was the chief Turkish negotiator at the Lausanne Conference that opened in November 1922.
The National Pact of 1919 was the basis of the Turkish negotiating position, and its provisions were recognized in the treaty concluded by Turkey in July 1923 with the Allied powers.
Turkish (1073 words)
Turkish, the westernmost of the Turkic languages, belongs to the Turkic branch of the Altaic language family.
After the Turkish War of Independence (1918-1923), the Republic of Turkey was founded from the remnants of the fallen empire by Mustafa Kemal, who was later given the name of Atatürk 'Father of the Turks'.
Turkish is considered a Category II language in terms of difficulty for English speakers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m