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Encyclopedia > Turkish Armed Forces
Turkish Armed Forces
Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri

Branches of service
Turkish Army
Turkish Air Force
Turkish Navy
Turkish Gendarmerie seal Turkish Gendarmerie
Turkish Coast Guard Turkish Coast Guard
Leadership
Commander-in-Chief: Chief of the Turkish General Staff
Personnel
Active personnel: 622,850 (Ranked 9th)
Reserve personnel: 378,000 (Ranked 9th)
Military age population: males age 20–49: 16,756,323 (2005 est.)
Total fit for service: males age 20-49: 13,905,901 (2005 est.)
Military age: 20 years of age
Service law: Conscription
Industry
Annual spending: $10.936 billion (2006 est.)[1] (Ranked 15th)
Percent of GDP spent on military: 3.0% (2006 est.)[2]
History

Military history of Turkey
Ranks and insignia

Turkish Armed Forces (TAF) (Turkish: Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri (TSK)) consists of the Army, the Navy (including Naval Air and Naval Infantry), and the Air Force of the Republic of Turkey. The Gendarmerie and the Coast Guard operate as components of the internal security forces in peacetime, and are subordinate to the Army and Navy Commands respectively. In wartime, both have law enforcement and military functions. Image File history File links Turkish Armed FOrces Logo File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Kkbrove_yeni. ... Turkish Army (Turkish: Türk Kara Kuvvetleri) is a branch of the Turkish Armed Forces. ... Image File history File links Turkish Air Force Logo File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Turkish Air Force (Turkish: Türk Hava Kuvvetleri) is a branch of the Turkish Armed Forces. ... Image File history File links TurkishNavySeal. ... Seal of the Turkish Navy Turkish Navy (Turkish: ) is a branch of the Turkish Armed Forces. ... Image File history File links Turkish Gendarmerie Logo File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Seal of the Turkish Gendarmerie The Gendarmerie of The Republic of Turkey is a branch of Turkish Armed Forces, which is responsible for the maintenance of Safety and public order as well as carrying out other duties assigned by laws and regulation, is an armed security and law enforcement force... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 529 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 1133 pixel, file size: 356 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Turkish Coast Guard logo http://www. ... Turkish Coast Guard Branch of the Turkish Armed Forces during war time, the Turkish Coast Guard (Ottoman: Rusumet Emaneti Teskilati, Later Turkish: Sahil Güvenlik Komutanlığı) was established in 1859. ... The Chief of the Turkish General Staff is a military person of rank general, who presides the general staff of the armed forces - army, navy, air force - of Turkey. ... It has been suggested that List of countries by size of armed forces be merged into this article or section. ... This list of countries by size of armed forces displays national troop levels by active troop strength, number of Naval combatants and aircraft. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Military history of Turkey is a listing of ancient or previous history of military actions or information. ... Turkish Army (Turkish: Türk Kara Kuvvetleri) is a branch of the Turkish Armed Forces. ... Seal of the Turkish Navy Turkish Navy (Turkish: ) is a branch of the Turkish Armed Forces. ... Turkish Air Force (Turkish: Türk Hava Kuvvetleri) is a branch of the Turkish Armed Forces. ... Seal of the Turkish Gendarmerie The Gendarmerie of The Republic of Turkey is a branch of Turkish Armed Forces, which is responsible for the maintenance of Safety and public order as well as carrying out other duties assigned by laws and regulation, is an armed security and law enforcement force... Turkish Coast Guard Branch of the Turkish Armed Forces during war time, the Turkish Coast Guard (Ottoman: Rusumet Emaneti Teskilati, Later Turkish: Sahil Güvenlik Komutanlığı) was established in 1859. ... For the band, see The Police. ...


The Chief of General Staff of the Turkish Armed Forces (TAF) since August 28, 2006 is General Yaşar Büyükanıt. The Chief of the Turkish General Staff is a military person of rank general, who presides the general staff of the armed forces - army, navy, air force - of Turkey. ... August 28 is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... General Mehmet YaÅŸar Büyükanıt (born 1940 in Istanbul) is the commander of the Turkish Land Forces. ...


After becoming a member of the NATO Alliance on 18 February 1952, the Turkish Republic initiated a comprehensive modernization program for its Armed Forces. Towards the end of the 1980s, a second restructuring process was initiated. NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... This page has been protected from editing to deal with vandalism. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The TAF, with a combined troop strength of 1,054,750 soldiers[3], is the second largest standing force in NATO after the United States. Currently, 36,700 troops are also stationed in the north of Cyprus.

Contents

History

The Military history of Turkey is a listing of ancient or previous history of military actions or information. ...

Foundation of the Republic of Turkey

The Turkish Army has its foundations in remnant Ottoman forces inherited after the fall of the Ottoman Empire at the end of World War I. The rise of Turkish nationalism in Anatolia, under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, led eventually to victory in the Turkish War of Independence, and subsequently to the founding of the Republic of Turkey, at which time these remnant forces were reorganized into the Turkish Army. Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... “Mustafa Kemal” redirects here. ... Combatants   Turkish Revolutionaries   Soviet Union[1][2][3] United Kingdom Greece France Armenia Ottoman Empire Georgia Commanders Mustafa Kemal Ä°smet Ä°nönü Kazım Karabekir Ali Fuat Cebesoy Fevzi Çakmak George Milne Henri Gouraud Papoulas Georgios Hatzianestis Drastamat Kanayan Movses Silikyan Süleyman Åžefik Pasha The Turkish War of Independence...


World War II

Turkey remained neutral until the final stages of World War II, and tried to maintain an equal distance between both the Axis and the Allies. However, at the Second Cairo Conference in 1943, Roosevelt, Churchill and Inönü reached an agreement on issues regarding Turkey's possible contribution to the Allies, and it was decided that Turkey should maintain her neutrality and thus block the Axis from reaching the strategic oil reserves of the Middle East. Even though Turkey never fought against the Axis, the Turkish Armed Forces were fully mobilized and remained on alert throughout the war, ready to confront a possible invasion after the Axis forces took control of neighbouring Bulgaria and Greece. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis powers during the Second World War. ... Roosevelt, Inönü and Churchill at the Second Cairo Conference on December 4-6, 1943 The Second Cairo Conference (codenamed SEXTANT) of December 4-December 6, 1943, held in Cairo, Egypt, addressed Turkeys possible contribution to the Allies in World War II. The meeting was attended by President Franklin... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... FDR redirects here. ... Churchill redirects here. ... Ä°smet Ä°nönü 1884-1973 Mustafa Ä°smet Ä°nönü (1884 - December 25, 1973) was a Turkish soldier, statesman and the second President of Turkey. ...


Cold War Era

In 1950 Turkey participated in the Korean War as a member state of the United Nations and suffered 731 deaths in combat. Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ...


Turkey became a member of NATO on February 18, 1952, and initiated a comprehensive modernization program for its Armed Forces. NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


In July 1974, the Turkish Armed Forces intervened against a coup in Cyprus, organized by EOKA-B and led by Nikos Sampson who ousted the democratically elected Cypriot President Archbishop Makarios III in order to establish Enosis (Union) between Greece and Cyprus. The coup was backed by the Greek military junta in Athens. The conflict in Cyprus lasted until August 1974 and resulted in the de-facto division of the island between the Turkish Cypriot controlled north and the Greek Cypriot controlled south. Turkey still maintains troops in Cyprus, since a political solution could not yet be achieved, and since many members of the Turkish Cypriot community fear a return to the intercommunal violence which occurred between 1963 and 1974.[4][5] A referendum in 2004 for the Annan Plan which aimed at reunifying the island was supported by the Turkish Cypriots, but rejected by the Greek Cypriots, on the pretext that it gave too many rights and political powers to the Turkish Cypriots who make up 1/5 of the island's population. EOKA (Εθνική Οργάνωσις Κυπρίων Αγωνιστών, Ethniki Organosis Kyprion Agoniston (Greek National Organisation of Cypriot Fighters) was a Greek Cypriot nationalist organisation that fought for the expulsion of British troops from the island, for self-determination and for union with Greece in the mid to late 1950s. ... Nikos Sampson (1935 – May 9, 2001) was the coup détat-installed dictator of Cyprus, after the overthrow of President Makarios in 1974. ... Makarios was the adopted name of Mikhalis Khristodoulou Mouskos (August 13, 1913 - August 3, 1977). ... The word Ένωσις (enosis) is Greek for union. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Athens (ancient Greek: αἱ Ἀθῆναι (plural), evolving into the modern αι Αθήναι in Greek until recently, and η Αθήνα nowadays (IPA : singular see below: Origin of the name ) is both the largest and the capital city of Greece, located in the Attica periphery. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Modernization

Towards the end of the 1980s, a restructuring and modernization process was initiated by the Turkish Armed Forces, which still continues today. The final goal of Turkey is to produce indigenous military equipment and to become increasingly self-sufficient in terms of military technologies.


Duties and Defense Doctrine

Turkey is located in a vitally important and challenging region with various political regimes, religions, economic systems and military powers. Due to its strategic position surrounded by the Black, Aegean and the Mediterranean Seas, as well as the Balkans, the Caucasus and the Middle East, it is a focal point where international geostrategic lines and routes of the three continents of the Old World (Europe, Asia and Africa) intersect. Turkey, which controls the Turkish Straits, is also well positioned to control the Suez Canal and consequently the maritime traffic in the region. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The Old World consists of those parts of Earth known to Europeans, Asians, and Africans before the voyages of Christopher Columbus; it includes Europe, Asia, and Africa (collectively known as Africa-Eurasia), plus surrounding islands. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Bosporus - photo taken from International Space Station. ... Suez Canal, seen from Earth orbit, NASA. Ships moored at El Ballah during transit The Suez Canal (Arabic: , transliteration: ), is a large artificial canal in Egypt west of the Sinai Peninsula. ...


Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia are the shortest land and air transport routes to the vast energy resources in the Middle East. Radical changes are taking place in the region around Turkey, and these changes bring great challenges with them. While the uncertainties in the content and duration of these changes continue, Turkey stands firm as an element of stability in the region.


In this environment of uncertainty, the threat to the security of Turkey is no longer comprised solely of the various regimes and military powers in the region, but also of political, economic and social instabilities, border disputes, struggles of power and terrorism.


In addition to the regional crises, the Turkish Armed Forces must -based on political decisions- also be prepared to respond to the crises which pose a threat to global peace.


Strictly adhering to Atatürk’s principle, "Peace at Home, Peace in the World", the Armed Forces of the Republic of Turkey is determined not to pursue any aggressive intentions, but will take action when the independence of the Turkish state and the security and honour of the Turkish nation will be attacked; in parallel with the common ideals of international organizations and treaties of which Turkey is a member and signatory. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881–November 10, 1938), Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and anti-imperialist statesman, was the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey. ...


As a member of the NATO Alliance, the Republic of Turkey has ensured an increased sense of security to her allies and has contributed to the protection of global peace as well. Turkey continues to cooperate with NATO countries in the field of defense and fully supports the initiatives towards global disarmament and arms control. In this context, Turkey is committed to a global disarmament plan that is realized under an effective control mechanism, which does not adversely affect the security of any nation. NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ...


In an environment full of hot conflicts, Turkey, having great importance as the last link within the NATO defense chain, must have a powerful national defense capability and a strong Army that's ready to effectively react against potential dangers. NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ...


The main elements of the Turkish Defense Doctrine are the determination for national defense, NATO solidarity and loyalty to the Turkish Armed Forces.


The Armed Forces of the Republic of Turkey comprises the Army, Navy and Air Force which are subordinate to the Turkish General Staff. The General Command of Gendarmerie and the Coast Guard Command, which operate as part of the internal security forces in peacetime, are subordinate to the Land and Naval Forces Commands, respectively, in wartime.


The Chief of General Staff is the Commander of the Armed Forces. In wartime, he acts as the Commander in Chief on behalf of the President. Commanding the Armed Forces and establishing the policies and programs related with the preparation for combat of personnel, intelligence, operations, organization, training and logistic services are the responsibilities of the Turkish General Staff. Furthermore, the Turkish General Staff coordinates the military relations of the Turkish Armed Forces with NATO member states and other friendly nations.


Branches

The Turkish Armed Forces consists of five branches:


Army

Main article: Turkish Army

The Turkish Army is one of the largest standing armies in the world and the second largest army of NATO. Turkish Army can deploy up to 100,000 men to conduct joint operations at short notice.[citation needed] It can conduct air assault operations with a lift capability of up to 7 battalions at a time, day and night.[citation needed]
Image File history File linksMetadata Kkbrove_yeni. ... Turkish Army (Turkish: Türk Kara Kuvvetleri) is a branch of the Turkish Armed Forces. ... Turkish Army (Turkish: Türk Kara Kuvvetleri) is a branch of the Turkish Armed Forces. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... Joint warfare is a military doctrine which places priority on the integration of the various service branches of a states armed forces into one unified command. ...


Air Force

Main article: Turkish Air Force

The Turkish Air Force is one of the oldest air forces in the world and operates one of the largest combat aircraft fleets of NATO. Supported by the TuAF's in-flight refueling capability, the fighter jets of the Turkish Air Force can participate in international operations and exercises on every major continent and return back to their home bases.
Image File history File links Turkish Air Force Logo File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Turkish Air Force (Turkish: Türk Hava Kuvvetleri) is a branch of the Turkish Armed Forces. ... Turkish Air Force (Turkish: Türk Hava Kuvvetleri) is a branch of the Turkish Armed Forces. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... The Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker is an aerial refueling tanker aircraft. ...


Navy

Main article: Turkish Navy

The Turkish Navy has historically been one of the largest sea powers of the Mediterranean. Supported by its replenishment ships, the Turkish Navy can participate in international operations and exercises on every major sea and ocean of the world. Submarines can individually navigate up to 15,000 nautical miles and return back to their home bases.
Image File history File links TurkishNavySeal. ... Seal of the Turkish Navy Turkish Navy (Turkish: ) is a branch of the Turkish Armed Forces. ... Seal of the Turkish Navy Turkish Navy (Turkish: ) is a branch of the Turkish Armed Forces. ...


Gendarmerie

Main article: Turkish Gendarmerie

The Turkish Gendarmerie is responsible for maintaining law and order in rural areas which do not fall under the jurisdiction of regular police forces.
Image File history File links Turkish Gendarmerie Logo File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Seal of the Turkish Gendarmerie The Gendarmerie of The Republic of Turkey is a branch of Turkish Armed Forces, which is responsible for the maintenance of Safety and public order as well as carrying out other duties assigned by laws and regulation, is an armed security and law enforcement force... Seal of the Turkish Gendarmerie The Gendarmerie of The Republic of Turkey is a branch of Turkish Armed Forces, which is responsible for the maintenance of Safety and public order as well as carrying out other duties assigned by laws and regulation, is an armed security and law enforcement force...


Coast Guard

Main article: Turkish Coast Guard

The Turkish Coast Guard is responsible for maintaining law and order in the Turkish territorial waters.
Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 529 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 1133 pixel, file size: 356 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Turkish Coast Guard logo http://www. ... Turkish Coast Guard Branch of the Turkish Armed Forces during war time, the Turkish Coast Guard (Ottoman: Rusumet Emaneti Teskilati, Later Turkish: Sahil Güvenlik Komutanlığı) was established in 1859. ... Turkish Coast Guard Branch of the Turkish Armed Forces during war time, the Turkish Coast Guard (Ottoman: Rusumet Emaneti Teskilati, Later Turkish: Sahil Güvenlik Komutanlığı) was established in 1859. ...


Role of the military in Turkish politics

Since Mustafa Kemal Atatürk founded the modern secular Republic of Turkey in 1923, the Turkish military has perceived itself as the guardian of Kemalism, the official state ideology, even though Atatürk himself insisted on separating the military from politics. The TAF still maintains an important degree of influence over Turkish politics and the decision making process regarding issues related to Turkish national security, albeit decreased in the past decades, via the National Security Council. The National Security Council (Milli Güvenlik Kurulu (MGK) in Turkish) is a powerful body that unites the top civilian and military leaders, and issues ‘recommendations’ to the government upon all matters vaguely defined as touching on the security of the state of the Turkish Republic. ... “Mustafa Kemal” redirects here. ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881 – November 10, 1938), Turkish soldier and statesman, was the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey. ... The National Security Council (Milli Güvenlik Kurulu (MGK) in Turkish) is a powerful body that unites the top civilian and military leaders, and issues ‘recommendations’ to the government upon all matters vaguely defined as touching on the security of the state of the Turkish Republic. ...


The military has had a record of intervening in politics. Indeed, it assumed power for several periods in the latter half of the 20th century. It executed coup d'etats in 1960, 1971, and 1980. Most recently, it maneuvered the removal of an Islamic-oriented prime minister, Necmettin Erbakan, in 1997.[6] A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Necmettin Erbakan (born October 29, 1926) is a Turkish engineer, academician, politician, political party leader and prime minister of Turkey between 1996 and 1997. ...


In April 27, 2007, in advance of the November 4, 2007 presidential election, and in reaction to the politics of Abdullah Gül who has a past record of involvement in Islamist political movements and banned Islamist parties such as the Welfare Party, the army issued a statement of its interests. It said that the army is a party to "arguments" regarding secularism; that Islamism ran counter to the secular nature of the Turkish Republic, and to the legacy of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. The Army's statement ended with a clear warning that the Turkish Armed Forces stood ready to intervene if the secular nature of the Turkish Constitution is compromised, stating that "the Turkish Armed Forces maintain their sound determination to carry out their duties stemming from laws to protect the unchangeable characteristics of the Republic of Turkey. Their loyalty to this determination is absolute." [7] [8] Abdullah Gül Abdullah Gül with US National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice while visiting the White House in July 2003 Abdullah Gül (born October 29, 1950) is the deputy prime minister, foreign minister of Turkey, and presidential candidate. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... The Welfare Party (Refah Partisi) in Turkey was founded by Ahmed Tekdal in Ankara in 1983. ... George Jacob Holyoake (1817-1906), British writer who coined the term secularism. ... Islamist is sometimes also used for a scholar who studies Islam and Muslim societies. ... “Mustafa Kemal” redirects here. ...


Humanitarian relief

Turkish Armed Forces can perform "Disaster Relief Operations" as in the 1999 İzmit earthquake in the Marmara region of Turkey. Turkish Armed Forces can conduct peace-support operations anywhere in the world with a task force of four battalions. The 1999 Ä°zmit earthquake was a 7. ... Map of the Sea of Marmara Satellite view of the Sea of Marmara The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Modern Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating the...


Considering that the TAF may increasingly participate in peace support operations during the first quarter of the 21st century, it is particularly important for the TAF to further develop its current capabilities in this field. The 21st century is the present century of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...


Apart from contributing to NATO, the Turkish Navy is also available for the Black Sea Naval Co-operation Task Group (BLACKSEAFOR), which was created in early 2004 by Turkey, Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russia and Ukraine for search and rescue and other humanitarian operations in the Black Sea. Apart from contributing to NATO, the Turkish Navy is also available for the Black Sea Naval Co-operation Task Group (BLACKSEAFOR), which was created in early 2004 by Turkey, Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russia and Ukraine for search and rescue and other humanitarian operations in the Black Sea. ... shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ...


See also

This article details the military of the Ottoman Empire. ... // Overview In Turkey, compulsory military service applies to all male citizens from twenty to forty one years of age (with some exceptions). ... The Chief Turkish General Staff is a military person of rank general, who presides the general staff of the armed forces -army, navy, air force - of Turkey. ...

References and notes

  • This article contains information from the Turkish Armed Forces website, in the public domain.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Military of Turkey

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