FACTOID # 9: The bookmobile capital of America is Kentucky.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Turkic peoples
Political distribution of the countries and autonomous subdivisions where a Turkic language has official status.
Political distribution of the countries and autonomous subdivisions where a Turkic language has official status.

The Turkic peoples are a group of peoples residing in northern and central Eurasia who speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family.[citation needed] These peoples share, to varying degrees, certain cultural[citation needed] and historical [citation needed] traits. The term Turkic thus represents a broad, ethno-linguistic group of people and includes existing cultures such as the Kazakhs, Kyrgyz and Turkish people, as well as historical societies [citation needed] such as the Seljuq and Timurid. Although usually referring to the citizens of Turkey, the word Turks may also be used loosely to refer to all Turkic peoples. The adjective Turkish, on the other hand, usually specifically refers to the Turkish language, the citizens of Turkey, or Turkish-speaking people of Turkish ethnicity. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ... For a specific analysis of the population of Turkey, see People of Turkey and Demographics of Turkey. ... As of 2005, the population of Turkey stood at 72. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 352 pixelsFull resolution (1427 × 628 pixel, file size: 40 KB, MIME type: image/png) // Map showing countries and autonomous subdivisions where a language belonging to the Turkic language family has official status. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 352 pixelsFull resolution (1427 × 628 pixel, file size: 40 KB, MIME type: image/png) // Map showing countries and autonomous subdivisions where a language belonging to the Turkic language family has official status. ... The Turkic languages are a group of closely related languages that are spoken by a variety of people distributed across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... Anthropological linguistics is the study of language through human genetics and human development. ... Kazakh (Qazaq) people, or Kazakhs, is Turkic ethnic group that lives mainly in Kazakhstan, but also in Russia & China(East Turkistan). ... Kirghiz (also Kyrgyz and Kirgiz) are a Turkic-Mongoloid ethnic group found primarily in Kyrgyzstan. ... For a specific analysis of the population of Turkey, see People of Turkey and Demographics of Turkey. ... Turkish (, ) is a language spoken by 65–73 million people worldwide, predominantly in Turkey, with smaller communities of speakers in Cyprus, Greece and Eastern Europe, as well as by several million immigrants in Western Europe, particularly Germany, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. ... For a specific analysis of the population of Turkey, see People of Turkey and Demographics of Turkey. ...


The term Turkic as a common reference to various Turkic-speaking people began its spread after the appearance of the Turkic Kaganate in the sixth century, and did not gain a universal acceptance among some Turkic peoples until influenced by European nationalistic concepts of the nineteenth century. Prior to that, various Turkic-speaking people were known under different general ethnic names. The etymology of the base word Turk has a few competing generic explanations. The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia. ...


The family of Turkic languages is a subdivision of the Altaic language group and is one of the most geographically widespread in the world, being spoken in a vast region ranging from Europe to Siberia. The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Altaic is a proposed language family that includes 66 languages [1] spoken by about 348 million people, mostly in and around Central Asia and northeast Asia. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... “Siberian” redirects here. ...

Contents

Geographical distribution

The Turkic linguistic family has many branches, and the total population of Turkic speakers worldwide is around 140 million.[1] More than one third of these are ethnic Turks of Turkey, dwelling predominantly in Turkey proper and formerly Ottoman-dominated areas of Eastern Europe and West Asia;[citation needed] as well as in Western Europe, Australia and the Americas as a result of immigration. The remainder of the Turkic peoples are concentrated in Central Asia, Russia, the Caucasus, China, and northern and northwestern Iran. For a specific analysis of the population of Turkey, see People of Turkey and Demographics of Turkey. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ...


At present, there are six independent Turkic ((fact)) countries: Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Turkey, and Uzbekistan. There are also several Turkic [citation needed]national subdivisions in the Russian Federation including Bashkortostan, Tatarstan, Chuvashia, Khakassia, Tuva, Yakutia, the Altai Republic, the Altai Krai, Kabardino-Balkaria, and Karachayevo-Cherkessiya. Each of these subdivisions has its own flag, parliament, laws, and official state language (in addition to Russian). The Republic of Bashkortostan, or Bashkiria (Russian: or ; Bashkir: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Republic of Tatarstan (Russian: ; Tatar Cyrillic: Татарстан Республикасы, Latin: Tatarstan Respublikası) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... , Chuvash Republic (Russian: ; ), or Chuvashia () is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) located in central Russia. ... Khakassia or Khakasiya (Russian: or ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) located in south central Siberia. ... Tyva Republic IPA: (Russian: IPA: ; Tuvan: ), or Tuva (), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... The Sakha (Yakutia) Republic (Russian: ; Sakha: Саха Республиката) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... The Altai Republic (Russian: ; Altay: Алтай Республика) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Altai Krai (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai) in the Siberian Federal District. ... Capital Nalchik Area - total - % water Ranked 83rd - 12,500 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density Ranked 60th - est. ... Karachay-Cherkess Republic (Russian: ; Karachay-Balkar: Къарачай-Черкес Республика; Kabardian: Къэрэшей-Шэрджэс Республикэ), or Karachay-Cherkessia () is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ...


The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in western China and the autonomous region of Gagauzia, located within eastern Moldova and bordering Ukraine to the north, are two major autonomous Turkic regions. The Autonomous Republic of Crimea within Ukraine is a home of Crimean Tatars. In addition, there are several Turkic-inhabited regions in Iran, Iraq, Georgia, Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, and western Mongolia. For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Anthem Gagauziya Milli Marşı Location of Gagauzia (purple) Capital (and largest city) Comrat Official languages Gagauz, Moldovan (Romanian), Russian Government  -  Governor Mihail Formuzal  -  Chairman of the Peoples Assembly Stepan Esir Autonomous region of Moldova  -  Created April 23, 1994  Area  -  Total 1,832 km²  707 sq mi  Population  -  19961 estimate... Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... The Crimean Tatars (sg. ...


Migrations

According to early historians the Turkic people and the related groups migrated west towards Eastern Europe, Persia and Anatolia. [2] Turks or Turkish people are among those who migrated early from what is known today as Mongolia to modern Turkey but also among the late-arrival peoples; they also participated in the Crusades. [3] After many battles they established their own state and later created the Ottoman Empire; their tactics were all-out sieges and invasions. [4] Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ...


Turkic roots

Göktürk petroglyphs from Mongolia.
Göktürk petroglyphs from Mongolia.

The first historical text to mention the Turks was from the standpoint of the Chinese, who mentioned trade of Turk tribes with the Sogdians along the Silk Road [5]. The Xiongnu mentioned in Han Dynasty records may have been Proto-Turkic speakers.[6][7][8][9][10] Another viewpoint is that the Xiongnu language was Samoyedic rather than Turkic.[11][12] The first recorded use of "Turk" as a political name is a sixth-century reference to the word now pronounced in Modern Chinese as Tujue. It is believed that some Turkic tribes, such as Khazars and Pechenegs, probably lived as nomads for many years before establishing a political state (Göktürk empire). Turkic peoples originally used their own alphabets, like Orkhon and Yenisey runiform, and later the Uyghur alphabet. The oldest inscription was found near the Issyk river in Kazakhstan and has been dated to 500 BC. The traditional national and cultural symbols of the Turkic peoples include the star and crescent, used as a symbol of Turks since pre-Islamic times[13] when they practised Shamanism; wolves, a part of Turkic mythology and tradition; as well as the color blue, iron, and fire. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Petroglyphs on Newspaper Rock State Historic Monument, southern Utah, USA Petroglyphs are images created by removing part of a rock surfaces by incising, pecking, carving, and abrading. ... The Sogdians were an ancient people of Central Asia, who inhabited the region known to the West as Sogdiana. ... The Silk Road Silk Route redirects here. ... A Xiongnu belt buckle. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... The Proto-Turkic language is the proto-language of the family of Turkic languages that predates the separation of the Turkic peoples in the course of the Turkic expansion from ca. ... Geographical distribution of Samoyedic, Finnic, Ugric and Yukaghir languages The Samoyedic languages are spoken on both sides of the Ural mountains, in northernmost Eurasia, by perhaps 30,000 speakers altogether. ... The Göktürks or Kök-Türks, known in medieval Chinese sources as Tujue (突厥 tú jué), under the leadership of Bumin/Tuman Khan/Khaghan (d. ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... Pechenegs or Patzinaks (Armenian: Badzinag, Bulgarian/Russian: Pechenegi (Печенеги), Greek: Patzinaki/Petsenegi (Πατζινάκοι/Πετσενέγοι) or less commonly Πατζινακίται, Hungarian: BesenyÅ‘, Latin: Расinасае, Old Turkish (assumed): *Beçenek, Turkish: Peçenekler) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people of the Central Asian steppes speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Turkic language family. ... The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia and China. ... The Uyghur alphabet is any of the following: A descendant of the Sogdian alphabet, used for texts of Buddhist, Manichæan and Christian contents for 700–800 years in East Turkestan. ... A typical presentation of the star and crescent The star and crescent is a symbol consisting of a crescent with a star at the concave side. ... A shaman doctor of Kyzyl. ...


In the age of nationalism, Turkic speakers were among the first Muslim peoples to take up Western ideas of liberalism and secular ideologies. Pan-Turkism first sprang up at the end of the nineteenth century in the Russian Empire and was advanced by leading Turkic intellectuals like Crimean Tatar İsmail Gaspıralı, Azerbaijan philosophers like Mirza Fatali Akhundov and Tatar Yusuf Akçura, as a reaction to Panslavist and Russification policies of the Russian Empire. The first fully democratic and secular republics in the Islamic world were Turkic: the ill-fated Idel-Ural State established in 1917, the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in 1918 (both annexed and absorbed by the Soviet Union), and in 1923 Republic of Turkey. In 1991 Azerbaijan became an independent Azerbaijan Republic. There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... Turkic peoples listed geographically. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... The Crimean Tatars (sg. ... Ä°smail Gaspıralı (Gasprinskiy) (March 8, 1851-September 11, 1914) was a famous Crimean Tatar intellectual, educator, publisher and political figure. ... Mirza Fatali Akhundov (1812-1878) was the great Azerbaijanian prose writer, dramatist, philosopher, founder of the modern realist school and literary criticism. ... This article is about the people. ... Yusuf Akçura(1876-1935) was a prominent Ottoman activist of the pan-Turkist or Turanism camp. ... National flag of all Slavs approved on the Pan-Slav convention in Prague in 1848 The 19th century movement Pan-Slavism was a movement in the mid 19th century aimed at unity of all the Slavic peoples. ... Russification is an adoption of the Russian language or some other Russian attribute (whether voluntarily or not) by non-Russian communities. ... Idel-Ural literally means Volga-Ural in Tatar. ... Motto: None Anthem: AzÉ™rbaycan Respublikasının DövlÉ™t Himni March of Azerbaijan Map of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic from 1919 to 1920. ...


Nomenclature

Top of the Belukha, Altay Mountains are known as Turkic peoples birthplace
Top of the Belukha, Altay Mountains are known as Turkic peoples birthplace

In modern Turkey, a distinction is made between "Turks" and the "Turkic peoples": the term Türk corresponds specifically to the people of Turkey and culture, while the term Türki refers generally to modern Turkic peoples and cultures. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (869x567, 101 KB) Top of the Belucha - Altay Mountains photo taken by de:User:Stefan Kühn in summer 2001 first upload: May 17, 2003 - de:Wikipedia by the photographer File links The following pages link to this file: Altay Mountains... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (869x567, 101 KB) Top of the Belucha - Altay Mountains photo taken by de:User:Stefan Kühn in summer 2001 first upload: May 17, 2003 - de:Wikipedia by the photographer File links The following pages link to this file: Altay Mountains... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The People of Turkey covers the changes to Turkish people during the 20th century. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Some claim[attribution needed] that this distinction is an artificial one, and one not made by speakers of Turkic languages elsewhere. It is sometimes claimed further that much of the separation is the result of Stalinism, and that prior to the founding of the Soviet Union, the term "Turkish" had been used to describe all Turkic peoples as part of a greater family.[citation needed] Others[attribution needed] counter that this argument is without basis, and only used to support the racial theories of Pan-Turkism, pointing out that the differences among the separate governmental administrations, as well as cultural, religious, historical, and even racial differences, are too great to speak of any political unity. However, those ideas do not refute the claim that "Turkish" is a term for all Turkic peoples. For one thing, the claim that "Turkish" had been used to represent Turkic peoples at large is not necessarily used to support racist ideas. It is also not a political claim and does not necessarily belong to people who want political union of Turks. It is basically a historical claim that is mostly supported by Turkish nationalists.[citation needed] For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ... Turkic peoples listed geographically. ...


The first known mention of the term Turk applied to a Turkic group was in reference to the Göktürks in the sixth century. A letter by the Chinese Emperor written to a Göktürk Khan named Ishbara in 585 described him as "the Great Turk Khan." The Orhun inscriptions (AD 735) use the terms Turk and Turuk. The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia and China. ... The king or wang (王 wang2) was the Chinese head of state from the Zhou to Qin dynasties. ... Ishbara (alternative spellings: Ïshbara, Shapolo, Shaboüle, Efu-Khan, Shetu-Khan, 沙鉢略可汗) was the first son of Kara Khan, grandson of Tumen Il-Qaghan, and the fifth khagan of the Göktürk Empire. ... Orhon (or Orkhon) inscriptions are the oldest known Turkic writings, which were erected near the Orhon River between 732 and 735 in honour of two Kokturk princes named Kul and Bilge. ...


Previous use of similar terms are of unknown significance, although some strongly feel that they are evidence of the historical continuity of the term and the people as a linguistic unit since early times. This includes a Chinese record of 1328 BC referring to a neighbouring people as Tu-Kiu.


Traditions about nomenclature

Map from Kashgari's Diwan, showing the distribution of Turkic tribes.
Map from Kashgari's Diwan, showing the distribution of Turkic tribes.

In the ancient Zoroastrian texts of the Avesta, one of the grandsons of Yima (comparable to Noah as the sole survivor of a catastrophe that depopulated the Earth) is named "Tur" or "Tura"—the supposed ancestor of the so-called "Turanian" peoples, a term used in Ancient Iran for all the inhabitants of Central Asia. The term "Turanian" is sometimes said to be derived from Old-Iranian word tork or tark (today:târik), meaning 'dark'[citation needed] (in reference to how the West Iranians saw the lands to their north as a mysterious "land of darkness"); however, claims that there is any etymological connection to the word "Turk" are hotly disputed among various historians. This traditional Persian genealogy has been confused by some with the late sixteenth century Mughal (Indian) work Akbarnama by Abul-Fazel, where he recounts certain Islamic traditions making "Turk" the oldest son of Japheth and grandson of Noah; also, in the nineteenth century, it was common in Christian circles to equate the ancestor of the Turks with Togarmah, grandson of Japheth in Genesis 10.[citation needed] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 663 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (741 × 670 pixel, file size: 129 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Map from Mahmud al-Kashgaris Diwan (11th century). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 663 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (741 × 670 pixel, file size: 129 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Map from Mahmud al-Kashgaris Diwan (11th century). ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... Jamshid (in Persian: ‎) is a common Persian male first name. ... The Ural-Altaic language family is a grouping of languages which was once widely accepted by linguists, but has since been largely rejected. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ...

A traditional Kyrgyz Manaschi performing part of the Manas epic poem at a yurt camp in Karakol.
A traditional Kyrgyz Manaschi performing part of the Manas epic poem at a yurt camp in Karakol.

According to Mahmud of Kashgar, an eleventh century Turkic scholar, and various other traditional Islamic scholars and historians, the name "Turk" stems from Tur, one of the sons of Japheth, and comes from the same lineage as Gomer (Cimmerians) and Ashkenaz (Scythians, Ishkuz) who, according to tradition, were some of the earliest Turks (most modern scholars believe these tribes to have been Iranian). A similar name, Dur, appears in mediaeval Hungarian legend as a legendary chieftain of the Caucasian Alans (Arran, Iron) whose daughters supposedly bred with the Magyar ancestors Hunor and Magor. Image File history File linksMetadata Kyrgyz_Manaschi,_Karakol. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Kyrgyz_Manaschi,_Karakol. ... Languages Kyrgyz Religions Sunni Islam Related ethnic groups other Turkic peoples Kyrgyz (also spelled Kirghiz) are a Turkic ethnic group found primarily in Kyrgyzstan. ... Map from Kashgaris Diwan, showing the distribution of Turkic tribes. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... The hunt of the White Stag, from the Chronicon Pictum, 1360. ...


In the Divan ul-Lughat at-Turk (Turkic dictionary) of Mahmud of Kashgar, Alp Er Tunga, is identified with the character Afrasiab ("Frangasyan" in the Avesta) in Persian literature, a descendant of the character named Tur in the Persian epic Shahnameh. Alp Er Tunga is a mythical hero in Turkic tradition; the Göktürks of the sixth century carried on the tradition of Alp Er Tunga and they too had a myth according to which they themselves were descendants of a wolf. Alp Er Tunga (Turkish: Alp Er Tunga)(Brave Soldier Tunga pronounced Alp Ehr Toonga) is a Turkish mythical hero, believed to be Afrasiab as a nemesis to Rostam in the Persian Epic Shahnameh. ... Afrasiab, near Samarkand, Uzbekistan is both a historical city and its legendary founder. ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... Tur is a character in the Persian epic Shahnameh. ... Shâhnameh Shāhnāmé, or Shāhnāma (Persian: )(alternative spellings are Shahnama, Shahnameh, Shahname, Shah-Nama, etc. ...


History

It is generally believed that the first Turkic people were native to a region extending from the Caspian Sea in the west across Central Asia-Turkestan to Mongolia in the east, Siberia-Altai in the north, and Kashmir in the south[citation needed]. Some scholars contend that the Huns were one of the earlier Turkic tribes, while others support either a Mongolic or Finno-Ugric origin for the Huns.[14] The main migration of Turks, who were among the ancient inhabitants of Turkestan, occurred in medieval times, when they spread across most of Asia and into Europe and the Middle East.[15] The history of the Turkic peoples (Turkic speaking peoples). ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ... The Mongolic languages are a group of thirteen languages spoken in Central Asia. ... Geographical distribution of Finno-Ugric (Finno-Permic in blue, Ugric in green). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


The precise date of the initial expansion from the early homeland remains unknown. The first state known as "Turk", giving its name to many states and peoples afterwards, was that of the Göktürks (gog = "blue" or "celestial") in the sixth century AD. The head of the Asena clan led his people from Li-jien (modern Zhelai Zhai) to the Juan Juan seeking inclusion in their confederacy and protection from China. His tribe were famed metal smiths and were granted land near a mountain quarry which looked like a helmet, from which they were said to have gotten their name 突厥(tūjué). A century later their power had increased such that they conquered the Juan Juan and set about establishing their Gök Empire.[15] The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia and China. ... Juan Juan (wg), Ruanruan (py), Ru Ru (py) or Rouran 柔然 (py) was the name of a confederacy of nomadic tribes on the northern borders of China proper from late 4th century until late 6th century. ...

Karachay patriarchs in the nineteenth century

Later Turkic peoples include the Karluks (mainly eighth century), Uyghurs, Kyrgyz, Oghuz (or Ğuz) Turks, and Turkmens. As these peoples were founding states in the area between Mongolia and Transoxiana, they came into contact with Muslims, and most gradually adopted Islam. However, there were also (and still are) small groups of Turkic people belonging to other religions, including Christians, Jews (Khazars), Buddhists, and Zoroastrians. Image File history File linksMetadata Gfdfgd. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Gfdfgd. ... The Karachays (Къарачайлыла, Qaraçaylıla) are a Turkic people of the Ciscaucasus, mostly situated in the Russian Karachay-Cherkess Republic. ... The Qarluq (Karluk) were originally a nomadic turkic tribe based on the transoxania steppes (roughly east and south of the Aral Sea) in Central Asia. ... The Uyghur (also spelled Uygur, Uighur, Uigur; Uyghur: ئۇيغۇر; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) are a Turkic people of Central Asia. ... Languages Kyrgyz Religions Sunni Islam Related ethnic groups other Turkic peoples Kyrgyz (also spelled Kirghiz) are a Turkic ethnic group found primarily in Kyrgyzstan. ... The Oghuz Turks (also with various alternate spellings, including Oguz, OÄŸuz, Ouz, Okuz, Oufoi, Guozz, Ghuzz and Uz) are regarded as one of the major branches of Turkic peoples. ... Map showing modern Transoxiana. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ...


Turkic soldiers in the army of the Abbasid caliphs emerged as the de facto rulers of most of the Muslim Middle East (apart from Syria and Egypt), particularly after the tenth century. The Oghuz and other tribes captured and dominated various countries under the leadership of the Seljuk dynasty and eventually captured the territories of the Abbasid dynasty and the Byzantine Empire.[15] Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; in Arabic سلجوق Saljūq, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... “Byzantine” redirects here. ...


Meanwhile, the Kyrgyz and Uyghurs were struggling with one another and with the Chinese Empire. The Kyrgyz people ultimately settled in the region now referred to as Kyrgyzstan. The Tatar peoples conquered the Volga Bulgars in what is today Tatarstan, following the westward sweep of the Mongols under Genghis Khan in the thirteenth century. The Bulgars were thus mistakenly called Tatars by the Russians. Native Tatars live only in Asia; European "Tatars" are in fact Bulgars. Other Bulgars settled in Europe in the seventh-8th centuries, and were assimilated into the Slavic population after adopting what eventually became the Slavic Bulgarian language. Everywhere, Turkic groups mixed with the local populations to varying degrees.[15] Tatars or Tartars is a collective name applied to the Turkic-speaking people of Europe and Asia. ... The Volga Bulgars were a culture in southern modern Russia along the Volga River from approximately 900 to 1300 AD. They were related to the original Bulgars of Old Great Bulgaria which had existed in approximately the same region around 600 to 700. ... Republic of Tatarstan (Russian: ; Tatar Cyrillic: Татарстан Республикасы, Latin: Tatarstan Respublikası) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... For other uses, see Genghis Khan (disambiguation). ... Bulgarian or chuvashi language is spoken by around 80. ...


As the Seljuk Empire declined following the Mongol invasion, the Ottoman Empire emerged as the new important Turkic state, that came to dominate not only the Middle East, but even southeastern Europe, parts of southwestern Russia, and northern Africa.[15] The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of... “Ottoman” redirects here. ...


The Ottoman Empire gradually grew weaker in the face of maladministration, repeated wars with Russia and Austro-Hungary, and the emergence of nationalist movements in the Balkans, and it finally gave way after World War I to the present-day republic of Turkey.[15] Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Language

Main article: Turkic languages

The Turkic language family is often considered to belong to the Altaic language group. The various Turkic languages are usually considered in geographical groupings, since high mobility and intermixing of Turkic peoples in history makes an exact classification extremely difficult: Oghuz (or Southwestern) languages, Kypchak (or Northwestern) languages, Eastern languages (like Uygur) and Northern languages (like Altay and Yakut) and divergent languages like Chuvash. The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... The Oghuz languages, a major branch of the Turkic language family, are spoken by more than 110-130 million people (including second language speakers) in an area spanning from the Balkans to China. ... Kipchaks in EurAsia circa 1200 C.E. Kipchaks (also spelled as Kypchaks, Qipchaqs, Qypchaqs) (Ukrainian: (polovtsy), Crimean Tatar: , Karachay-Balkar: Къыпчакъ, Uzbek: , Kazakh: Қыпшақ, Kumyk: Къыпчакъ, Kyrgyz: Кыпчак, Nogai: Кыпчак, Chinese: 欽察/钦察, Qīnchá, Turkish: Kıpçak) were an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium... Uyghur (‎/Uyghurche//, or ‎/Uyghur tili//)[1] is a Turkic language spoken by the Uyghur people in Xinjiang (also called East Turkestan or Uyghurstan), formerly also “Sinkiang” and “Chinese Turkestan,” a Central Asian region administered by China. ... Altay is a language of the Turkic group of languages. ... The Yakut language, or Sakha, is a Turkic language with around 363,000 speakers that is spoken in the Sakha Republic in the Russian Federation. ... Chuvash (Chuvash: Чăвашла, Čăvašla, IPA: ; also known as Căvash, Chuwash, Chovash, Chavash or Çuaş) is a Turkic language spoken to the west of the Ural Mountains in central Russia. ...


Religion

Mosque in Kazakhstan. Most Turkic peoples today adhere to Islam.
Mosque in Kazakhstan. Most Turkic peoples today adhere to Islam.
A shaman doctor of Kyzyl.
A shaman doctor of Kyzyl.

Various pre-Islamic Turkic civilizations of the sixth century adhered to Shamanist and Tengriist traditions. The Shamanist religion is based on spiritual and natural elements of earth. Tengriism involves belief in Tengri as the god who ruled over the skies. These civilizations also followed the Zoroastrian religion, especially in Azerbaijan, as well as Buddhism and Judaism. Juma mosque in Baku, built in 1606, was ordered to close in 2004 because worshipers supposedly posed a threat to the architectural integrity of the mosque. ... A Zoroastrian in meditation in the Yanar Dag, which is a holy wall of fire located on a mountain in Azerbaijan. ... Gur-e Amir in Samarkand was built by the order of Timur, a ferocious Central Asian warlord, who, proclaiming his royal descent from Genghis Khan, in the 14th century conquered much of the Middle East, Turkey, Central Asia, and India. ... Traditionally, the Turkmen of Turkmenistan, like their kin in Uzbekistan and Afghanistan are Sunni Muslims (over 70%). Shia Muslims, the other main branch of Islam, are also numerous in Turkmenistan (20%), and the Shia religious practices of the Persian, Azerbaijani and Kurdish minorities are not politicized. ... The Sultan Ahmed Mosque, Istanbul, built in 1616 The Suleiman Mosque (Süleymaniye Camii) in Istanbul was built on the order of sultan Suleiman the Magnificent by the great Ottoman architect Sinan in 1557 The region comprising modern Turkey has a long and rich Islamic tradition stretching back to the... Islam in Cyprus was introduced when Ottoman Empire conquered the Island in 1571. ... By tradition the Kazaks are Sunni Muslims of the Hanafi school, and the Russians are Russian Orthodox. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3488 × 2616 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3488 × 2616 pixel, file size: 1. ... A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (420x800, 73 KB) Photographer: Philipp Roelli (2005) File links The following pages link to this file: Shamanism ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (420x800, 73 KB) Photographer: Philipp Roelli (2005) File links The following pages link to this file: Shamanism ... Music-Drama Theatre in Kyzyl Kyzyl (Tuvan and Russian: Кызы́л) is a city in Russia, capital of Tyva Republic. ... Shamanism is a range of traditional beliefs and practices that involve the ability to diagnose, cure, and sometimes cause human suffering by traversing the axis mundi and forming a special relationship with, or gaining control over, spirits. ... It has been suggested that Tengri be merged into this article or section. ... Tengri is the god of the old Turkic, Mongolian and Altaic religion named Tengriism. ...


Today, most Turks are Sunni Muslims. These include the majority of Balkan Turks, Balkars, Bashkorts, Crimean Tatars, Karachay, Kazaks, Kumuk, Kyrgyz, Nogay, Tatars (Kazan Tatars), Turkmens, Turks of Turkey, Uygurs, Yellow (Sari) Uygurs, and Uzbeks. The Azerbaijanis of the Republic of Azerbaijan and Iranian Azerbaijan are the only major Turkic-speaking people that traditionally adhere to the Shia sect of Islam. The Qashqay nomads and Khorasani Turks as well as various Turkic tribes spread across Iran are also Shia Muslims. The Alevis of Turkey are the largest religious minority in the country. Even though it is claimed that they believe in a doctrine of Islam that is closely related to that of the Shia school of thought, Shias regard Alevis as heretics. Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Azerbaijan or Azarbaijan, also Iranian Azarbaijan, Iranian Azerbaijan, or Persian Azarbaijan (Persian: آذربایجان ایران; Ä€zārbāijān-e Irān; Azerbaijani language: آذربایجان), is a region in northwestern Iran and south of Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Qashqai (also spelled Ghashghai, Qashqay, Kashgai and Qashqai) are a tribal confederation of clans of Turkic origin in Iran. ... Alevis or Alevi-Bektashis (Kurdish: Alevi, Turkish: Aleviler or Alevilik) are a religious community in Turkey, and they make up some 20% of the population of the country. ...


The major Christian-Turkic peoples are the Chuvash of Chuvashia and the Gagauz (Gökoğuz) of Moldova. Many Karaim Turks of Eastern Europe are Jewish, and there are Turks of Jewish backgrounds who live in major cities such as Istanbul, Ankara and Baku. In the Siberian region, the Altay, some Tuvan and Hakas are Tengriist, having kept the original religion of Turkic peoples. The Yakuts of Yakutia in northeastern Siberia are traditionally Shamanists, yet many have converted to Christianity. The Sari Uygurs (Yellow Uygurs) of western China, as well as the Tuvans of Russia are the only remaining Buddhist Turkic peoples. In addition, there are small scattered populations of Turks belonging to other religions such as the Bahá'í Faith and Zoroastrianism. The Chuvash are a bunch of pakis . ... , Chuvash Republic (Russian: ; ), or Chuvashia () is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) located in central Russia. ... The Gagauz are a Turkic people minority of southern Moldova (in Gagauzia) and of southwestern Ukraine (in Budjak) that numbers around 250,000. ... Karaim, from the Hebrew word קראים, meaning readers, refers in the literal sense generally to practitioners of the Karaite sect of Judaism. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Tuva or Tyva (Russian: Республика Тыва [Тува], Respublika Tyva [Tuva]) (pop. ... The Khakas, or Khakass, are a Turkic people, who live in Russia, in the republic of Khakassia in the southern Siberia. ... The Yugur people are an ethnic group. ... This article is about the generally-recognized global Baháí community. ...


Even though many Turkic peoples became Muslims under the influence of Sufis, often of Shi'a persuasion, most Turkic people today are Sunni Muslims—although a significant number in Turkey are Alevis. Alevi Turks, who were once primarily dwelling in eastern Anatolia, are today concentrated in major urban centers in western Turkey with the increased urbanism. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Alevis or Alevi-Bektashis (Kurdish: Alevi, Turkish: Aleviler or Alevilik) are a religious community in Turkey, and they make up some 20% of the population of the country. ...

A diagram of the Tengriist World view on a Shaman's Drum. The World-tree is growing in the centre and connecting the three Worlds Underworld, Middleworld and Upperworld
A diagram of the Tengriist World view on a Shaman's Drum. The World-tree is growing in the centre and connecting the three Worlds Underworld, Middleworld and Upperworld

The traditional religion of the Chuvash of Russia, while contanining many ancient Turkic concepts, also shares some elements with Zoroastrism, Khazar Judaism, and Islam. The Chuvash religious calendar cycle and the agrarian cult that it was based on combined ancestor worship and worship of earth, water and vegetation. The Chuvash converted to Eastern Orthodox Christianity for the most part in the second half of the nineteenth century. As a result, festivals and rites were made to coincide with Orthodox feasts, and Christian rites replaced their traditional counterparts. A minority of the Chuvash still profess their traditional faith [1]. Image File history File links Shamans_Drum. ... Image File history File links Shamans_Drum. ... For other uses, see Underworld (disambiguation). ... The Chuvash are a bunch of pakis . ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... The Khazars were a Turkic semi-nomadic people from Central Asia who adopted Judaism. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ...


The Gagauz people of Moldova are largely Christians. The Gagauz are a Turkic people minority of southern Moldova (in Gagauzia) and of southwestern Ukraine (in Budjak) that numbers around 250,000. ...


There are Turkic-speaking groups of Jews, such as the Crimean Karaites. The Crimean Karaites (Crimean Karaim: sg. ...


Some Turkic peoples (particularly in the Russian autonomous regions and republics of Altay, Khakassia, and Tuva) are largely Tengriists. Tengriism was the predominant religion of the different Turkic branches prior to the eighth century, when the majority accepted Islam. The Altai Republic (Russian: Респу́блика Алта́й; Altay: Алтай Республика) is a Russian Federation (a republic). ... Khakassia or Khakasiya (Russian: or ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) located in south central Siberia. ... Tyva Republic IPA: (Russian: IPA: ; Tuvan: ), or Tuva (), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ...


There are also a few Buddhist (e.g. Tuvans), Jewish, Zoroastrian, and Bahá'í Turkic peoples today. Tuvans or Tuvinians (Tuvan: Тывалар, Tyvalar) are a group of Turkic people who make up about two thirds of the population of Tuva, Russia. ...


Remark: The name Tengri has been changed to Tanrı in modern Turkish (as spoken in Turkey), the same as in Azeri, literally meaning "God" in English. However, traditionally, God is referred to as Allah in most daily usage. The word tengri / tanrı is still in use by citizens of Azerbaijan and Turkey, where Islam is the dominant religion. Tengri is the god of the old Turkic, Mongolian and Altaic religion named Tengriism. ... Tengri is the god of the old Turkic and Altaic religion named Tengriism. ... The Azeri, also referred to as Azerbaijanian Turks, are a Turkic-Muslim people. ...


Geographical distribution and ethnic division

The distribution of peoples of Turkic cultural background ranges from Siberia, where the Yakuts reside, across Central Asia, to Eastern Europe. Presently, the largest groups of Turkic people live throughout Central Asia—Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Azerbaijan, in addition to Turkey. Additionally, Turkic peoples are found within Crimea, the Xinjiang region of western China, northern Iraq, Iran, Israel, Russia, Afghanistan, Cyprus, and the Balkans: Moldova, Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, and former Yugoslavia. A small number of Turkic people also live in Vilnius, the capital of Lithuania. There are also considerable populations of Turkic people (originating mostly from Turkey) in Germany, United States, and Australia, largely because of migrations during the twentieth century. “Siberian” redirects here. ... Yakuts, self-designation: Sakha, are a Turkic people associated with the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. ... Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Vilnius County Municipality Geographic coordinate system Number of elderates 20 General Information Capital of Lithuania Vilnius County Vilnius city municipality Vilnius district municipality Population About 600,000 in 2006 (1st) First mentioned 1323 Granted city rights 1387 Not to be confused with Vilnius city...

Turkmen Girl
Sattar Khan (1868-1914) was a major revolutionary figure in the late Qajar period in Iran.
Sattar Khan (1868-1914) was a major revolutionary figure in the late Qajar period in Iran.
Kazan Tatars, 1885 photo
Kazan Tatars, 1885 photo

An exact line between the different Turkic peoples cannot easily be drawn. The following is a non-comprehensive list of the major groups: Image File history File links Younggirl. ... Image File history File links Younggirl. ... Image File history File links Sattar_Khan. ... Image File history File links Sattar_Khan. ... A picture of Sattar Khan. ... The Qajar dynasty ( ) (Persian: ‎ - or دودمان قاجار - Qâjâr) was the ruling family of Persia from 1781 to 1925. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 554 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1417 pixel, file size: 366 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 554 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1417 pixel, file size: 366 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...

Some divide the above into six branches: the Oghuz Turks, Kipchak, Karluk, Siberian, Chuvash, and Sakha/Yakut branches. The Oghuz have been termed Western Turks, while the remaining five, in such a classificatory scheme, are called Eastern Turks. The Altay or Altai are a Turkic people living in the Siberian Altai Republic and Altai Krai and surrounding areas of Tuva and Mongolia. ... The Balkars (Karachay-Balkar: sg. ... The Karachay-Balkar language (Къарачай-Малкъар /Qarachay-Malqar/) is a Turkic language of the Karachays and Balkars. ... The Bashkirs, a Turkic people, live in Russia, mostly in the republic of Bashkortostan. ... The Chulyms (Чулымцы in Russian; self-designation: Чулымские люди, or Chulymian people) are a Turkic people in the Tomsk Oblast and Krasnoyarsk Krai in Russia. ... The Chuvash (Chuvash ; Russian: Чуваши; Tatar: ÇuaÅŸlar, Чуашлар) are a Turkic people usually associated with Chuvashia. ... The Crimean Tatars (sg. ... The Dolgans (Russian: ; self-designation: долган, тыа-кихи, саха) are a Turkic people, who inhabit Taymyr Autonomous Okrug in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. ... The Gagauz are a Turkic people minority of southern Moldova (in Gagauzia) and of southwestern Ukraine (in Budjak) that numbers around 250,000. ... The Iraqi Turkmen (also spelled Turkomen, Turcoman, and Turkman) are a distinct Turkic ethnic group living in northern Iraq, notably in the cities of Arbil, Tal Afar, Kirkuk, and Mosul. ... The Karachays (Къарачайлыла, Qaraçaylıla) are a Turkic people of the Ciscaucasus, mostly situated in the Russian Karachay-Cherkess Republic. ... The Balkars (Karachay-Balkar: sg. ... The Karachay-Balkar language (Къарачай-Малкъар /Qarachay-Malqar/) is a Turkic language of the Karachays and Balkars. ... The Crimean Karaites (Crimean Karaim: sg. ... The Karakalpaks are ethnic group of Turkic people who mainly live in the lower reaches of the Amu Darya and in the (former) delta of Amu Darya on the southern shore of the Aral Sea. ... The Karapapak are a small ethnic group of Turkic people who mainly live in north west province of West Azerbaijan (Azarbaijan-e-Gharbi) in and around the Sulduz area and North West of Turkey near the border with Georgia. ... Languages Kazakh (and/or languages in country of residence) Religions Sunni Islam The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар []; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of Uzbekistan, China, Russia, and... The Khakas, or Khakass, are a Turkic people, who live in Russia, in the republic of Khakassia in the southern Siberia. ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... The Krymchaks are a community of Rabbinical Jews of the Crimean peninsula. ... Flag of the Kumyks Kumyks are a Turkic people occupying the Kumyk plateau in north Dagestan and south Terek, and the lands bordering the Caspian Sea. ... Languages Kyrgyz Religions Sunni Islam Related ethnic groups other Turkic peoples Kyrgyz (also spelled Kirghiz) are a Turkic ethnic group found primarily in Kyrgyzstan. ... 1. ... The name Mongols (Mongolian: Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups. ... The Nogais, also spelled Nogay, Noghai, and often called the Caucasian Mongols (Caucasian refers to their geographic position, in the Caucasus mountains, not to their ethnicity), are a Turkic people, and an important ethnic group in the Daghestan region who speak the Turkic Nogai language. ... For the language, see Qashqai language. ... The Salar people (Chinese: 撒拉族, Pinyin: Sālāzú) are one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article is about the people. ... Tatars (Tatar: Tatarlar/Татарлар) is a collective name applied to the Turkic people of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. ... This article is about the capital city of Tatarstan. ... NaÄŸaybäk (; plural NaÄŸaybäklär; Russian: Нагайбаки) are an indigenous people of Russia. ... The Finnish Tatar community, about 800 people, is recognized as a national minority by the government of Finland, which considers their language as a non-territorial language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. ... The Native Western Siberian Tatars (200,000) are an ethnic group or a sub-group of the Tatars. ... The Lipka Tatars were a noble military caste of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth who followed the Sunni branch of the Islamic religion and whose origins can be traced back to the Mongol Empire of Ghengis Khan, through the Khanate of the White Horde of Siberia. ... Tofalars (Тофалары, тофа (tofa) in Russian; formerly known as карагасы, or karagas) are a Turkic-speaking people in the Irkutsk Oblast in Russia. ... For a specific analysis of the population of Turkey, see People of Turkey and Demographics of Turkey. ... The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of... Turkish Cypriots are those inhabitants of Cyprus who are ethnically Turkish[1], as opposed to those who are of Greek (the Greek Cypriots) or other ethnicities. ... Tuvans or Tuvinians (Tuvan: Тывалар, Tyvalar) are a group of Turkic people who make up about two thirds of the population of Tuva, Russia. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... The Uyghur (also spelled Uygur, Uighur, Uigur; Uyghur: ئۇيغۇر; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) are a Turkic people of Central Asia. ... Yakuts, self-designation: Sakha, are a Turkic people associated with the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. ... Main areas inhabited by Yoruk tribes in Anatolia The Yörük are a Turkic-speaking people primarily inhabiting the mountains of the southeast European Balkan peninsula and Anatolia. ... The Oghuz Turks (also with various alternate spellings, including Oguz, OÄŸuz, Ouz, Okuz, Oufoi, Guozz, Ghuzz and Uz) are regarded as one of the major branches of Turkic peoples. ... Kipchaks in EurAsia circa 1200 C.E. Kipchaks (also spelled as Kypchaks, Qipchaqs, Qypchaqs) (Ukrainian: (polovtsy), Crimean Tatar: , Karachay-Balkar: Къыпчакъ, Uzbek: , Kazakh: Қыпшақ, Kumyk: Къыпчакъ, Kyrgyz: Кыпчак, Nogai: Кыпчак, Chinese: 欽察/钦察, QÄ«nchá, Turkish: Kıpçak) were an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium... The Qarluq (Karluk) were originally a nomadic turkic tribe based on the transoxania steppes (roughly east and south of the Aral Sea) in Central Asia. ... “Siberian” redirects here. ... The Chuvash (Chuvash ; Russian: Чуваши; Tatar: ÇuaÅŸlar, Чуашлар) are a Turkic people usually associated with Chuvashia. ... Sakha, or Yakut, is a Turkic language with around 363,000 speakers spoken in the Sakha Republic in the Russian Federation. ...


One of the major difficulties perceived by many who try to classify the various Turkic languages and dialects is the impact Soviet and particularly Stalinist nationality policies—the creation of new national demarcations, suppression of languages and writing scripts, and mass deportations—had on the ethnic mix in previously multicultural regions like Khwarezm, the Fergana Valley, and Caucasia. Many of the above-mentioned classifications are therefore by no means universally accepted, either in detail or in general. Another aspect often debated is the influence of Pan-Turkism, and the emerging nationalism in the newly independent Central Asian republics, on the perception of ethnic divisions. “CCCP” redirects here. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      Khwarezm was a series of states centered on the Amu Darya river delta of the former Aral Sea, in modern Uzbekistan, extending across the Ust-Urt plateau and possibly as far west as... The Fergana Valley or Farghana Valley (Uzbek: , Kyrgyz: Фергана өрөөнү, Tajik: водии Фaрғонa, Russian: , Persian: ) is a region in the Tian Shan mountain ranges of Central Asia spreading across eastern Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. ... The Caucasus is a region in eastern Europe and western Asia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... Turkic peoples listed geographically. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ...


Physical appearance

Qashqai women spinning
Qashqai women spinning
Uyghur girl
Uyghur girl

Some historians consider "Turkic" as a linguistic categorization rather than a strictly ethnic characterization. This is not surprising, since Turkic peoples often differ greatly from one another in physical appearance, reflecting the abundant migrations, conquests, and settlements across Eurasia. Therefore, the already considerable problems involved in any racial classification are made much more difficult in the case of the Turks. Download high resolution version (2479x1638, 787 KB)Permission to use photo given by M. Kiani. ... Download high resolution version (2479x1638, 787 KB)Permission to use photo given by M. Kiani. ... For the language, see Qashqai language. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 145 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 09/10/2005 es: Khotan (Hotan / Hetian) es una ciudad-oasis en la Región Autónoma Uigur de Xinjiang en la República Popular China. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 145 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 09/10/2005 es: Khotan (Hotan / Hetian) es una ciudad-oasis en la Región Autónoma Uigur de Xinjiang en la República Popular China. ...


The Turkic peoples possess physical features ranging from Caucasoid race to Northern Mongoloid race. Typical Caucasoid skull Caucasoid is a racial classification usually used as part of a phenotypal system, also including other classifications such as Australoid, Mongoloid, Negroid, and sometimes others such as Capoid. ... Typical Mongoloid Skull A portrait of the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan; the Mongolians, for which the term Mongoloid was named after, are an example of the prototype Northern Mongoloid. ...


In western Turkic lands, such as Turkey and Azerbaijan, a great many people look "European" and "Mediterranean". In Turkey, people with light-coloured eyes such as blue, green, hazel, or gray and blond or brown hair are common. Caucasoid and Mongoloid facial structure is common among some Central Asian Turkic groups, such as Kazakhs,Uzbeks, and Turkmen. Languages Kazakh (and/or languages in country of residence) Religions Sunni Islam The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар []; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of Uzbekistan, China, Russia, and...


There has been much debate about the racial nature of the original Turkic-speaking ancestors, with some in the past presuming a "Ural-Altaic race" with Caucasoid features at one end of the spectrum and Mongoloid features at the other. It is, however, widely accepted that Turkic linguistic roots are Altaic, i.e. originating in present-day Russia, West China, Mongolia, and Kazakhstan, and it may be that they have more relation to Uralic peoples than previously thought. In recent times, linguists have tended to separate the old Ural-Altaic language group in two. Turkic languages now sit alongside Altaic and Tungusic, and Finnish and Hungarian sitting alongside Uralic. For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... Altaic is a putative language family which would include 60 languages spoken by about 250 million people, mostly in and around central Asia. ... The Ural-Altaic language family is a grouping of languages which was once widely accepted by linguists, but has since become contoversial. ... Altaic is a putative language family which would include 60 languages spoken by about 250 million people, mostly in and around central Asia. ... Tungusic languages (or Manchu-Tungus languages) are spoken in Eastern Siberia and Manchuria. ... Geographical distribution of Samoyedic, Finnic, Ugric and Yukaghir languages  Yukaghir  Samoyedic  Ugric  Finnic The Uralic languages (pronounced: ) form a language family of about 30 languages spoken by approximately 20 million people. ...


Pan-Turkism

Main article: Pan-Turkism

Some refer to the Turkic countries, regions and peoples as part of the Turkish world. Others are worried that this is a result and example of Pan-Turkism, claimed to encourage hegemonial or even imperialistic aims of modern-day Turkey. However, this may not be the case, as many claim that Pan-Turkism is supported widely outside Turkey. Turkey's official stance as a nation state is not to support Pan-Turkism – though it does not reject it either. Turkic peoples listed geographically. ... from http://www. ...


Gallery

References

  1. ^ http://www.sonsoftheconquerors.com/16501.html?*session*id*key*=*session*id*val* accessed September 16, 2007
  2. ^ Josh Burk, "The Middle East and Its Origins" p.45"
  3. ^ Moses Parkson, "Ottoman Empire and its past life" p.98
  4. ^ Johnson, Mark "Turkic roots its origins" p.43
  5. ^ Sogdian Trade, Encyclopedia Iranica, Columbia University (retrieved 15 June 2007) <http://www.iranica.com/newsite>
  6. ^ http://www.silk-road.com/artl/xiongnu1.shtml Silk Road
  7. ^ http://www.yeniturkiye.com/display.asp?c=6010
  8. ^ http://www.historyfiles.co.uk/FeaturesFarEast/TurkicIntro.htm
  9. ^ http://www.geocities.com/cevatturkeli/ctbb-his1.htm
  10. ^ http://www.byegm.gov.tr/YAYINLARIMIZ/kitaplar/Turkey2005/content/english/110-111.htm
  11. ^ G. Pulleyblank, The Consonantal System of Old Chinese: Part II, Asia Major n.s. 9 (1963) 206—65
  12. ^ http://www.chinaknowledge.de/History/Altera/xiongnu.html
  13. ^ http://islam.about.com/od/history/a/crescent_moon.htm accessed September 15, 2007
  14. ^ The Origins of the Huns
  15. ^ a b c d e f Carter V. Findley, The Turks in World History, (Oxford University Press, October 2004) ISBN 0-19-517726-6
  • Golden, Peter B. "Some Thoughts on the Origins of the Turks and the Shaping of the Turkic Peoples". (2006) In: Contact and Exchange in the Ancient World. Ed. Victor H. Mair. University of Hawai'i Press. Pp. 136-157. ISBN-13: ISBN 978-0-8248-2884-4; ISBN-10: ISBN 0-8248-2884-4

is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...

Further reading

  • Chavannes, Édouard (1900): Documents sur les Tou-kiue (Turcs) occidentaux. Paris, Librairie d’Amérique et d’Orient. Reprint: Taipei. Cheng Wen Publishing Co. 1969.
  • Findley, Carter Vaughn. 2005. The Turks in World History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-516770-8; 0-19-517726-6 (pbk.)
  • Charles Warren Hostler, The Turks of Central Asia, (Greenwood Press, November 1993), ISBN 0-275-93931-6
  • H.B. Paksoy ALPAMYSH: Central Asian Identity under Russian Rule (Hartford: AACAR, 1989)
  • http://vlib.iue.it/carrie/texts/carrie_books/paksoy-1/
  • Peter B. Golden, An introduction to the history of the Turkic peoples: Ethnogenesis and state-formation in medieval and early modern Eurasia and the Middle East, (Otto Harrassowitz (Wiesbaden) 1992) ISBN 3-447-03274-X
  • Colin Heywood, The Turks (The Peoples of Europe), (Blackwell 2005), ISBN 978-0631158974

See also

Turanism, or Pan-Turanism, is a political movement for the union of all Turkic peoples, and as such is equivalent to Pan-Turkism. ... Turkic peoples listed geographically. ... Chigil (Chihil, and also Jigil, Djikil, Chiyal) is a Türkic tribe known from the 7th century CE as living around Issyk Kul lake area, they were known for their religious dedication. ... The Shatuo 沙陀 were a Turkic tribe that heavily influenced northern Chinese politics from the late ninth century through the tenth century. ... The Turkic Europeans are 3 main ethnic groups that are disputably descended from eastern Turkic tribes that came into Europe during the dark ages, the 3 are: Hungary Bulgaria Tatarstan All three have historical relations that point to a common source (Turkic Ancestry). ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... Historical kingdoms and empires Huns Great Huns (13th century BCE-1st century) Western Huns (379-496) White Huns (Hephthalites) (5th-7th century) Gokturk State (552-744) Avars (6th-9th century) Great Bolgar (6th-7th century) Pechenegs (860-1091) Khazars (7th-10th century) Uighur State (744-840) Kara-Khanid Khanate (840... Turko-Iranian can refer to: The Turkic speaking minorities of Iran, can also be called as Iranian Turks, e. ... The Turkic people are any of various peoples whose members speak languages in the Turkic family of languages. ...

External links

New DNA Results


  Results from FactBites:
 
Turkic peoples information - Search.com (3707 words)
In the earliest Turkic dictionary extant, the eponymous hero of the Turks, Alp Er Tunga, is identified with the character Afrasiyab ("Frangasyan" in the Avesta) in Persian literature.
Turkic soldiers in the army of the Abbasid caliphs emerged as the de facto rulers of most of the Muslim Middle East (apart from Syria and Egypt), particularly after the 10th century.
Additionally, Turkic peoples are found within Crimea, the Xinjiang region of western China, northern Iraq, Iran, Israel, Russia, Afghanistan, Cyprus, and the Balkans: Moldova, Greece, Bulgaria, Romania and former Yugoslavia.
Turkic peoples - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4087 words)
Turkic peoples are Northern and Central Eurasian peoples who speak languages belonging to the Turkic family, and who, in varying degrees, share certain cultural and historical traits.
The Turkic languages are a subdivision of the Altaic language group, and are one of the most geographically widespread in the world, being spoken in a vast region spanning from Europe to Siberia.
In the earliest Turkic dictionary extant, the eponymous hero of the Turks, Alp Er Tunga, is identified with the character Afrasiyab ("Frangasyan" in the Avesta) in Persian literature.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m