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Encyclopedia > Turkic languages
Turkic
Geographic
distribution:
Originally from Western China to Siberia and Eastern Europe
Genetic
classification
:
Altaic[1] (controversial)
 Turkic
Subdivisions:
Southwestern (Oghuz Turkic)
Northwestern (Kypchak Turkic)
Southeastern (Uyghur Turkic)
Northeastern (Siberian Turkic)
Oghur Turkic
Arghu Turkic

Countries and autonomous subdivisions where a Turkic language has official status

The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family.[1][2] Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and Republic of China (Taiwan) For other meanings, see China (disambiguation). ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... Altaic is a proposed language family that includes 66 languages [1] spoken by about 348 million people, mostly in and around Central Asia and northeast Asia. ... Altaic is a putative language family which would include 60 languages spoken by about 250 million people, mostly in and around central Asia. ... The Oghuz languages, a major branch of the Turkic language family, are spoken by more than 110-130 million people (including second language speakers) in an area spanning from the Balkans to China. ... The Kypchak languages (also known as the Kipchak, Qypchaq, or Northeastern Turkic languages), are a major branch of the Turkic language family spoken by more than 12 million people in an area spanning from Lithuania to China. ... The Oghur languages (also known as Oghur, Oghuric, or Oghur-Turkic), are a separate branch of the Turkic language family. ... Khalaj is a language spoken primarily in Iran and Afghanistan. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 352 pixelsFull resolution (1427 × 628 pixel, file size: 40 KB, MIME type: image/png) // Map showing countries and autonomous subdivisions where a language belonging to the Turkic language family has official status. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... Mediterranean redirects here. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Altaic is a proposed language family that includes 66 languages [1] spoken by about 348 million people, mostly in and around Central Asia and northeast Asia. ...


Turkic languages are spoken by some 180 million people as a native language;[3] and the total number of Turkic speakers is about 200 million, including speakers as a second language. The Turkic language with the greatest number of speakers is Turkish proper, or Anatolian Turkish, the speakers of which account for about 40% of all Turkic speakers.[2] A second language (L2) is any language learned after the first language or mother tongue (L1). ... Turkish ( IPA ) is a language spoken by 65–73 million people worldwide, making it the most commonly spoken of the Turkic languages. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ...

Contents

Characteristics

See also: Altaic languages

The characteristic features of the Turkic languages are vowel harmony, extensive agglutination by means of suffixes, and lack of noun classes or grammatical gender. Subject Object Verb word order is universal within the family. All of these distinguishing characteristics are shared with the Mongolic and Tungusic language families, as well as with the Korean language, which are by some linguists considered to be genetically linked with the Turkic languages in the proposed Altaic language family, a language family rejected by some linguists though plainly accepted in the Voegelin & Voegelin classification (1977:18-19).[4] Altaic is a proposed language family that includes 66 languages [1] spoken by about 348 million people, mostly in and around Central Asia and northeast Asia. ... Vowel harmony (also metaphony) is a type of long-distance assimilatory phonological process involving vowels. ... It has been suggested that Agglutination be merged into this article or section. ... Look up Suffix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In linguistics, the term noun class refers to a system of categorizing nouns. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... In linguistic typology, Subject Object Verb (SOV) is the type of languages in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence appear (usually) in that order. ... The Mongolic languages are a group of thirteen languages spoken in Central Asia. ... Tungusic languages (or Manchu-Tungus languages) are spoken in Eastern Siberia and Manchuria. ... This article is mainly about the spoken Korean language. ... Altaic is a proposed language family that includes 66 languages [1] spoken by about 348 million people, mostly in and around Central Asia and northeast Asia. ...


History

The geographical distribution of Turkic-speaking peoples across Eurasia spreads from Turkey in the West to the North-East of Siberia (see picture in the box on the right above).[5] For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ...

Distribution of the Altaic languages across Eurasia. The inclusion of Japanese and Korean, and to a lesser degree the existence of a single Altaic language family, is controversial.
Distribution of the Altaic languages across Eurasia. The inclusion of Japanese and Korean, and to a lesser degree the existence of a single Altaic language family, is controversial.
See also: Proto-Turkic language, Turkic peoples, and Turkic migration

Altaic is a proposed language family that includes 66 languages [1] spoken by about 348 million people, mostly in and around Central Asia and northeast Asia. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... Altaic is a proposed language family that includes 66 languages [1] spoken by about 348 million people, mostly in and around Central Asia and northeast Asia. ... The Proto-Turkic language is the proto-language of the family of Turkic languages that predates the separation of the Turkic peoples in the course of the Turkic expansion from ca. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... The present distribution of Turkic languages bears witness to the Early Medieval westward expansion of Turkic tribes. ...

Early written records

The first established records of the Turkic languages are the 8th century Orkhon inscriptions by the Göktürks, recording the Old Turkic language, which were discovered in 1889 in the Orkhon Valley in Mongolia. The Compendium of the Turkic Dialects ( Divânü Lügati't-Türk), written during the 11th century by Kaşgarlı Mahmud of the Kara-Khanid Khanate, constitutes an early linguistic treatment of the family. The Compendium is the first comprehensive dictionary of the Turkic languages and also includes the first known map of the Turkic speakers' geographical distribution. It mainly pertains to the Southwestern branch of the family.[6] (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... Orhon (or Orkhon) inscriptions are the oldest known Turkic writings, which were erected near the Orhon River between 732 and 735 in honour of two Kokturk princes named Kul and Bilge. ... The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia and China. ... The Turkic language spoken by the Göktürks and used on the Orkhon inscriptions. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the cultural landscape. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Map from Kashgaris Diwan, showing the distribution of Turkic tribes. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Oghuz languages, a major branch of the Turkic language family, are spoken by more than 110-130 million people (including second language speakers) in an area spanning from the Balkans to China. ...


The Codex Cumanicus (12th - 13th centuries) concerning the Northwestern branch is another early linguistic manual, between Kipchak language and Latin, used by the Catholic missionaries sent to the Western Cumans inhabiting a region corresponding to present-day Hungary and Romania. The earliest records of the language spoken by Volga Bulgars, the parent to today's Chuvash language, are dated to 13th - 14th centuries. The Codex Cumanicus was a linguistic manual of the Middle Ages, presumably designed to help Catholic missionaries to the Kipchaks. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... The Kypchak languages (also known as the Kipchak, Qypchaq, or Northeastern Turkic languages), are a major branch of the Turkic language family spoken by more than 12 million people in an area spanning from Lithuania to China. ... The Kipchak language was an extinct Turkic language of Kipchak-Bolghar group. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ... Cuman, also called Polovtsy, Polovtsian, or the Anglicized Polovzian (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Turkish: , Bulgarian: , Romanian: , Hungarian: ), is a Western European exonym for the western Kipchaks. ... The Little Minaret in Bolghar For other uses, see Bulgaria (disambiguation). ... Chuvash (Chuvash: Чӑвашла, Čăvašla, IPA: ; also known as Chăvash, Chuwash, Chovash, Chavash, Çuvaş or Çuaş) is a Turkic language spoken to the west of the Ural Mountains in central Russia. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ...


Geographical expansion and development

With the Turkic expansion during Early Middle Ages (c. 6th - 11th centuries), Turkic languages, in the course of just a few centuries, spread across Central Asia, stretching from Siberia (the Sakha Republic) to the Mediterranean (Seljuk Turks). Various elements from the Turkic languages have passed into Hungarian, Persian, Urdu, Russian, Chinese and to a lesser extent, Arabic.[7] The present distribution of Turkic languages bears witness to the Early Medieval westward expansion of Turkic tribes. ... Justinians wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. ... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... The Sakha (Yakutia) Republic (Russian: ; Sakha: Саха Республиката) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... Farsi redirects here. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Arabic redirects here. ...


Classification

For centuries, the Turkic speaking peoples have migrated extensively and intermingled continuously, and their languages have been influenced mutually and through contact with the surrounding languages, especially the Iranian, Slavic, and Mongolic languages.[8] This has obscured the historical developments within each language and/or language group, and as a result, there exist several systems to classify the Turkic languages. The modern genetic classification schemes for Turkic are still largely indebted to Samoilovich (1922)[9] and are mainly based on the development of *d. However, there are still many elements of questioning for which ongoing research has not yet found an adequate solution. Language contact occurs when speakers of distinct speech varieties interact. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... The Mongolic languages are a group of thirteen languages spoken in Central Asia. ...


The Turkic languages may uncontroversially be divided into six branches (Johanson 1998):[10]

  1. Southwestern (Oghuz Turkic)
  2. Northwestern (Kypchak Turkic)
  3. Southeastern (Uyghur Turkic)[11]
  4. Northeastern (Siberian Turkic)
  5. Oghur Turkic
  6. Arghu Turkic

With less certainty, the Southwestern, Northwestern, Southeastern and Oghur groups may further be summarized as West Turkic, the Northeastern, Kyrgyz-Kypchak and Arghu (Khalaj) groups as East Turkic.[12] The Oghuz languages, a major branch of the Turkic language family, are spoken by more than 110-130 million people (including second language speakers) in an area spanning from the Balkans to China. ... The Kypchak languages (also known as the Kipchak, Qypchaq, or Northeastern Turkic languages), are a major branch of the Turkic language family spoken by more than 12 million people in an area spanning from Lithuania to China. ... The Oghur languages (also known as Oghur, Oghuric, or Oghur-Turkic), are a separate branch of the Turkic language family. ... Khalaj is a language spoken primarily in Iran and Afghanistan. ...


Geographically and linguistically, the languages of Northwestern, and Southeastern subgroup belong to the central Turkic languages, while the Northeastern and Khalaj languages are the so-called peripheral languages.


Members

The following table is based upon the classification scheme presented by Lars Johanson (1998)[13]

Proto-Turkic Southwestern Common Turkic (Oghuz)

The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China. ... The Oghuz languages, a major branch of the Turkic language family, are spoken by more than 110-130 million people (including second language speakers) in an area spanning from the Balkans to China. ... Image File history File links Map-Oguz_Language_World. ...

 
West Oghuz
East Oghuz
South Oghuz
  • Afshar
  • Dialects of Iran such as Qashqai, Sonqori, Aynallu, etc.
Northwestern Common Turkic (Kipchak)

Pecheneg language is the extinct Turkic language spoken by the Pechenegs in Eastern Europe, similar to Cuman. ... Ottoman Turkish (Turkish: or , Ottoman Turkish: ‎ ) was the variant of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire. ... The Gagauz language (Gagauz dili) is a Turkic language, used by Gagauz people, official language of Gagauzia, Republic of Moldova. ... The Gagauz Turks are a minority Christian group numbering around 250,000 living in Romania and Moldavia. ... Khorasani Turkic (تركي خراساني / Xorasan Türkçeəsı) is variety of speech belonging to the Turkic language family. ... Afshar or Afshari, is a Turkic language spoken in parts of Afghanistan and Iran. ... Qashqai (also spelled Ghashghai, Qashqai, Qashqay, and Kashkai) is a Turkic language. ... The Kypchak languages (also known as the Kipchak, Qypchaq, or Northeastern Turkic languages), are a major branch of the Turkic language family spoken by more than 12 million people in an area spanning from Lithuania to China. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

 
West Kipchak
North Kipchak (Volga-Ural)
South Kipchak (Aralo-Caspian)
Southeastern Common Turkic (Uyghur, Chagatai, Karluk) West
East
Northeastern Common Turkic (Siberian) North Siberian
South Siberian Sayan Turkic
Yenisei Turkic
Chulym Turkic
Altai Turkic[20]
  • Altay Oirot and dialects such as Tuba, Qumanda, Qu, Teleut, Telengit
Oghur  
Arghu  

The Kipchak language was an extinct Turkic language of Kipchak-Bolghar group. ... Kumyk (also Qumuq, Kumuk, Kumuklar, and Kumyki) is a Turkic language, spoken by about 200 thousands speakers (the Kumyks) in the Dagestan republic of Russian Federation. ... The Karachay-Balkar language (Къарачай-Малкъар /Qarachay-Malqar/) is a Turkic language of the Karachays and Balkars. ... Crimean Tatar language (Qırımtatar tili, Qırımtatarca), also known as Crimean (Qırım tili, Qırımca) and Crimean Turkish (Qırım Türkçesi) is the language of the Crimean Tatars. ... Urum is a Turkic language spoken by several thousand people who inhabit a few villages in the Southeastern Ukraine and in Georgia. ... Krymchak is the Crimean Tatar language dialect spoken by the Krymchaks - Rabbanite Jews of the Crimea. ... Cuman language was a Turkic language spoken by the Kipchaks (also known as the Cumans) similar to todays Crimean Tatar language. ... The Karaim language is a Turkic language with Hebrew influences, in a similar manner to Yiddish or Ladino. ... The Tatar language (Tatar tele, Tatarça, Татар теле, Татарча) is a Turkic language spoken by the Tatars. ... The Bashkir language is a Turkic language. ... ... Kazakh (also Qazaq and variants[2], natively , , ‎; pronounced ) is a Turkic language closely related to Nogai and Karakalpak. ... Karakalpak is a Turkic language mainly spoken by Karakalpaks in Karakalpakstan (Uzbekistan), as well as by Bashkirs and Nogay. ... Kyrgyz or Kirghiz (Kyrgyz tili, Кыргыз тили, قىرعىز ٴتىلى) is a Turkic language, and, together with Russian, an official language of Kyrgyzstan. ... Nogai (also Nogay or Nogai Tatar), is a Turkic language spoken in southwestern Russia. ... Uyghur (‎/Uyghurche//, or ‎/Uyghur tili//)[1] is a Turkic language spoken by the Uyghur people in Xinjiang (also called East Turkestan or Uyghurstan), formerly also “Sinkiang” and “Chinese Turkestan,” a Central Asian region administered by China. ... Western Yugur and Eastern Yugur are terms coined by Chinese linguists to distinguish between the Turkic and Mongolic Yugur language, both spoken within the Yugur nationality. ... Salar is a Turkic language spoken by the Salar people, who mainly live in the provinces of Qinghai and Gansu in China, some also live in Ghulja, Xinjiang. ... The Turkic language spoken by the Gokturks and used on the Orkhon inscriptions. ... The Chagatai language is an extinct Turkic language which was once widely spoken in Central Asia. ... Not to be confused with the Ainu language. ... Ili Turki is a language spoken primarily in China. ... Sakha, or Yakut, is a Turkic language with around 363,000 speakers spoken in the Sakha Republic in the Russian Federation. ... The Dolgan Language, is a Turkic language with around 5,000 speakers that is spoken in the Taymyr Peninsula in the Russian Federation. ... Tuvan (Tuvan: Тыва дыл Tyva dyl), also known as Tuvinian, Tyvan, or Tuvin, is one of the Turkic languages. ... Tofa, also known as Tofalar or Karagas, is one of the Turkic languages. ... Khakas is a Turkic language spoken by the Khakas people, who mainly live in the southern Siberian Khakas Republic, or Khakassia, in Russia. ... Fuyü Gïrgïs or Fu-Yu Kirgiz is the easternmost Turkic language. ... The Shor language is one of the Turkic languages. ... Chulyum also known as Chulym-Turkic , Chulym Tatar (not at all related to the Tatar language), or Küerik is a language of Chulyms. ... Altay is a language of the Turkic group of languages. ... The Oghur languages (also known as Oghur, Oghuric, or Oghur-Turkic), are a separate branch of the Turkic language family. ... Chuvash (Chuvash: Чӑвашла, Čăvašla, IPA: ; also known as Chăvash, Chuwash, Chovash, Chavash, Çuvaş or Çuaş) is a Turkic language spoken to the west of the Ural Mountains in central Russia. ... Language spoken by the medieval Khazar tribe. ... Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... Bolgar (also Bolğar), also Proto-Bulgarian is the language of the Bulgars, now extinct, whose classification is unclear. ... The Hunnic language is an extinct language of the Huns. ... Khalaj is a language spoken primarily in Iran and Afghanistan. ... Khalaj is a language spoken primarily in Iran and Afghanistan. ...

Vocabulary comparison

The following is a brief comparison of cognates among the basic vocabulary across the Turkic language family (about 60 words). Note that empty cells do not imply that a particular language is lacking a word to describe the concept, but rather that the word for the concept in that language is formed from another stem and is not a cognate with the other the words in the row. Also, there may be shifts in the meaning from one language to another, and so the "common meaning" given is only approximate. In some cases the form given is found only in some dialects of the language. Forms are given in native Latin orthographies unless otherwise noted. Look up cognate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

common meaning Old Turkic Turkish Azeri Turkmen Tatar Kazakh Kyrgyz Uzbek Uyghur Sakha/Yakut Chuvash
Persons (Grand)father/Ancestor Ata Ata Ata Ata Ata Ata Ata Ota Ata Atte
Mother Ana Anne, Ana Ana Ene Ana Ana Ene Ona Ana Anne
Son O'gul Oğul Oğul Oğul Ul, uğıl Ul Uul O'gil Oghul Uol Yvǎl
Man Er(kek) Erkek Kişi Erkek İr Er(kek) Erkek Erkak Er Er Ar
Girl Kyz Kız Qız Gyz Qız Qız Kız Qiz Qiz Ky:s Khər
Person Kiši Kişi Kişi Keşe Kisi Kishi Kishi Kishi Kihi
Bride Kelin Gelin Gəlin Geli:n Kilen Kelin Kelin Kelin Kelin Kylyn Kin'əm
Mother-in-law Kaynana Qaynana Gayın ene Qayın ana Qayın ene Kaynene Qayın ona Qeyinana Khun'ama
Body parts Heart Jürek Yürek Ürək Ýürek Yöräk Jürek Jürök Yurak Yürek Süreq Jəre
Blood Qan Kan Qan Ga:n Qan Qan Kan Qon Qan Qa:n Yun
Head Baš Baş Baş Baş Baş Bas Bash Bosh Baş Bas Puş
Hair Qıl Kıl Qıl Qyl Qıl Qıl Kıl Tuk Qil Kıl
Eye Köz Göz Göz Göz Küz Köz Köz Ko'z Köz Kos Kuş
Eyelash Kirpik Kirpik Kiprik Kirpik Kerfek Kirpik Kirpik Kiprik Kirpik Kirbi: Khurbuk
Ear Qulqaq Kulak Qulaq Gulak Qolaq Qulaq Kulak Quloq Qulaq Gulka:k Khǎlkha
Nose Burun Burun Burun Burun Borın Murın Murun Burun Burun Murun
Arm Qol Kol Qol Gol Qul Qol Kol Qo'l Qol Khul
Hand El(ig) El Əl El Alaqan Alakan Ili: Alǎ
Finger Barmak Parmak Barmaq Barmak Barmaq Barmaq Barmak Barmoq Barmaq Pűrne
Fingernail Tyrnaq Tırnak Dırnaq Dyrnaq Tırnaq Tırnaq Tırnak Tirnoq Tirnaq Tynyraq Jərne
Knee Tiz Diz Diz Dy:z Tez Tize Tize Tizza Tiz Tüsäχ Jərkuş
Calf Baltyr Baldır Baldır Baldyr Baltır Baldır Baldır Boldyr Baldir Ballyr
Foot Adaq Ayak Ayaq Aýaq Ayaq Ayaq Ayak Oyoq Ayaq Ataq Ura
Belly Qaryn Karın Qarın Garyn Qarın Qarın Karın Qorin Qerin Qaryn Khyrǎm
Animals Horse At At At At At At At Ot At At Ut
Cattle Siyir Sığır Sygyr Sıyır Sïır Sıyır Sigir Siyir
Dog Yt İt İt It Et Ït It It It Yt Yyt
Fish Balyq Balık Balıq Balyk Balıq Balıq Balık Baliq Beliq Balyk Pulǎ
Louse Bit Bit Bit Bit Bet Bït Bit Bit Pit Byt Pyitǎ
Other nouns House Ev Ev Ev Öý Öy Üy Üy Uy Öy
Tent Otag Otağ Otaq Otaw Otaq Otu:
Way Yol Yol Yol Yo:l Yul Jol Jol Yo'l Yol Suol Şul
Bridge Köprüq Köprü Körpü Köpri Küper Köpir Köpürö Ko'prik Kövrük Kürpe Kəper
Arrow Oq Ok Ox Ok Uq Oq Ok O'q Oq Ukhǎ
Fire Ot Od Od Ot Ut Ot Ot O't Ot Uot Vut
Ash Kül Kül Kül Kül Köl Kül Kül Kul Kül Kül Kəl
Water Suv Su Su Suw Su Sw Suu Suv Su Ui Shyv
Ship, boat Kemi Gemi Gəmi Gämi Köymä Keme Keme Kema Keme Kimə
Lake Köl Göl Göl Köl Kül Köl Köl Ko'l Köl Küöl Kül
Sun/Day Küneš Gün(eş) Gün(əş) Gün Kön Kün Kün Kun Kün Kün Kun
Cloud Bulut Bulut Bulud Bulut Bolıt Bult Bulut Bulut Bulut Bylyt Pələt
Star Yulduz Yıldız Ulduz Ýyldyz Yoldız Juldız Jıldız Yulduz Yultuz Sulus Şoldor
Earth Topraq Toprak Torpaq Toprak Tufraq Topıraq Topurak Tuproq Tupraq Toburaχ Topra
Hilltop Töpü Tepe Təpə Depe Tübä Töbe Töbö Tepa Töpe Töbö Tübe
Tree Yağac Ağaç Ağac Agaç Ağaç Ağaş
God (Tengri) Tenri Tanrı Tanrı Taňry Täñre Täñiri Teñir Tangri Tengri Tanara Turǎ
Sky Kök Gök Göy Gök Kük Kök Kök Ko'k Kök Küöq Kovak
Adjectives Long Uzun Uzun Uzun Uzyn Ozın Uzın Uzun Uzun Uzun Uhun
New Yany Yeni Yeni Yany Yaña Jaña Jañı Yangi Yengi Sana Şənə
Fat Semiz Semiz Simez Semiz Semiz Semiz Semiz Emis Samar
Full Tolu Dolu Dolu Do:ly Tulı Tolı Tolo To'la Toluq Toloru Tulli
White Aq Ak Ak Aq Aq Ak Oq Aq
Black Qara Kara Qara Gara Qara Qara Kara Qora Qara Xara Khura
Red Qyzyl Kızıl Qızıl Gyzyl Qızıl Qızıl Kızıl Qizil Qizil Kyhyl
Numbers 1 Bir Bir Bir Bir Ber Bir Bir Bir Bir Bi:r Pərre
2 Eki İki İki Iki İke Eki Eki Ikki Ikki Ikki Ikkə
4 Tört Dört Dörd Dö:rt Dürt Tört Tört To'rt Töt Tüört Tuattǎ
7 Yeti Yedi Yeddi Yedi Cide Jeti Jeti Yetti Yättä Sette Şitchə
10 On On On O:n Un On On O'n On Uon Vunnǎ
100 Yüz Yüz Yüz Yü:z Yöz Jüz Jüz Yuz Yüz Sü:s Şər
Old Turkic Turkish Azeri Turkmen Tatar Kazakh Kyrgyz Uzbek Uyghur Sakha/Yakut Chuvash

The Turkic language spoken by the Göktürks and used on the Orkhon inscriptions. ... The Azerbaijani language, also called Azeri, Azari, Azeri Turkish, or Azerbaijani Turkish, is the official language of the Republic of Azerbaijan. ... The Tatar language (Tatar tele, Tatarça, Татар теле, Татарча) is a Turkic language spoken by the Tatars. ... Kazakh (also Qazaq and variants[2], natively , , ‎; pronounced ) is a Turkic language closely related to Nogai and Karakalpak. ... Kyrgyz or Kirghiz (Kyrgyz tili, Кыргыз тили, قىرعىز ٴتىلى) is a Turkic language, and, together with Russian, an official language of Kyrgyzstan. ... Uyghur (‎/Uyghurche//, or ‎/Uyghur tili//)[1] is a Turkic language spoken by the Uyghur people in Xinjiang (also called East Turkestan or Uyghurstan), formerly also “Sinkiang” and “Chinese Turkestan,” a Central Asian region administered by China. ... Sakha, or Yakut, is a Turkic language with around 363,000 speakers spoken in the Sakha Republic in the Russian Federation. ... Chuvash (Chuvash: Чӑвашла, Čăvašla, IPA: ; also known as Chăvash, Chuwash, Chovash, Chavash, Çuvaş or Çuaş) is a Turkic language spoken to the west of the Ural Mountains in central Russia. ... Tengri is the god of the old Turkic, Mongolian and Altaic religion named Tengriism. ... The Turkic language spoken by the Göktürks and used on the Orkhon inscriptions. ... The Azerbaijani language, also called Azeri, Azari, Azeri Turkish, or Azerbaijani Turkish, is the official language of the Republic of Azerbaijan. ... The Tatar language (Tatar tele, Tatarça, Татар теле, Татарча) is a Turkic language spoken by the Tatars. ... Kazakh (also Qazaq and variants[2], natively , , ‎; pronounced ) is a Turkic language closely related to Nogai and Karakalpak. ... Kyrgyz or Kirghiz (Kyrgyz tili, Кыргыз тили, قىرعىز ٴتىلى) is a Turkic language, and, together with Russian, an official language of Kyrgyzstan. ... Uyghur (‎/Uyghurche//, or ‎/Uyghur tili//)[1] is a Turkic language spoken by the Uyghur people in Xinjiang (also called East Turkestan or Uyghurstan), formerly also “Sinkiang” and “Chinese Turkestan,” a Central Asian region administered by China. ... Sakha, or Yakut, is a Turkic language with around 363,000 speakers spoken in the Sakha Republic in the Russian Federation. ... Chuvash (Chuvash: Чӑвашла, Čăvašla, IPA: ; also known as Chăvash, Chuwash, Chovash, Chavash, Çuvaş or Çuaş) is a Turkic language spoken to the west of the Ural Mountains in central Russia. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.) (2005). Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Language Family Trees - Altaic (HTML). Retrieved on 2007-03-18.
  2. ^ a b Katzner, Kenneth (March 2002). Languages of the World, Third Edition. Routledge, an imprint of Taylor & Francis Books Ltd.. ISBN 978-0415250047. 
  3. ^ Turkic Language family tree entries provide the information on the Turkic-speaking populations and regions.
  4. ^ Voegelin, C.F. & F.M. Voegelin. 1977. Classification and index of the World's languages. New York: Elsevier.
  5. ^ Turkic Language tree entries provide the information on the Turkic-speaking regions.
  6. ^ Soucek, Svat (March 2000). A History of Inner Asia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521651691. 
  7. ^ Findley, Carter V. (October 2004). The Turks in World History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517726-6. 
  8. ^ Johanson, Lars (2001). "Discoveries on the Turkic linguistic map" (PDF). Swedish Research Institute in Istanbul. Retrieved on 2007-03-18.
  9. ^ Classification of Türkic languages
  10. ^ Lars Johanson, The History of Turkic. In Lars Johanson & Éva Ágnes Csató (eds), The Turkic Languages, London, New York: Routledge, 81-125, 1998.Classification of Turkic languages
  11. ^ This branch is also referred to as Uyghuric to distinguish the branch from one of its members, Uyghur.
  12. ^ Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.) (2005). Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Language Family Trees - Turkic (HTML). Retrieved on 2007-03-18. The reliablity of Ethnologue lies mainly in its statistics whereas its framework for the internal classification of Turkic is still based largely on Baskakov (1962) and the collective work in Deny et al. (1959-1964). A more up to date alternative to classifying these languages on internal camparative grounds is to be found in the work of Johanson and his co-workers.
  13. ^ Lars Johanson (1998) The History of Turkic. In Lars Johanson & Éva Ágnes Csató (eds) The Turkic Languages. London, New York: Routledge, 81-125. [1]
  14. ^ Crimean Tatar and Urum are historically Kypchak languages, but have been heavily influenced by Oghuz languages.
  15. ^ Tura, Baraba, Tomsk, Tümen, Ishim, Irtysh, Tobol, Tara, etc. are partly of different origin (Johanson 1998) [2]
  16. ^ Of Altai Turkic origin, but recently closer to Kazakh (Johanson 1998) [3]
  17. ^ Deviating. Probably of South Siberian origin (Johanson 1998) [4]
  18. ^ Deviating. Historically developed from Southwestern (Oghuz) (Johanson 1998) [5]
  19. ^ Aini contains a very large Persian vocabulary component, and is spoken exclusively by adult men, almost as a cryptolect.
  20. ^ Some dialects are close to Kirghiz (Johanson 1998) [6]
  21. ^ Khalaj is surrounded by Oghuz languages, but exhibits a number of features that classify it as non-Oghuz.

Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Uyghur (‎/Uyghurche//, or ‎/Uyghur tili//)[1] is a Turkic language spoken by the Uyghur people in Xinjiang (also called East Turkestan or Uyghurstan), formerly also “Sinkiang” and “Chinese Turkestan,” a Central Asian region administered by China. ... Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Farsi redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with cant (language). ...

Further reading

  • Baskakov, N.A. 1962, 1969. Introduction to the study of the Turkic languages. Moscow. (In Russian)
  • Boeschoten, Hendrik & Lars Johanson. 2006. Turkic languages in contact. Turcologica, Bd. 61. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. ISBN 3447052120
  • Clausen, Gerard. 1972. An etymological dictionary of pre-thirteenth-century Turkish. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Deny, Jean et al. 1959-1964. Philologiae Turcicae Fundamenta. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
  • Johanson, Lars & Éva Agnes Csató (ed.). 1998. The Turkic languages. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-08200-5.
  • Johanson, Lars. 1998. "The history of Turkic." In: Johanson & Csató, pp. 81-125.[7]
  • Johanson, Lars. 1998. "Turkic languages." In: Encyclopaedia Britannica. CD 98. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online, 5 sept. 2007.[8]
  • Menges, K. H. 1968. The Turkic languages and peoples: An introduction to Turkic studies. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
  • Öztopçu, Kurtuluş. 1996. Dictionary of the Turkic languages: English, Azerbaijani, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Tatar, Turkish, Turkmen, Uighur, Uzbek. London: Routledge. ISBN 0415141982
  • Samoilovich, A. N. 1922. Some additions to the classification of the Turkish languages. Petrograd.[9]
  • Schönig, Claus. 1997-1998. "A new attempt to classify the Turkic languages I-III." Turkic Languages 1:1.117–133, 1:2.262–277, 2:1.130–151.
  • Voegelin, C.F. & F.M. Voegelin. 1977. Classification and index of the World's languages. New York: Elsevier.

See also

Altaic is a proposed language family that includes 66 languages [1] spoken by about 348 million people, mostly in and around Central Asia and northeast Asia. ... The Proto-Turkic language is the proto-language of the family of Turkic languages that predates the separation of the Turkic peoples in the course of the Turkic expansion from ca. ... The Turkic language spoken by the Gokturks and used on the Orkhon inscriptions. ... Middle Turkic refers to a phase in the development of the Turkic language family, covering much of the Middle Ages (c. ... Orkhon tablet Inscription in Kyzyl using Orkhon script Orkhon script The Orkhon script (also spelled Orhon script, also Orkhon-Yenisey script, Old Turkic script, Göktürk script, Turkish: Orhon Yazıtları) is the alphabet used by the Göktürk from the 8th century to record the Old Turkic...

External links

This article is about the autonomous region. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Afshar or Afshari, is a Turkic language spoken in parts of Afghanistan and Iran. ... Altay is a language of the Turkic group of languages. ... ... The Bashkir language is a Turkic language. ... Bulgar (also BolÄŸar), also Proto-Bulgarian is the language of the Bulgars, now extinct, whose classification is unclear. ... The Chagatai language is an extinct Turkic language which was once widely spoken in Central Asia. ... Chulyum also known as Chulym-Turkic , Chulym Tatar (not at all related to the Tatar language), or Küerik is a language of Chulyms. ... Chuvash (Chuvash: Чӑвашла, ČăvaÅ¡la, IPA: ; also known as Chăvash, Chuwash, Chovash, Chavash, ÇuvaÅŸ or ÇuaÅŸ) is a Turkic language spoken to the west of the Ural Mountains in central Russia. ... Crimean Tatar language (Qırımtatar tili, Qırımtatarca), also known as Crimean (Qırım tili, Qırımca) and Crimean Turkish (Qırım Türkçesi) is the language of the Crimean Tatars. ... Cuman language was a Turkic language spoken by the Kipchaks (also known as the Cumans) similar to todays Crimean Tatar language. ... The Dolgan Language, is a Turkic language with around 5,000 speakers that is spoken in the Taymyr Peninsula in the Russian Federation. ... Fuyü Gïrgïs or Fu-Yu Kirgiz is the easternmost Turkic language. ... The Gagauz language (Gagauz dili) is a Turkic language, used by Gagauz people, official language of Gagauzia, Republic of Moldova. ... The Hunnic language is an extinct language of the Huns. ... Ili Turki is a language spoken primarily in China. ... The Karachay-Balkar language (Къарачай-Малкъар /Qarachay-Malqar/) is a Turkic language of the Karachays and Balkars. ... The Karaim language is a Turkic language with Hebrew influences, in a similar manner to Yiddish or Ladino. ... Karakalpak is a Turkic language mainly spoken by Karakalpaks in Karakalpakstan (Uzbekistan), as well as by Bashkirs and Nogay. ... Kazakh (also Qazaq and variants[2], natively , , ‎; pronounced ) is a Turkic language closely related to Nogai and Karakalpak. ... Khakas is a Turkic language spoken by the Khakas people, who mainly live in the southern Siberian Khakas Republic, or Khakassia, in Russia. ... Khalaj is a language spoken primarily in Iran and Afghanistan. ... Language spoken by the medieval Khazar tribe. ... Khorasani Turkic (تركي خراساني / Xorasan TürkçeÉ™sı) is variety of speech belonging to the Turkic language family. ... The Kipchak language was an extinct Turkic language of Kipchak-Bolghar group. ... Krymchak is the Crimean Tatar language dialect spoken by the Krymchaks - Rabbanite Jews of the Crimea. ... Kyrgyz or Kirghiz (Kyrgyz tili, Кыргыз тили, قىرعىز ٴتىلى) is a Turkic language, and, together with Russian, an official language of Kyrgyzstan. ... Kumyk (also Qumuq, Kumuk, Kumuklar, and Kumyki) is a Turkic language, spoken by about 200 thousands speakers (the Kumyks) in the Dagestan republic of Russian Federation. ... The Kypchak languages (also known as the Kipchak, Qypchaq, or Northeastern Turkic languages), are a major branch of the Turkic language family spoken by more than 12 million people in an area spanning from Lithuania to China. ... Nogai (also Nogay or Nogai Tatar), is a Turkic language spoken in southwestern Russia. ... Old Tatar language (Iske imla: يسكى تاتار تلى (translit. ... The Turkic language spoken by the Gokturks and used on the Orkhon inscriptions. ... Ottoman Turkish (Turkish: or , Ottoman Turkish: ‎ ) was the variant of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire. ... Pecheneg language is the extinct Turkic language spoken by the Pechenegs in Eastern Europe, similar to Cuman. ... Qashqai (also spelled Ghashghai, Qashqai, Qashqay, and Kashkai) is a Turkic language. ... Sakha, or Yakut, is a Turkic language with around 363,000 speakers spoken in the Sakha Republic in the Russian Federation. ... Salar is a Turkic language spoken by the Salar people, who mainly live in the provinces of Qinghai and Gansu in China, some also live in Ghulja, Xinjiang. ... The Shor language is one of the Turkic languages. ... The Tatar language (Tatar tele, Tatarça, Татар теле, Татарча) is a Turkic language spoken by the Tatars. ... Tofa, also known as Tofalar or Karagas, is one of the Turkic languages. ... Late Avar period Map showing the location of Avar Khaganate, c. ... Tuvan (Tuvan: Тыва дыл Tyva dyl), also known as Tuvinian, Tyvan, or Tuvin, is one of the Turkic languages. ... Urum is a Turkic language spoken by several thousand people who inhabit a few villages in the Southeastern Ukraine and in Georgia. ... Uyghur (‎/Uyghurche//, or ‎/Uyghur tili//)[1] is a Turkic language spoken by the Uyghur people in Xinjiang (also called East Turkestan or Uyghurstan), formerly also “Sinkiang” and “Chinese Turkestan,” a Central Asian region administered by China. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... The Altay or Altai are a Turkic people living in the Siberian Altai Republic and Altai Krai and surrounding areas of Tuva and Mongolia. ... The Balkars (Karachay-Balkar: sg. ... The Bashkirs, a Turkic people, live in Russia, mostly in the republic of Bashkortostan. ... Not to be confused with Bulgarians. ... The Chulyms (Чулымцы in Russian; self-designation: Чулымские люди, or Chulymian people) are a Turkic people in the Tomsk Oblast and Krasnoyarsk Krai in Russia. ... The Chuvash (Chuvash ; Russian: Чуваши; Tatar: ÇuaÅŸlar, Чуашлар) are a Turkic people usually associated with Chuvashia. ... The Crimean Tatars (sg. ... Cuman, also called Polovtsy, Polovtsian, or the Anglicized Polovzian (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Turkish: , Bulgarian: , Romanian: , Hungarian: ), is a Western European exonym for the western Kipchaks. ... The Dolgans (Russian: ; self-designation: долган, тыа-кихи, саха) are a Turkic people, who inhabit Taymyr Autonomous Okrug in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. ... The Gagauz are a minority Turkic people in southern Moldova (in Gagauzia) and southwestern Ukraine (in Budjak) that numbers around 250,000. ... The Iraqi Turkmen (also spelled Turkomen, Turcoman, and Turkman) (Turkish:Irak Türkmenleri) are a distinct Turkic ethnic group living in Iraq, notably in the cities of Arbil, Tal Afar, Kirkuk, and Mosul. ... The Karachays (Къарачайлыла, Qaraçaylıla) are a Turkic people of the Ciscaucasus, mostly situated in the Russian Karachay-Cherkess Republic. ... The Crimean Karaites (Crimean Karaim: sg. ... The Karakalpaks are ethnic group of Turkic people who mainly live in the lower reaches of the Amu Darya and in the (former) delta of Amu Darya on the southern shore of the Aral Sea. ... The Karapapak are a small ethnic group of Turkic people who mainly live in north west province of West Azerbaijan (Azarbaijan-e-Gharbi) in and around the Sulduz area and North West of Turkey near the border with Georgia. ... Languages Kazakh (and/or languages in country of residence) Religions Sunni Islam The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар []; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of Uzbekistan, China, Russia, and... The Khakas, or Khakass, are a Turkic people, who live in Russia, in the republic of Khakassia in the southern Siberia. ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... Kmek or Kimak was a nomadic tribe lived in modern Astrakhan Oblast of Russia in 9th-13th century. ... Kipchaks in Eurasia circa 1200 C.E. Kipchaks (also spelled as Kypchaks, Qipchaqs, Qypchaqs) (Ukrainian: (polovtsy), Crimean Tatar: , Karachay-Balkar: Къыпчакъ, Uzbek: , Kazakh: Қыпшақ, Kumyk: Къыпчакъ, Kyrgyz: Кыпчак, Nogai: Кыпчак, Turkish: Kıpçak) were an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. The western... The Krymchaks (sg. ... Flag of the Kumyks Kumyks are a Turkic people occupying the Kumyk plateau in north Dagestan and south Terek, and the lands bordering the Caspian Sea. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Kyrgyz language. ... Language(s) Turkish, Russian, Georgian,Azerbaijanian Religion(s) Sunni Islam Related ethnic groups Turks, Terekeme, other Muslims of Meskheti Meskhetian Turks are the former Muslim inhabitants of Meskheti (Georgia), along the border with Turkey. ... NaÄŸaybäk (; plural NaÄŸaybäklär; Russian: нагайбаки) is a group of Keräşen Tatars, frequently viewed as one of indigenous peoples of Russia. ... The Nogais, also spelled Nogay, Noghai, and often called the Caucasian Mongols (Caucasian refers to their geographic position, in the Caucasus mountains, not to their ethnicity), are a Turkic people, and an important ethnic group in the Daghestan region who speak the Turkic Nogai language. ... A Seljuk Prince. ... For the language, see Qashqai language. ... The Salar people (Chinese: 撒拉族, Pinyin: Sālāzú) are one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article is about the people. ... The Finnish Tatar community, about 800 people, is recognized as a national minority by the government of Finland, which considers their language as a non-territorial language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. ... The Lipka Tatars were a noble military caste of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth who followed the Sunni branch of the Islamic religion and whose origins can be traced back to the Mongol Empire of Ghengis Khan, through the Khanate of the White Horde of Siberia. ... The Native Western Siberian Tatars (200,000) are an ethnic group or a sub-group of the Tatars. ... Syrian Turkmen or Syrian Turkomen[1] are Syrian citizens of Oghuz Turkish descent, who had been living in the Syrian province of the Ottoman Empire before its dissolution and continue to live in the modern country of Syria. ... Volga Tatars are a Turkic people who live in the central and Eastern European parts of Russia. ... A Telengit is a member of an ethnic group in Russia. ... According to the 2002 census, there were 2650 Teleuts in Russia. ... Tofalars (Тофалары, тофа (tofa) in Russian; formerly known as карагасы, or karagas) are a Turkic-speaking people in the Irkutsk Oblast in Russia. ... For other uses of Turkish, see Turkish (disambiguation). ... Turkish Cypriots are those inhabitants of Cyprus who are ethnically Turkish[1], as opposed to those who are of Greek (the Greek Cypriots) or other ethnicities. ... Tuvans or Tuvinians (Tuvan: Тывалар, Tyvalar) are a group of Turkic people who make up about two thirds of the population of Tuva, Russia. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Uyghur language. ... Yakuts, self-designation: Sakha, are a Turkic people associated with the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic. ... Main areas inhabited by Yoruk tribes in Anatolia The Yörük are a Turkic-speaking people primarily inhabiting the mountains of the southeast European Balkan peninsula and Anatolia. ... The Yugur people are an ethnic group. ... The history of the Turkic peoples (Turkic speaking peoples). ... Turkic peoples listed geographically. ... Turanism, or Pan-Turanism, is a political movement for the union of all Turanian peoples. ... // Azerbaijan Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Turkmenistan Turkey Uzbekistan Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus [1] Bashkortostan Chuvashia Sakha (Yakutia) Republic Tatarstan Tuva These republics have a small Turkic minority and official language is a Turkic language. ... Anthem: Ä°stiklâl Marşı(Turkish) Independence March Capital Nicosia (LefkoÅŸa in Turkish) Official languages Turkish Government Representative democratic republic1  -  President Mehmet Ali Talat  -  Prime Minister Ferdi Sabit Soyer Independence from Cyprus   -  Proclaimed November 15, 1983   -  Recognition By Turkey only  Area  -  Total 3,355 km² (167th ranked together with Cyprus... // Azerbaijan Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Turkmenistan Turkey Uzbekistan Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus [1] Bashkortostan Chuvashia Sakha (Yakutia) Republic Tatarstan Tuva These republics have a small Turkic minority and official language is a Turkic language. ... The Altai Republic (Russian: ; Altay: Алтай Республика) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... The Republic of Bashkortostan, or Bashkiria (Russian: or ; Bashkir: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... , Chuvash Republic (Russian: ; ), or Chuvashia () is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) located in central Russia. ... Anthem Gagauziya Milli Marşı Location of Gagauzia (purple) Capital (and largest city) Comrat Official languages Gagauz, Moldovan (Romanian), Russian Government  -  Governor Mihail Formuzal  -  Chairman of the Peoples Assembly Stepan Esir Autonomous region of Moldova  -  Created April 23, 1994  Area  -  Total 1,832 km²  707 sq mi  Population  -  19961 estimate... Karakalpakstan (Uzbek: Qoraqalpogiston Respublikasi or Қорақалпоғистон Республикаси; Karakalpak: Қарақалпақстан Республикасы or Qaraqalpaqstan Respublikası) is an autonomous republic of Uzbekistan. ... Khakassia or Khakasiya (Russian: or ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) located in south central Siberia. ... This article is about the autonomous region. ... The Sakha (Yakutia) Republic (Russian: ; Sakha: Саха Республиката) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Republic of Tatarstan (Russian: ; Tatar Cyrillic: Татарстан Республикасы, Latin: Tatarstan Respublikası) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Tyva Republic IPA: (Russian: IPA: ; Tuvan: ), or Tuva (), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Nomadic Empires, sometimes also called Steppe Empires, Central or Inner Asian Empires, are the empires erected by the bow wielding, horse riding, Eurasian nomads, from Classical Antiquity (Scythia) to the Early Modern era (Dzungars). ... The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia and China. ... The Turkic people are any of various peoples whose members speak languages in the Turkic family of languages. ... The Proto-Turkic language is the proto-language of the family of Turkic languages that predates the separation of the Turkic peoples in the course of the Turkic expansion from ca. ... The Turkic people are any of various peoples whose members speak languages in the Turkic family of languages. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Turkic languages information - Search.com (0 words)
The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China with an estimated 140 million native speakers and tens of millions of second-language speakers.
The Turkic languages are traditionally considered to be part of the Altaic language family.
Geographically and linguistically, the languages of Southwestern, Northwestern, and Southeastern subgroup belong to the central Turkic languages, while the Northeastern, Khalaj language is the so-called peripheral language.
Turkic languages - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (338 words)
The Turkic languages are traditionally considered to be part of the Altaic language family.
The genetic classification of the Turkic languages commonly followed today is the one by Samoilovich (mainly based on the development of *d).
Geographically and linguistically, the languages of Southwestern, Northwestern, and Southeastern subgroup belong to the central Turkic languages, while the Northeastern, Khalaj language is the so-called peripheral language.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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