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Encyclopedia > Turkey
Türkiye Cumhuriyeti
Republic of Turkey
Flag of Turkey Emblem of Turkey
Flag Emblem
Motto
none
(Unofficial: "Yurtta Barış, Dünyada Barış"1
"Peace at Home, Peace in the World")
Anthem
İstiklâl Marşı
Independence March
Capital Ankara
39°55'48.00′N, 32°50′E
Largest city Istanbul
Official languages Turkish
Government Parliamentary republic
 -  President Ahmet Necdet Sezer
 -  Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
Succession to the Ottoman Empire2 
 -  War of Independence May 19, 1919 
 -  Formation of Parliament April 23, 1920 
 -  Declaration of Republic October 29, 1923 
Area
 -  Total 783,562 km² (37th)
302,535 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 1.3
Population
 -  2007 estimate 71,158,647 (17th3)
 -  2000 census 67,803,927 
 -  Density 93 /km² (102nd3)
240 /sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2006 estimate
 -  Total $612.3 billion (17th)
 -  Per capita $9,107 (69th)
Gini? (2003) 43.6 (medium
HDI (2006) 0.7574 (medium) (92nd4)
Currency New Turkish Lira5 (TRY)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 -  Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Internet TLD .tr
Calling code +90
1 "Yurtta sulh, cihanda sulh" (original Turkish).
2 Treaty of Lausanne (1923).
3 Population and population density rankings based on 2005 figures.
4 UN Nations HDI Report, page 284
5 The New Turkish Lira (Yeni Türk Lirası, YTL) replaced the old Turkish Lira on 1 January 2005.

A graphical timeline is available here:
History of the Republic of Turkey

Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye), known officially as the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti ), is a Eurasian country that stretches across the Anatolian peninsula in southwest Asia and the Balkan region of southeastern Europe. Turkey borders eight countries: Bulgaria to the northwest, Greece to the west, Georgia to the northeast, Armenia, Azerbaijan (the Nakhichevan exclave), and Iran to the east, Iraq and Syria to the southeast. It borders the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Aegean Sea to the west, and the Black Sea to the north. Turkey also contains the Sea of Marmara, which is used by geographers to mark the border between Europe and Asia, thus making Turkey transcontinental.[1] Look up turkey in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Turk in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links Türkiye_arması.svg‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Turkey ... The flag of Turkey consists of a white crescent moon and a star on a red background. ... The Republic of Turkey is one of the states that do not have an official coat of arms. ... A motto (from Italian) is a phrase or a short list of words meant formally to describe the general motivation or intention of an entity, social group, or organization. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... The Ä°stiklâl Marşı (i. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 155 KB) Other versions Image:Europe location TUR.png, version with the member states of the European Union marked File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Turkey... This article is about a city that serves as a center of government and politics. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in U.S. English), is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A republic is a form of government maintained by a state or country whose sovereignty is based on popular consent and whose governance is based on popular representation and control. ... Presidential flag of Turkey. ... Ahmet Necdet Sezer (born September 13, 1941 in Afyonkarahisar) is the tenth and current President of the Republic of Turkey. ... This is a chronological list of every government formed by the Prime Ministers of the Republic of Turkey. ... Recep Tayyip ErdoÄŸan (born February 26, 1954), became the Prime Minister of Turkey on March 14, 2003. ... Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire is direct consequence of the World War I with the Ottomans involvement in the Middle Eastern theatre. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish (official); spoken languages include Abkhazian, Adyghe, Albanian, Arabic, Aramaic, Armenian, Azerbaijani... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... May 19 is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Establishment of Turkish national movement explains the initial stages of the alliance that will become Turkish revolutionaries which waged an independence war that resulted in decleration of Republic of Turkey. ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (114th in leap years). ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... The Purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ... Map of world GDP (PPP) by country using the IMF list for 2005 There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita, based on the 2005 IMF data. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of a distribution. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2004). ... Coloured world map indicating Human Development Index (2004) This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Programmes Human Development Report 2006, compiled on the basis of 2004 data. ... TRY banknotes and coins The Turkish new lira is the current currency of Turkey and of the de facto state Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precison atomic time standard. ... Though DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precison atomic time standard. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .tr is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Turkey. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... Borders as shaped by the treaty The Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923) was a peace treaty that settle a part of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire that reflected the consequences of the Turkish Independence War between Allies of World War I and Turkish national movement, (Grand National Assembly... TRY banknotes and coins The Turkish new lira is the current currency of Turkey and of the de facto state Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. ... The Turkish lira was the currency of Turkey until 2005. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Timeline_icon. ... Image File history File links Asd. ... Eurasia African-Eurasian aspect of Earth Eurasia is the Earths largest landmass covering about 21215121321km² compared with the Americas (approximately 42,000,000 km²), Africa (approximately 30,000,000 km²), and Antarctica (approximately 13,000,000 km²). Eurasia comprises the traditional continents of Europe and Asia. ... In political geography and international politics a country is a geographical entity, a territory, most commonly associated with the notions of state or nation. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... The Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic (Azerbaijani: Naxçıvan Muxtar Respublikası, Armenian: Õ†Õ¡Õ­Õ«Õ»Ö‡Õ¡Õ¶Õ« Ô»Õ¶Ö„Õ¶Õ¡Õ¾Õ¡Ö€ Õ€Õ¡Õ¶Ö€Õ¡ÕºÕ¥Õ¿Õ¸Ö‚Õ©ÕµÕ¸Ö‚Õ¶, Russian: Нахичеванская Автономная Республика, Persian:جمهوری خودمختار نخجوان, Turkish: Nahçıvan Özerk Cumhuriyeti), known simply as Nakhichevan, is a landlocked exclave of Azerbaijan. ... D is Bs exclave, but is not an enclave. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Map of the Sea of Marmara Satellite view of the Sea of Marmara The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Modern Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating the... World map showing the location of Asia. ... A transcontinental country is a country belonging to more than one continent. ...


The region comprising modern Turkey has overseen the birth of major civilizations such as the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires. Because of its strategic location, where two continents meet, Turkey's culture has a unique blend of Eastern and Western tradition, often described as a bridge between the two civilizations. A powerful regional presence from the Adriatic Sea to China in the Eurasian landmass between Russia and India, Turkey has come to acquire increasing strategic significance.[2][3] Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (İstanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish (official); spoken languages include Abkhazian, Adyghe, Albanian, Arabic, Aramaic, Armenian, Azerbaijani... Traditional Turkish coffee The culture of Turkey is a diverse one, derived from various elements of the Ottoman Empire, European, and the Islamic traditions. ... The term Eastern world refers very broadly to the various cultures, social structures and philosophical systems of the East, namely Asia (including China, India, Japan, and surrounding regions). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Western World. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ...


Turkey is a democratic, secular, unitary, constitutional republic whose political system was established in 1923 under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, following the fall of the Ottoman Empire in the aftermath of World War I. Since then, Turkey has become increasingly integrated with the West while continuing to foster relations with the Eastern world. It is a founding member of the United Nations,[4] the Organization of the Islamic Conference,[5] the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development[6] and the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe,[7] a member state of the Council of Europe since 1949,[8] and of NATO since 1952.[9] Since 2005, Turkey has been in accession negotiations with the European Union, having been an associate member since 1963.[10] Turkey is also a member of the G20, which brings together the 20 largest economies of the world. Democracy (literally rule by the people, from the Greek demos, people, and kratos, rule[1]) is a [[List of forms of government|form of government]. While the term democracy is typically used in the context of a political state, the principles are also applicable to other groups and organizations. ... Map showing secular states highlighted in blue A secular state is a state or country that is officially neutral in matters of religion, neither supporting nor opposing any particular religious beliefs or practices, and has no state religion or equivalent. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional republic is a state where the head of state and other officials are elected as representatives of the people and must govern according to existing constitutional law that limits the governments power over citizens. ... Turkey is a secular, republican parliamentary democracy. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... The flag of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) OIC redirects here. ... The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), (in French: Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an international organisation of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 6 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General  Terry Davis  -  Commissioner for Human Rights   Establishment  -  Treaty of London May... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... The G-20 (Group of 20) is a group consisting of 19 of the worlds largest economies, together with the European Union. ...

Contents

Etymology

Main article: Name of Turkey

The name for Turkey in the Turkish language, Türkiye, can be divided into two words: Türk, which means "strong" in Old Turkic and usually signifying the inhabitants of Turkey or a member of the Turkish or Turkic peoples,[11] a later form of "tu-kin", name given by the Chinese to the people living south of the Altay Mountains of Central Asia as early as 177 BC;[12] and the abstract suffix -iye, which means "owner" or "related to". The first recorded use of the term "Türk" or "Türük" as an autonym is contained in the Orkhon inscriptions of the Göktürks (Sky Turks) of Central Asia (c. 8th century CE). The English word "Turkey" is derived from the Medieval Latin "Turchia" (c. 1369).[12] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Turkey. ... Turkish (, ) is a Turkic language, and thus a member of the proposed Altaic language family. ... The Turkic language spoken by the Göktürks and used on the Orkhon inscriptions. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... The Altay Mountains (Russian: ; Mongolian: , Altai) are a mountain range in central Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia and Kazakhstan come together, and where the great rivers Irtysh, Ob and Yenisei have their sources. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Arabic is a Semitic language. ... It has been suggested that Ethnonym be merged into this article or section. ... Orkhon tablet Inscription in Kyzyl using Orkhon script Orkhon script The Orkhon script (also spelled Orhon script, also Orkhon-Yenisey script, Old Turkic script, Göktürk script, Turkish: Orhon Yazıtları) is the alphabet used by the Göktürk from the 8th century to record the Old Turkic... The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia and China. ... Medieval Latin refers to the Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of the medieval Roman Catholic Church. ...


History

Pre-Turkic History of Anatolia

Main article: History of Anatolia
Portion of the legendary walls of Troy (VII), identified as the site of the Trojan War (ca. 1200 BCE)
Portion of the legendary walls of Troy (VII), identified as the site of the Trojan War (ca. 1200 BCE)

The Anatolian peninsula (also called Asia Minor), comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest continually inhabited regions in the world due to its location at the intersection of Asia and Europe. The earliest Neolithic settlements such as Çatalhöyük (Pottery Neolithic), Çayönü (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A to Pottery Neolithic), Nevali Cori (Pre-Pottery Neolithic B), Hacilar (Pottery Neolithic), Göbekli Tepe (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A) and Mersin are considered to be among the earliest human settlements in the world.[13] The settlement of Troy starts in the Neolithic and continues into the Iron Age. Through recorded history, Anatolians have spoken Indo-European, Semitic and Kartvelian languages, as well as many languages of uncertain affiliation. In fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical center from which the Indo-European languages have radiated.[14] The History of Anatolia // Timeline Neolithic Because of its strategic location at the intersection of Asia and Europe, Anatolia has been a cradle for several civilizations since prehistoric ages, with Neolithic settlements such as Çatalhöyük (Pottery Neolithic), Çayönü (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A to pottery Neolithic), Nevali Cori... Image File history File links Troy1. ... Image File history File links Troy1. ... Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Excavations at the South Area of Çatal Höyük Çatalhöyük (also Çatal Höyük and Çatal Hüyük, or any of the three without diacritics; çatal is Turkish for fork, höyük for mound) was a very large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern... Çayönü is a Neolithic settlement in southern Turkey, forty kiloemtres north-west of Diyabarkir, at the foot of the Taurus mountains. ... The Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (short PPNA) represents the early neolithic in the Levantine and upper Mesopotamian region of the Fertile Crescent. ... Nevali Cori is an early Neolithic settlement in the upper Euphrates valley, eastern Turkey, around 490 m high. ... Pre-Pottery Neolithic B is a division of the Neolithic developed by Dame Kathleen Kenyon during her archaeological excavations at Jericho in Palestine. ... Hacilar is a Neolithic settlement in south western Turkey, 25 km southwest of present day Burdur. ... Göbekli Tepe is an early Neolithic site in southeastern Turkey. ... This article is about the city of Mersin, see Mersin Province, (named İçel province until 2002), for information about the surrounding area. ... Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... 14th century BCE diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... It has been suggested that Kartvel be merged into this article or section. ... Hittite is the extinct language once spoken by the Hittites, a people who once created an empire centered on ancient Hattusas (modern BoÄŸazkale) in north-central Anatolia (modern Turkey). ... Luwian (sometimes spelled Luvian) is part of the Anatolian branch of the Indo European language family and has been preserved in three forms: (1) Cuneiform Luwian, (2) Hieroglyphic-Luwian and (3), the somewhat later Lycian. ...

The Celsus Library in Ephesus, dating from 135 CE
The Celsus Library in Ephesus, dating from 135 CE

The first major empire in the area was that of the Hittites, from the 18th through the 13th century BCE. Subsequently, the Phrygians, an Indo-European people, achieved ascendancy until their kingdom was destroyed by the Cimmerians in the 7th century BCE.[15] The most powerful of Phrygia's successor states were Lydia, Caria and Lycia. The Lydians and Lycians spoke languages that were fundamentally Indo-European, but both languages had acquired non-Indo-European elements prior to the Hittite and Hellenic periods. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1679 KB) Description: Facade of the Celsus-Library in Ephesos, Turkey. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1679 KB) Description: Facade of the Celsus-Library in Ephesos, Turkey. ... Ruins of Celsus Library Celsus library is a monumental tomb for Gaius Julius Celsus Polemaeanus, built by his son Galius Julius Aquila in 135 in Ephesus. ... Historical Map of Ephesus, from Meyers Konversationslexikon 1888 Ephesus (Greek: , Turkish: ), was one of the cities of Ionia in Asia Minor, located in Lydia where the Cayster River (Küçük Menderes) flows into the Aegean Sea. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite empire was... Location of Phrygia - traditional region (yellow) - expanded kingdom (orange line) In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: ) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolian Highland, part of modern Turkey. ... The Cimmerians (Greek: , Kimmerioi) were ancient equestrian nomads who, according to Herodotus, originally inhabited the region north of the Caucasus and the Black Sea, in what is now Russia and Ukraine, in the 8th and 7th century BC. Assyrian records, however, first place them in the region of Azerbaijan in... Lydia (Greek ) is an historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of İzmir and Manisa. ... Location of Caria Photo of a 15th century map showing Caria. ... Lycia (Lycian: Trm̃misa) is a region in the modern day Antalya Province on the southern coast of Turkey. ... The term Hellenistic (derived from Héllēn, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ...


The west coast of Anatolia was meanwhile settled by the Ionians, one of the ancient Greek peoples. The entire area was conquered by the Persian Achaemenid Empire during the 6th and 5th centuries and later fell to Alexander the Great in 334 BCE.[16] Anatolia was subsequently divided into a number of small Hellenistic kingdoms (including Bithynia, Cappadocia, Pergamum, and Pontus), all of which had succumbed to Rome by the mid-1st century BCE.[17] In 324 CE, the Roman emperor Constantine I chose Byzantium to be the new capital of the Roman Empire, renaming it New Rome (later Constantinople and Istanbul). After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, it became the capital of the Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire).[18] The Ionians were one of the three main ancient Greek ethno-linguistic groups, linked by their use of the Ionic dialect of the Greek language. ... The Temple to Athena, the Parthenon Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around three thousand years. ... The Achaemenid Empire (Old Persian: Hakhāmanishiyan, هخامنشیان also frequently, the Achaemenid Persian Empire.) (559 BC–330 BC) was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of Greater Iran. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ... The term Hellenistic (derived from HéllÄ“n, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... Bithynia was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine (today Black Sea). ... Look up Cappadocia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Acropolis of Pergamon as seen from above Temple of Trajan at the Acropolis of Pergamon The Asklepeion of Pergamon was the worlds first hospital Pergamon or Pergamum (Greek: Πέργαμος, modern day Bergama in Turkey, ) was an ancient Greek city, in Mysia, north-western Anatolia, 16 miles from the Aegean Sea... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire. ... Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[2] (27 February ca. ... Byzantium (Greek: Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek city, which, according to legend, was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... New Rome has been used for: It was a common name applied to Constantinople, the city founded by emperor Constantine I the Great in 324 (known as Byzantium before that date; renamed Istanbul in modern times). ... Map of Constantinople. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... The Western Roman Empire is the western half of the Roman Empire after its division by Diocletian in 286. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ...


Turks and the Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (ca. 1680)
The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (ca. 1680)

The House of Seljuk was a branch of the Kinik Oğuz Turks who in the 9th century resided on the periphery of the Muslim world, north of the Caspian and Aral Seas in the Yabghu Khaganate of the Oğuz confederacy.[19] In the 10th century, the Seljuks migrated from their ancestral homelands into the eastern Anatolian regions that had been an area of settlement for Oğuz Turkic tribes since the end of the first millennium. The present distribution of Turkic languages bears witness to the Early Medieval westward expansion of Turkic tribes. ... The Turks (Turkish people), whose name was first used in history in the 6th century AD by the Chinese [1], are a society whose language belongs to the Turkic language family (which in turn some classify as a subbranch of Altaic linguistic family. ... The Seljuk Turks (Turkish: Selçuk; Arabic: سلجوق Saljūq, السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; Persian: سلجوقيان Saljūqiyān; also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq) were a major branch of... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish (official); spoken languages include Abkhazian, Adyghe, Albanian, Arabic, Aramaic, Armenian, Azerbaijani... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1684x1347, 243 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ottoman Empire Suleiman the Magnificent Turkey Eastern Question Turkish people History of the Turkish people List of Ottoman... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1684x1347, 243 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ottoman Empire Suleiman the Magnificent Turkey Eastern Question Turkish people History of the Turkish people List of Ottoman... The Oghuz Turks (also with various alternate spellings, including Oguz, OÄŸuz, Ouz, Okuz, Oufoi, Guozz, Ghuzz and Uz) are regarded as one of the major branches of Turkic peoples. ... Muslim history began in Arabia with Muhammads first recitations of the Quran in the 7th century. ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... The Aral Sea (Kazakh: Арал Теңізі (Aral Tengizi), Uzbek: , Russian Аральскοе мοре) is a landlocked endorheic sea in Central Asia; it lies between Kazakhstan in the north and Karakalpakstan, an autonomous region of Uzbekistan, in the south. ... Khagan or Great Khan (Old Turkic , alternatively spelled Chagan, Khaghan, Kagan, Qagan, Qaghan), is a title of imperial rank in the Mongolian and Turkic languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a Khaganate (empire, greater than an ordinary Khan, but often referred to as such in...

The Sultan Ahmed Mosque (Blue Mosque) is one of the most famous architectural legacies of the Ottoman Empire.
The Sultan Ahmed Mosque (Blue Mosque) is one of the most famous architectural legacies of the Ottoman Empire.

Following their victory over the Byzantine Empire in the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, the Turks began to abandon their nomadic roots in favour of a permanent role in Anatolia, bringing rise to the Seljuk Empire.[20] In 1243, the Seljuk armies were defeated by the Mongols and the power of the empire slowly disintegrated. In its wake, one of the Turkish principalities governed by Osman I was to evolve into the Ottoman Empire, thus filling the void left by the collapsed Seljuks and Byzantines.[21] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x620, 127 KB) Description: The Sultan Ahmed Mosque Source: German Wikipedia, original upload 18. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x620, 127 KB) Description: The Sultan Ahmed Mosque Source: German Wikipedia, original upload 18. ... The Sultan Ahmed Mosque (Turkish: Sultanahmet Camii) is a mosque in Istanbul, the largest city in Turkey and the capital of the Ottoman Empire (from 1453 to 1923). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Seljuk Turks Commanders Romanus IV #, Nikephoros Bryennios, Theodore Alyates, Andronikos Doukas Alp Arslan Strength ~ 40,000 [1] ~ 15,000 [2] Casualties ~ 8,000 [3] Unknown The Battle of Manzikert, or The Battle of Malazgirt, was fought between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuk Turkish forces led by Alp... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Another picture of Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Их Монгол Улс, literally meaning Greater Mongol Nation; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous land empire in history, covering over 33 million km² [1] (12 million square miles) at its peak, with an estimated population of over 100 million... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Byzantine Greeks or Byzantines, is a conventional term used by modern historians to refer to the medieval Greek or Hellenized citizens of the Byzantine Empire, centered mainly in Constantinople, southern Balkans, the Greek islands, the coasts of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) and the large urban centres of Near East and...


The Ottoman Empire interacted with both Eastern and Western cultures throughout its 623-year history. In the 16th and 17th centuries, it was among the world's most powerful political entities, often locking horns with the powers of eastern Europe in its steady advance through the Balkans and the southern part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.[3] Following years of decline, the Ottoman Empire entered World War I through the Ottoman-German Alliance in 1914, and was ultimately defeated. After the war, the victorious Allied Powers sought the dismemberment of the Ottoman state through the Treaty of Sèvres.[21] The term Eastern world refers very broadly to the various cultures, social structures and philosophical systems of the East, namely Asia (including China, India, Japan, and surrounding regions). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Western World. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Graphical timeline Decline of the Ottoman Empire covers the military and political events between 1828 to 1908. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Ottoman-German Alliance was an alliance established between the Ottoman Empire and the German Empire on August 2nd, 1914. ... Map of the World showing the participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Allies side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray. ... Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire is direct consequence of the World War I with the Ottomans involvement in the Middle Eastern theatre. ... The Treaty of Sèvres is a peace treaty that the Allies of World War I and the Ottoman Empire signed on 10 August 1920 after World War I. Representatives from the governments of the parties involved signed the treaty in Sèvres, France. ...


Republican era

Main articles: History of the Republic of Turkey and Atatürk's reforms
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk - Founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk - Founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey

The occupation of İstanbul and İzmir by the Allies in the aftermath of World War I prompted the establishment of the Turkish national movement.[3] Under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Pasha, a military commander who had distinguished himself during the Battle of Gallipoli, the Turkish War of Independence was waged with the aim of revoking the terms of the Treaty of Sèvres.[2] By September 18, 1922, the occupying armies were repelled and the country saw the birth of the new Turkish state. On November 1, the newly founded parliament formally abolished the Sultanate, thus ending 623 years of Ottoman rule. The Treaty of Lausanne of 1923 led to the international recognition of the sovereignty of the newly formed "Republic of Turkey" as the successor state of the Ottoman Empire, and the republic was officially proclaimed on October 29, 1923, in the new capital of Ankara.[3] History of Turkey redirects here. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ataturk_6_August_1929. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ataturk_6_August_1929. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Combatants Turkish Revolutionaries Commanders Mustafa Kemal 1 1commander during restoration. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Establishment of Turkish national movement explains the initial stages of the alliance that will become Turkish revolutionaries which waged an independence war that resulted in decleration of Republic of Turkey. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Pasha (or pascha, bashaw; Turkish: paÅŸa; originally from Persian padshah or padeshah meaning king or from Turkish bash head, chief [1]) was a high rank in the Ottoman Empire political system, typically granted to governors and generals. ... Combatants British Empire Australia India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom France Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Otto von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Strength 5 divisions (initial) 14 divisions (final) 6 divisions Casualties 252,000 251,309 The Battle of Gallipoli took place at Gallipoli from April 1915 to... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... The Grand National Assembly (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi in Turkish) is the unicameral parliament of Turkey which carries out legislative functions. ... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Borders as shaped by the treaty The Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923) was a peace treaty that settle a part of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire that reflected the consequences of the Turkish Independence War between Allies of World War I and Turkish national movement, (Grand National Assembly... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Succession of states. ... October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ...


Mustafa Kemal became the republic's first president and subsequently introduced many radical reforms with the aim of founding a new secular republic from the remnants of its Ottoman past.[3] According to the Law on Family Names, the Turkish parliament presented Mustafa Kemal with the honorific name "Atatürk" (Father of the Turks) in 1934.[2] Presidential flag of Turkey. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ...


Turkey entered World War II on the side of the Allies on February 23, 1945 as a ceremonial gesture and became a charter member of the United Nations in 1945.[4] Difficulties faced by Greece after the war in quelling a communist rebellion, along with demands by the Soviet Union for military bases in the Turkish Straits, prompted the United States to declare the Truman Doctrine in 1947. The doctrine enunciated American intentions to guarantee the security of Turkey and Greece, and resulted in large-scale US military and economic support.[22] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis powers during the Second World War. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans, British troops Communist guerillas (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos, Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos, James Van Fleet Markos Vafiadis Strength 150,000 men 50,000 men and women Casualties 15,000 killed 32,000+ killed or captured The Greek Civil War (Greek: ) was fought between 1946 and... Bosporus - photo taken from International Space Station. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ...


After participating with United Nations forces in the Korean conflict, Turkey joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 1952, becoming a bulwark against Soviet expansion into the Mediterranean. Following a decade of intercommunal violence on the island of Cyprus and the subsequent Athens-inspired coup, Turkey intervened militarily in 1974. Nine years later Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) was established. TRNC is recognised only by Turkey.[23] Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... The Mediterranean Basin refers to the lands around and surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. ... Combatants Greek Cypriots Aided by Hellenic Republic Turkish Cypriots Aided by Republic of Turkey Strength 30,000[1] 5,000[2] The Cypriot Civil War refers to a period of inter-ethnic conflict between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots on the island of Cyprus from 1963 to 1974. ... Combatants  Turkey  Cyprus Greek military junta The Turkish invasion of Cyprus, referred as the 1974 Cyprus Peace Operation by Turkey was a military action against the island nation of Cyprus by Turkey that resulted in the partition of the Republic of Cyprus. ... Combatants  Turkey  Cyprus Greek military junta The Turkish invasion of Cyprus, referred as the 1974 Cyprus Peace Operation by Turkey was a military action against the island nation of Cyprus by Turkey that resulted in the partition of the Republic of Cyprus. ... Anthem Ä°stiklâl Marşı(Turkish) Independence March Capital Nicosia Official languages Turkish Government Representative democratic republic1  -  President Mehmet Ali Talat  -  Prime Minister Ferdi Sabit Soyer Sovereignty from Cyprus   -  Proclaimed November 15, 1983   -  Recognition Only by Turkey  Area  -  Total 3,355 km² (not ranked) 1,295 sq mi   -  Water (%) 2. ...


Following the end of the single-party period in 1945, the multi-party period witnessed tensions over the following decades, and the period between the 1960s and the 1980s was particularly marked by periods of political instability that resulted in a number of military coups d'états in 1960, 1971, 1980 and a post-modern coup d'état in 1997.[24] The liberalization of the Turkish economy that started in the 1980s changed the landscape of the country, with successive periods of high growth and crises punctuating the following decades.[25] Atatürk, modern Turkeys founder and first President The history of modern Turkey begins with the foundation of the republic on October 29, 1923 (the Republic was declared on January 20, 1921), with Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) as its first president. ... This page summarizes the history after the Multi-party period. ... Turkey was affected by violent clashes during the 1970s between left-wing groups and neo-fascists organizations, which culminated in the 1980 military coup. ... // A coup dÉtat (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, often through illegal means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ... The Military coup in Turkey, 1960 was a coup detat staged by a group of radical officers in their mid-forties and in the ranks of colonel and below of the Turkish Armed Forces against the 19th government of the Democratic Party on May 27, 1960. ... The Coup by memorandum is the second military coup of Turkey carried out on March 12, 1971. ... The September 12, 1980 Turkish coup détat, headed by General Kenan Evren, Chief of the General Staff, was the third military putsch in the history of the Republic after the 1960 coup and the 1971 Coup by Memorandum. Kenan Evren headed the National Security Council (NSC) of five generals... The Post-modern Coup Detat was a military coup in Turkey, occurred on February 28, 1997 overthrowing the coalition government of Necmettin Erbakan. ...


Government and politics

The Grand Chamber of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey in the capital, Ankara

Turkey is a parliamentary representative democracy. Since its foundation as a republic in 1923, Turkey has developed a strong tradition of secularism.[26] Turkey's constitution governs the legal framework of the country. It sets out the main principles of government and establishes Turkey as a unitary centralized state. The current constitution was ratified by referendum in 1982 and has been amended numerous times in recent years.[27] Turkey is a secular, republican parliamentary democracy. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Constitution of the Republic of Turkey The current Constitution of Turkey, ratified in 1982, establishes the organization of the government of the Republic of Turkey and sets out the principles and rules of the states conduct along with its responsibilities towards... Elections in Turkey gives information on election and election results in Turkey. ... Image File history File links TBMMpic. ... Image File history File links TBMMpic. ... A parliamentary system, also known as parliamentarianism (and parliamentarism in U.S. English), is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... Representative democracy is a form of democracy founded on the exercise of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... Map showing secular states highlighted in blue A secular state is a state or country that is officially neutral in matters of religion, neither supporting nor opposing any particular religious beliefs or practices, and has no state religion or equivalent. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Constitution of the Republic of Turkey The current Constitution of Turkey, ratified in 1982, establishes the organization of the government of the Republic of Turkey and sets out the principles and rules of the states conduct along with its responsibilities towards...


The head of state is the President of the Republic and has a largely ceremonial role. The president is elected for a seven-year term by the parliament but is not required to be one of its members. The current President, Ahmet Necdet Sezer, was elected on May 16, 2000, after having served as the President of the Constitutional Court. Executive power is exercised by the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers that make up the government, while the legislative power is vested in the unicameral parliament, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature, and the Constitutional Court is charged with ruling on the conformity of laws and decrees with the constitution. The Council of State is the tribunal of last resort for administrative cases, and the High Court of Appeals for all others.[27] Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... There have been ten Presidents of the Republic of Turkey since its inception. ... Ahmet Necdet Sezer (born September 13, 1941 in Afyonkarahisar) is the tenth and current President of the Republic of Turkey. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... // Overview Part Four, Section Two of the Turkish Constitution has established the Constitutional Court of Turkey that statutes on the conformity of laws and decrees to the Constitution, and it can be seized by the President of the Republic, the government, the members of Parliament or any judge before whom... In political science and constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the state. ... This is a chronological list of every government formed by the Prime Ministers of the Republic of Turkey. ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... The Grand National Assembly (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi in Turkish) is the unicameral parliament of Turkey which carries out legislative functions. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      In law, the judiciary or judicial is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... The Turkish court structure consists of civilian and military courts: // Judicial Courts The judicial courts form the largest part of the system; they handle most civil and criminal cases involving ordinary citizens. ... The Turkish Council of State is the highest court in the Republic of Turkey and is based in Ankara. ... Seal of the High Court of Appeals The High Court of Appeals of Turkey (Turkish: Yargıtay) is the last instance for reviewing decisions and judgements given by courts of justice and which are not referred by law to other judicial authority. ...


The Prime Minister is generally the head of the party that has won the elections and is elected by the parliament through a vote of confidence in his government. The current Prime Minister is the former mayor of İstanbul, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, whose Islamic conservative AKP won an absolute majority of parliamentary seats in the 2002 general elections, organized in the aftermath of the economic crisis of 2001, with 34% of the suffrage.[28][29] Neither the Prime Minister nor the Ministers have to be members of the parliament, but in most cases they are (one notable exception was Kemal Derviş, who was the Minister of State in Charge of Economy following the financial crisis of 2001;[30] he is currently the president of the UN Development Programme).[31] Political parties in Turkey lists political parties in Turkey. ... Recep Tayyip ErdoÄŸan (born February 26, 1954), became the Prime Minister of Turkey on March 14, 2003. ... The Justice and Development Party (Turkish: Adalet ve Kalkınma Partisi or AKP, or AK Parti[1]) is a right-wing, moderately conservative Turkish political party. ... Turkeys 15th general election was held two years early on Sunday 3 November 2002, following the collapse of the DSP-MHP-ANAP coalition led by Bülent Ecevit. ... Kemal DerviÅŸ is a Turkish economist and politician. ... The United Nations Development Programe (UNDP), the United Nations global development network, is the largest multilateral source of development assistance in the world. ...


There are 550 members of parliament who are elected for a five-year term by a party-list proportional representation system from 85 electoral districts which represent the 81 administrative provinces of Turkey (İstanbul is divided into three electoral districts whereas Ankara and İzmir are divided into two each because of their large populations). To avoid a hung parliament and its excessive political fragmentation, only parties that win at least 10% of the votes cast in a national parliamentary election gain the right to representation in the parliament. As a result of this threshold, only two parties were able to obtain that right during the last elections in 2002.[32] Independent candidates may run; however, they must also win at least 10% of the vote in their circonscription to be elected.[33] Universal suffrage for both sexes has been applied throughout Turkey since 1933, and every Turkish citizen who has turned 18 years of age has the right to vote. As of 2004, there were 50 registered political parties in the country, whose ideologies range from the far left to the far right.[33] The Constitutional Court can strip the public financing of political parties that it deems anti-secular or separatist, or ban their existence altogether.[34][35] Party-list proportional representation systems are a family of voting systems used in multiple-winner elections (e. ... Provinces of Turkey are called iller in Turkish (singular is il, see Turkish alphabet for capitalization of i). ... Ä°zmir (Ottoman Turkish: إزمير Ä°zmir, Greek: Σμύρνη SmýrnÄ“, Armenian: Ô»Õ¦Õ´Õ«Ö€ Izmir, Italian: Smirne, Ladino: Izmir, without the Turkish dotted I) is the third most populous city of Turkey and the countrys largest port after Ä°stanbul. ... In Parliamentary systems, a hung parliament is one in which no one political party has an outright majority. ... In party-list proportional representation systems, an election threshold is a clause that stipulates that a party must receive a minimum percentage of votes, either nationally or within a particular district, to get any seats in the parliament. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... Political parties in Turkey lists political parties in Turkey. ... The term far left refers to the relative position a person or group occupies within the political spectrum. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into far right. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Separatism is a term usually applied to describe the attitudes or motivations of those seeking independence or separation of their land or region from the country that governs them. ...


The military has traditionally been a politically powerful institution, considered as the guardians of Atatürk's Republic. The protection of the Turkish Constitution and the unity of the country is given by law to the Turkish Armed Forces, and it therefore plays a formal political role via the National Security Council (NSC) as the guardian of the secular, unitary nature of the republic and the reforms of Atatürk.[24] Through the NSC, the army contributes to recommendations for defense policy against any threat to the country, including those pertaining to ethnic separatism or religious extremism. In recent years, reforms led to efforts to reduce the military's constitutional responsibilities, under the program of compliance with EU demands and an increased civilian presence on the NSC.[36] Despite its influence in civilian affairs and possibly because of it, the military owns strong unequivocal support from the nation and is considered to be the country's most trusted institution.[37] Turkish Armed Forces (TAF) (Turkish: Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri (TSK)) consists of the Army, the Navy (includes Naval Air and Naval Infantry) and the Air Force. ... The National Security Council (Milli Güvenlik Kurulu (MGK) in Turkish) is a powerful body that unites the top civilian and military leaders, and issues ‘recommendations’ to the government upon all matters vaguely defined as touching on the security of the state of the Turkish Republic. ... A map showing the unitary states. ... Turkish Army (Turkish: Türk Kara Kuvvetleri) is a branch of the Turkish Armed Forces. ...


Foreign relations

Roosevelt, İnönü and Churchill at the Second Cairo Conference in December 1943

Turkey's main political, economic and military relations have remained rooted within the West since the foundation of the republic and its membership to NATO in 1952.[22] Ankara became a crucial strategic ally in diverting Soviet forces from Central Europe and preventing their expansion into the Mediterranean. Though primarily a Western orientated actor in international affairs, Turkey also fostered relations with the Middle East, becoming the only NATO member of the Organization of the Islamic Conference, as well as forging close relations with Israel.[38] Image File history File links Roosevelt_Inonu_Churchill. ... Image File history File links Roosevelt_Inonu_Churchill. ... FDR redirects here. ... Mustafa İsmet İnönü (September 24, 1884–December 25, 1973) was a Turkish soldier, statesman and the second President of Turkey. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was an English statesman, soldier and author. ... Roosevelt, Inönü and Churchill at the Second Cairo Conference on December 4-6, 1943 The Second Cairo Conference (codenamed SEXTANT) of December 4-December 6, 1943, held in Cairo, Egypt, addressed Turkeys possible contribution to the Allies in World War II. The meeting was attended by President Franklin... Because of geopolitical reasons, foreign relations of the Republic of Turkey are primarily with the Western world and its neighboring countries. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... The flag of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) OIC redirects here. ...


The European Union remains Turkey's biggest trading partner, and the presence of a well-established Turkish diaspora in Europe has contributed to the development of extensive relations between the two over the years. Turkey became a member of the Council of Europe in 1949, applied for associate membership of the EEC (predecessor of the EU) in 1959 and became an associate member in 1963. After decades of political negotiations, Turkey applied for full membership of the EEC in 1987, reached a Customs Union agreement with the EU in 1995 and has officially begun accession negotiations on October 3, 2005.[10] It is believed that the accession process will take at least 15 years because of Turkey's size and the depth of disagreements over certain issues.[39] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 6 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General  Terry Davis  -  Commissioner for Human Rights   Establishment  -  Treaty of London May... The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... On 31 December 1995 the customs union between Turkey and the European Union came into effect. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Historically, relations with neighbouring Greece have known periods of tension. The long divided island of Cyprus and the disputes over the air and sea boundaries of the Aegean Sea remain the main issues of disagreement between the two neighbours.[40] Recently, the issue of Cyprus has become one of the main points of contention in Turkey's accession negotiations with the EU since Turkey is refusing to open its ports to Greek Cypriot traffic.[41] Nonetheless, following the consecutive earthquakes of 1999 in Turkey and Greece, and the prompt response of aid and rescue teams from both sides, the two nations have entered a much more positive period in their relations, with Greece actively supporting Turkey's candidacy to enter the European Union.[42] Relations between Greece and Turkey have been marked by alternating periods of mutual hostility and reconciliation ever since Greece won its independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1832. ... The term Aegean dispute refers to a set of interrelated controversial issues between Greece and Turkey over sovereignty and related rights in the area of the Aegean Sea. ... The Cyprus dispute is the conflict between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots and also Republic of Cyprus and Turkey over Cyprus, an island nation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. ... Greek Cypriot refers to the Greek-speaking population of Cyprus. ... The 1999 Ä°zmit earthquake was a 7. ... The Greek-Turkish earthquake diplomacy was initiated after successive earthquakes hit both countries in the summer of 1999 and led Greco-Turkish relations to an improvement. ...


Since the end of the Cold War, Turkey has been actively building relations with former communist countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, leading to many reciprocal investments and migratory currents between these states and Turkey.[43] However, Turkey's relations with neighbouring Armenia are still tense due to the ongoing stalemate in Nagorno-Karabakh between Armenia and Azerbaijan, a Turkic-speaking neighbour and ally of Turkey, and also due to the controversy surrounding the events of 1915–17, in which actions by the Ottoman Young Turks led to the forced mass evacuation and related deaths of an estimated hundreds of thousands, up to 1.5 million, Armenians.[44] The Turkish government rejects the notion that these events constituted a genocide, and instead states the deaths, in the waning days of the Ottoman Empire during World War I, were a result of inter-ethnic strife, disease and famine.[45] Owing to its secular traditions, Turkey has always viewed suspiciously certain countries in the region and this has caused tensions in the past, particularly with its largest neighbour, Iran.[46] For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Map of Eastern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China with an estimated 140 million native speakers and tens of millions of second-language speakers. ... Armenian Genocide photo. ... The Young Turks (Turkish Jön Türkler (plural), from French Jeunes Turcs, Turkish: Genç Türkler) was a coalition of various reform groups in favor of reforming the administration of Ottoman Empire. ... Genocide is the mass killing of a group of people as defined by Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or... A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... The relations between Iran and Turkey have been generally peaceful since the establishment of the Turkish Republic, but sometimes have also been strained. ...


Even though Turkey participated in the NATO-led peacekeeping mission in Afghanistan after September 11, the Iraq War faced strong domestic opposition in Turkey. A government motion which would have allowed U.S. troops to attack Iraq from Turkey's southeastern border couldn't reach the absolute majority of 276 votes needed for its adoption in the Turkish Parliament, the final tally being 264 votes for and 250 against.[47] This led to a cooling in relations between the U.S. and Turkey and fears that they may be damaged as a result of the situation in Iraq.[48] Turkey is particularly cautious about an independent Kurdish state arising from a destabilised Iraq; it has previously fought an insurgent war on its own soil, in which an estimated 37,000 people lost their lives, against the PKK (listed as a terrorist organization by a number of states and organisations, including the U.S. and the EU).[49][50] This led the Turkish government to put pressure on the U.S. to clamp down on insurgent training camps in northern Iraq, without much success.[46] Combatants Taliban al-Qaeda IMU Hezbi Islami Afghanistan Northern Alliance United Nations: ISAF NATO, including: Canada United Kingdom Netherlands France United States Commanders Osama bin Laden Mohammed Omar Obaidullah Akhund Mullah Dadullah† Bismillah Khan Tommy Franks David Fraser Ton van Loon David Richards Dan McNeill Strength 12,000 claimed by... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Turkey-United States relations evolved from Turkeys entrance into World War II on the Allied side shortly before the war ended and it becoming a charter member of the United Nations. ... Motto: None Anthem: Ey Reqîb (English: Hey Guardian) Capital Arbil Largest city Erbil Official languages Kurdish, Arabic, (Assyrian (Syriac)) and (Iraqi Turkmen) [1] Government Parliamentary Democracy  - President Masoud Barzani  - Prime Minister Nechervan Idris Barzani  - Deputy Prime Minister Omer Fattah Hussain Formation of Autonomous Region    - Autonomy Accord Agreement is Signed... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Kurdistan Workers Party (aka PKK) is listed by the following states as a terrorist organization: United States Turkey European Union Iran Syria several other countries, Its actions has been criticised by human rights groups such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch. ...


Military

TAI-built F-16 fighter jets belonging to various Turkish Air Force squadrons

The Turkish Armed Forces consists of the Army, the Navy and the Air Force. The Gendarmerie and the Coast Guard operate as parts of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in peacetime, although they are subordinated to the Army and Navy Commands respectively in wartime, during which they have both internal law enforcement and military functions.[51] Turkish Armed Forces (TAF) (Turkish: Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri (TSK)) consists of the Army, the Navy (includes Naval Air and Naval Infantry) and the Air Force. ... // Overview In Turkey, compulsory military service applies to all male citizens from twenty to forty one years of age (with some exceptions). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2126x1535, 216 KB) F-16s of the Turkish Air Force http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2126x1535, 216 KB) F-16s of the Turkish Air Force http://www. ... link title--85. ... The F-16 Fighting Falcon is a modern multi-role jet fighter aircraft built in the United States and used by dozens of countries all over the world. ... Turkish Air Force (Turkish: Türk Hava Kuvvetleri) is a branch of the Turkish Armed Forces. ... Turkish Armed Forces (TAF) (Turkish: Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri (TSK)) consists of the Army, the Navy (includes Naval Air and Naval Infantry) and the Air Force. ... Turkish Army (Turkish: Türk Kara Kuvvetleri) is a branch of the Turkish Armed Forces. ... Seal of the Turkish Navy Turkish Navy (Turkish: ) is a branch of the Turkish Armed Forces. ... Turkish Air Force (Turkish: Türk Hava Kuvvetleri) is a branch of the Turkish Armed Forces. ... Seal of the Turkish Gendarmerie The Gendarmerie of The Republic of Turkey is a branch of Turkish Armed Forces, which is responsible for the maintenance of Safety and public order as well as carrying out other duties assigned by laws and regulation, is an armed security and law enforcement force... Turkish Coast Guard Branch of the Turkish Armed Forces during war time, the Turkish Coast Guard (Ottoman: Rusumet Emaneti Teskilati, Later Turkish: Sahil Güvenlik Komutanlığı) was established in 1859. ...


The Chief of the General Staff is appointed by the President, and is responsible to the Prime Minister. The Council of Ministers is responsible to the parliament for matters of national security and the adequate preparation of the armed forces to defend the country. However, the authority to declare war and to deploy the Turkish Armed Forces to foreign countries or to allow foreign armed forces to be stationed in Turkey rests solely with the parliament.[51] The actual Commander of the armed forces is the Chief of the General Staff General Yaşar Büyükanıt, who succeeded General Hilmi Özkök on August 26, 2006.[52] The Chief of the Turkish General Staff is a military person of rank general, who presides the general staff of the armed forces - army, navy, air force - of Turkey. ... General Mehmet YaÅŸar Büyükanıt (born 1940 in Istanbul) is the commander of the Turkish Land Forces. ... General Hilmi Özkök (born 1940) is the current Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces of Turkey (Turk Silahli Kuvvetleri, TSK). ... August 26 is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

F-247 TCG Kemal Reis is a Salih Reis (MEKO 200TN II-B) class frigate of the Turkish Navy

The Turkish Armed Forces is the second largest standing armed force in NATO, after the U.S. Armed Forces, with a combined strength of 1,043,550 uniformed personnel serving in its five branches.[53][36] Every fit heterosexual male Turkish citizen is required to serve in the military for time periods ranging from three weeks to fifteen months, depending on his education and job location (homosexuals have the right to be exempt, if they so request).[54] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 249 KB) SalihReis (MEKO 200TN II-B) class frigates of the Turkish Navy http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 249 KB) SalihReis (MEKO 200TN II-B) class frigates of the Turkish Navy http://www. ... Göke (1495) was the flagship of Kemal Reis Kemal Reis (circa 1451-1511) was a Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral. ... Salih Reis (1488 ca. ... Bold textIn shipbuilding, MEKO refers to a family of warships developed by the German company Blohm + Voss. ... Seal of the Turkish Navy Turkish Navy (Turkish: ) is a branch of the Turkish Armed Forces. ... The armed forces of a state are its government sponsored defense and fighting forces and organizations. ... The Military of the United States, officially known as the United States Armed Forces, is structured into five branches consisting of the: United States Army United States Marine Corps United States Navy United States Air Force United States Coast Guard The U.S. Public Health Service and NOAA also have... LGBT rights Around the world · By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Persecution Violence This box:      The militaries of the world have a variety of responses to homosexual and bisexual orientations. ...


In 1998, Turkey announced a program of modernization worth some US$31 billion over a ten year period in various projects including tanks, helicopters and assault rifles.[55] Turkey is also a Level 3 contributor to the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program, gaining an opportunity to develop and influence the creation of the next generation fighter spearheaded by the United States.[56] ISO 4217 Code USD User(s) the United States, the British Indian Ocean Territory,[1] the British Virgin Islands, Cambodia, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Panama, Turks and Caicos Islands, and the insular areas of the United States Inflation 2. ... A helicopter is an aircraft which is lifted and propelled by one or more horizontal rotors consisting of two or more rotor blades. ... The AK-47 is the worlds most common assault rifle. ... The F-35 Lightning II is a single-seat, single-engined military strike fighter, a multi-role aircraft that can perform close air support, tactical bombing, and air-to-air combat. ...


Turkey has maintained forces in international missions under the United Nations and NATO since 1950, including peacekeeping missions, various missions in the former Yugoslavia, and support to coalition forces in the First Gulf War. Turkey maintains 36,000 troops in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus and has had troops deployed in Afghanistan as part of the U.S. stabilization force and the UN-authorized, NATO-commanded International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) since 2001.[57][58] In 2006, the Turkish parliament deployed a peacekeeping force of Navy patrol vessels and around 700 ground troops as part of an expanded United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL) in the wake of the Israeli-Lebanon conflict.[59] It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: Land of the South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... Combatants Taliban al-Qaeda IMU Hezbi Islami Afghanistan Northern Alliance United Nations: ISAF NATO, including: Canada United Kingdom Netherlands France United States Commanders Osama bin Laden Mohammed Omar Obaidullah Akhund Mullah Dadullah† Bismillah Khan Tommy Franks David Fraser Ton van Loon David Richards Dan McNeill Strength 12,000 claimed by... Logo of ISAF. Persian writing: Ú©Ù…Ú© Ùˆ همکاری (Komak va Hamkari) means Help and Cooperation. International Security Assistance Force (10) (ISAF) is an international military force in Afghanistan led by NATO and consisting of about 32,000 personnel from 37 nations as of October 5, 2006. ... A Sisu XA-180 used by Swedish UNIFIL forces in Lebanon The United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon, or UNIFIL, was created by the United Nations, with the adoption of Security Council Resolution 425 and 426 on March 19, 1978, to confirm Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon, restore international peace and... Combatants Hezbollah Amal LCP  Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah (Secretary General of Hezbollah) Imad Mughniyeh (Commander of Hezbollahs armed wing)[5] Dan Halutz (CoS) Moshe Kaplinsky[12] Udi Adam (Regional) Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[6] 30,000 ground troops (plus IAF & ISC)[13...


Administrative divisions

The capital city of Turkey is Ankara. The territory of Turkey is subdivided into 81 provinces for administrative purposes. The provinces are organized into 7 regions for census purposes; however, they do not represent an administrative structure. Each province is divided into districts, for a total of 923 districts. Below each region you will find associated Cities with the region. ... Provinces of Turkey are called iller in Turkish (singular is il, see Turkish alphabet for capitalization of i). ... The provinces of Turkey are divided into 923 districts (ilçeler; sing. ... This is a list of cities in Turkey by population (according to the 2000 census). ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after İstanbul. ... Below each region you will find associated Cities with the region. ... 1870 US Census for New York City A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ...


Provinces usually bear the same name as their provincial capitals, also called the central district; exceptions to this are the provinces of Hatay (capital: Antakya), Kocaeli (capital: İzmit) and Sakarya (capital: Adapazarı). Provinces with the largest populations are İstanbul (+10 million), Ankara (+4 million), İzmir (+3.4 million), Konya (+2.2 million), Bursa (+2.1 million) and Adana (+1.85 million). Hatay is a province of southern Turkey, situated between the Mediterranean Sea to the west and Syria to the south and east. ... Antakya (Antiokheia, Antakiya, ), located on the eastern side (left bank) of the Orontes River (in Turkish: Asi Nehri) about 20 miles from the sea, is the seat of Hatay Province, Turkey. ... Kocaeli is a province of Turkey. ... Ä°zmit (ancient Nicomedia) is a city in [[Turkey], administrative center of Kocaeli Province as well as Kocaeli Metropolitan Municipality . ... Sakarya is a province of Turkey and is located in the Marmara region. ... Adapazarı is the capital of the Turkish province of Sakarya. ... Shows the Location of the Province İstanbul Istanbul Province is a province located in north-west Turkey. ... Shows the Location of the Province Ankara Ankara Province is a province located in central Turkey. ... Ä°zmir is a province of Turkey in western Anatolia on the Aegean coast. ... Shows the Location of the Province Konya Konya is a province of Turkey located in central Anatolia. ... Bursa is a province in western Turkey, along the Sea of Marmara. ... Adana Province is a province with a surface area of 14. ...


The biggest city and the pre-Republican capital İstanbul is the financial, economic and cultural heart of the country.[60] Other important cities include İzmir, Bursa, Adana, Trabzon, Malatya, Gaziantep, Erzurum, Kayseri, İzmit, Konya, Mersin, Eskişehir, Diyarbakır, Antalya and Samsun. An estimated 67% of Turkey's population live in urban centers.[61] In all, 12 cities have populations that exceed 500,000, and 48 cities have more than 100,000 inhabitants. Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Ä°zmir (Ottoman Turkish: إزمير Ä°zmir, Greek: Σμύρνη SmýrnÄ“, Armenian: Ô»Õ¦Õ´Õ«Ö€ Izmir, Italian: Smirne, Ladino: Izmir, without the Turkish dotted I) is the third most populous city of Turkey and the countrys largest port after Ä°stanbul. ... Bursa (formerly known as Brusa, Greek Prusa, Προύσσα) is a city in northwestern Turkey and the capital of Bursa Province. ... Adana (the ancient Antioch in Cilicia or Antioch on the Sarus) is the capital of Adana Province in Turkey. ... Trabzon, formerly known as Trebizond (Modern Greek: Τραπεζούντα, Trapezoúnta; Ancient Greek: , Trapezoûs), is a city on the Black Sea coast of northeastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province. ... Malatia can also be a misspelling of the medical term Malacia. ... Gaziantep (Kurdish: , informally, Antep) is the capital city of Gaziantep Province in Turkey. ... Erzurum (Ô¿Õ¡Ö€Õ«Õ¶ (Karin) in Armenian) is a city in eastern Anatolia, Turkey. ... Kayseri (Greek: Καισάρεια), in the antiquity Mazaka and later Caesarea, is an industrialized city in Turkey. ... Ä°zmit (ancient Nicomedia) is a city in [[Turkey], administrative center of Kocaeli Province as well as Kocaeli Metropolitan Municipality . ... Tomb of Mevlana Rumi is a popular attraction of Konya. ... This article is about the city of Mersin, see Mersin Province, (named İçel province until 2002), for information about the surrounding area. ... EskiÅŸehir (Greek:Δορύλαιον, Dorylaion) is the capital of EskiÅŸehir Province, Turkey. ... Diyarbakır (Ottoman Turkish: دیاربکر land of the Bekr as derived from Persian; Kurdish Amed; Syriac ; Greek Amida; Armenian Ô±Õ´Õ«Õ¤ Amid) is a major city in the Southeastern Anatolia region of Turkey. ... Antalya (formerly known as Adalia; from Pamphylian Greek: Αττάλεια Attália) is a large town and tourist destination, situated on the Mediterranean coast of southwestern Turkey. ... Samsun, Turkey Samsun (Greek: Σαμψούντα Sampsoúnta) is a city in northern Turkey, on the coast of the Black Sea, with a population of 396,900 as of 2004. ...

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x500, 22 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Turkey Provinces of Turkey Template:Turkey Labelled Map ...

Kırklareli
Tekirdağ
Balıkesir
İstanbul
Eskişehir
İzmir
Aydın
Muğla
Uşak
Kırşehir
Kırıkkale
Çankırı
Bartın
Çorum
Nevşehir
Niğde
K. Maraş
Şanlıurfa
Adıyaman
Gümüşhane
Ağrı
Iğdır
Elazığ
Diyarbakır
Şırnak
Muş


Major cities: Shows the Location of the Province Ankara Ankara Province is a province located in central Turkey. ... shows the Location of the Province Kırklareli Kırklareli is a province of northwestern Turkey on the west coast of the Black Sea. ... Location of Edirne Province Edirne is the westernmost province of Turkey, located in European Turkey (known in antiquity as Thrace) along the Greek border. ... Location of Tekirdağ Province Tekirdağ province in the northwestern part of Turkey (known in antiquity as Thrace) includes the city of Tekirdağ and its surrounding area. ... shows the Location of the Province Canakkale Çanakkale is a province of Turkey, located in the northwestern part of the country. ... shows the Location of the Province Balıkesir Balıkesir is a province in midwestern Turkey, having shorelines on both Marmara and the Aegean seas. ... Bursa is a province in western Turkey, along the Sea of Marmara. ... Yalova is a province in northwestern Turkey, along the Sea of Marmora. ... Shows the Location of the Province İstanbul Istanbul Province is a province located in north-west Turkey. ... Kocaeli is a province of Turkey. ... Sakarya is a province of Turkey and is located in the Marmara region. ... shows the Location of the Province Düzce Düzce is a province in northwestern Turkey. ... Shows the Location of the Province Zonguldak Zonguldak is a province along the western Black Sea coast region of Turkey. ... shows the Location of the Province Bolu Bolu is a province in north western Turkey, around the ancient city of Bolu. ... Location of Bilecik Province Bilecik is a province in midwest Turkey, neighboring Bursa to the east, Kocaeli and Sakarya to the north, Bolu to the west, Eskişehir to the southeast and Kütahya to the south, spanning an area of 4,307 km². Population is 175,500 (1990). ... shows the Location of the Province Eskişehir Eskişehir (literal meaning: old town) is a province in northwestern Turkey. ... Kütahya is a city in western Turkey with 170,000 inhabitants (2004 estimate), lying on the Porsuk river, at 930 metres above sea level. ... Manisa Province is a Province in western Turkey. ... İzmir is a province of Turkey in western Anatolia on the Aegean coast. ... shows the Location of the Province Aydın Aydın is a province of Turkey, and its located in the southwestern Anatolian district, or more specifically in the Aegan region, in Turkish called Ege bölgesi. ... Shows the Location of Muğla province Muğla province is in southwestern Turkey, along the Aegean Sea. ... shows the Location of the Province Denizli Denizli is a province of Turkey in Western Anatolia. ... Categories: Provinces of Turkey | Turkey geography stubs ... Shows the Location of the Province Uşak Uşak (from Uşşak meaning lovers; alternative transliteration: Ushak) is a province in western Turkey. ... Afyonkarahisar (also called more simply Afyon) is a Turkey. ... Location of Isparta Province Isparta is a province in southwestern Turkey. ... Antalya province is located on the Mediterranean coast of south-west Turkey, between the Taurus Mountains and the Mediterranean sea. ... Shows the Location of the Province Konya Konya is a province of Turkey located in central Anatolia. ... Location of Mersin Province Mersin province is in southern Turkey, along the Mediterranean coast. ... Shows the Location of the Province Karaman Karaman is a province of central Turkey. ... Location of Aksaray Province Aksaray is a province in central Turkey. ... Shows the Location of the Province Kırşehir Kırşehir Province is located in southern Turkey, forming part of the central Anatolian region. ... Location of Kırıkkale Province Kırıkkale is a recently created province of Turkey. ... Location of Çankırı Province Çankırı is a province of Turkey. ... Shows the Location of the Province Karabük Karabük is a province in north-central Turkey. ... shows the Location of the Province Bartin Bartin is a small province in northern Turkey on the Black Sea, surrounding the city of Bartin. ... Shows the Location of the Province Kastamonu Kastamonu is one of the Provinces of Turkey, in the Black Sea Region, to the north of the country. ... Shows the Location of the Province Sinop Sinop is a province of Turkey, along the Black Sea. ... External links çankırı haberleri Categories: | ... Shows the Location of the Province Yozgat Yozgat is a province in central Turkey. ... Shows the Location of the Province Nevşehir Nevşehir is a province in central Turkey. ... Location of Niğde Province Niğde is a province in the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey. ... Adana Province is a province with a surface area of 14. ... Hatay is a province of southern Turkey, situated between the Mediterranean Sea to the west and Syria to the south and east. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Location of the Province Kahramanmaraş Kahramanmaraş (or simply Maraş) is a province of Turkey. ... The Kayseri Province, in central Turkey, is an area that has been linked with mythological stories as well as important figures in Turkish history. ... Shows the Location of the Province Sivas The province of Sivas is located at the eastern part of the Central Anatolian region of Turkey. ... Shows the Location of the Province Tokat Tokat is a province in northern Turkey. ... shows the Location of the Province Amasya Amasya is a province of Turkey, situated in the Black Sea Region to the north of the country. ... Shows the Location of the Province Samsun Samsun is a province of Turkey on the Black Sea coast with a population of 1,209,137 (2000). ... Location of Ordu Province Ordu is a province of Turkey, located on the Black Sea coast. ... shows the Location of the Province Giresun Giresun is a province of Turkey on the Black Sea coast. ... Erzincan Province is a province on the Eastern region of Anatolia, and home to Erzincan, a city which was destroyed and rebuilt after a 7. ... Malatya Province is a province in Anatolia (Turkey). ... shows the Location of the Province Gaziantep Gaziantep(in kurdish: Dîlok) is a province in south-central Turkey, and is also the name of the provinces capital and largest city (population 853,513 as of 2000). ... Location of Kilis Province Kilis is a province of Turkey located in the southern central part of the country along the Syrian border. ... Shows the Location of the Province Şanlıurfa Şanlıurfa (also called simply, Urfa) is a province in Southeast Anatolia, Turkey. ... Map showing the location of Adıyaman Province in the Kurdish region of Turkey Adıyaman is a province in south-central Turkey. ... Gumushane (Turkish Gümüşhane) is a province in north Turkey, bordering Bayburt to the East, Trabzon, to the North, Giresun and Erzincan to the west. ... Location of Trabzon Province Trabzon is a province of Turkey on the Black Sea coast. ... Location of Rize Province Rize is a province of Turkey and is located along the eastern part of the Black Sea coast. ... Location of Bayburt Province Bayburt is a province of Turkey. ... shows the Location of the Province Erzurum Erzurum (or Erzerum, Arzen in antiquity, Karin in ancient Armenian, Theodosiupolis or Theodosiopolis during Byzantine rule) is one of the Provinces of Turkey, in the Eastern Anatolia Region, to the east of the country. ... Artvin Province is a province in north-eastern Turkey next to the Black Sea and Georgia (country). ... shows the Location of the Province Ardahan Ardahan is a province in the northwestern-most corner of Turkey, along part of the border with Georgia. ... Kars is a province of Turkey, and is located in the northeastern part of the country, next to the border with Armenia. ... Location of Province Ağrı Ağrı (Armenian: Արարատի; Kurdish: Agirî [1]) is a province on the eastern borders of Turkey, bordering Iran to the east, Kars to the North, Erzurum to the Northeast, Muş and Bitlis to the Southeast, Van to the south, and Iğdır to the northeast. ... shows the Location of the Province Iğdır Igdir is a province in eastern Turkey, located along the border with Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran. ... Shows the Location of the Province Tunceli Tunceli is a province in eastern Turkey. ... Location of Elazığ Province Elazığ Province is a province of Turkey with its seat in the city of Elazığ. This province is also the source of the Euphrates river. ... shows the Location of the Province Diyarbakır Diyarbakır is a province in eastern Turkey. ... Map showing the location of Mardin Province of Turkey Mardin Province is a province of Turkey with a population of 835,173 (2000)[1]. The capital of the Mardin Province is Mardin. ... Location of Batman Province Batman is a Turkish province in the predominantly Kurdish[1][2] southeast of Anatolia, with a population of slightly less than 500,000. ... Location of Siirt Province Siirt is a province of Turkey, located in the southeast. ... Şırnak is a Turkish province in the south east of Anatolia. ... shows the Location of the Province Bitlis Bitlis is a province of Turkey. ... Map showing the location of Bingöl Province Bingöl is a province of Turkey in Eastern Anatolia. ... Shows the Location of the Province Muş Muş (alternative transliteration: Mush) is a province in eastern Turkey. ... Shows the Location of the Province Van Van is a province in eastern Turkey, between Lake Van and the Iranian border. ... shows the Location of the Province Hakkari Hakkari is a province in southernmost Turkey, located at the juncture of Iraq and Iran. ...

(Population figures are given according to the 2000 census)[62] The location of Istanbul Province Maiden Tower and Historical Peninsula of Istanbul Istanbul (Turkish: İstanbul) (the former Constantinople, Greek: Κωνσταντινούπολις) is the largest city in Turkey, and arguably the most important. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after İstanbul. ... İzmir (Ottoman Turkish: إزمير İzmir, Greek: Σμύρνη Smýrnē, Armenian: Իզմիր Izmir, Italian: Smirne, Ladino: Izmir, without the Turkish dotted I) is the third most populous city of Turkey and the countrys largest port after İstanbul. ... Bursa (formerly known as Brusa or Prusa) is the capital of the Bursa Province in northwestern Turkey. ... Adana (the ancient Antioch in Cilicia or Antioch on the Sarus) is the capital of Adana Province in Turkey. ... Tomb of Mevlana Rumi is a popular attraction of Konya. ... Gaziantep (Kurdish: , informally, Antep) is the capital city of Gaziantep Province in Turkey. ... Antalya (formerly known as Adalia; from Pamphylian Greek: Αττάλεια Attália) is a large town and tourist destination, situated on the Mediterranean coast of southwestern Turkey. ...


Geography and climate

Resort town of Fethiye in the Muğla Province, on the Mediterranean coastline
Resort town of Fethiye in the Muğla Province, on the Mediterranean coastline

The territory of Turkey is more than 1,600 kilometres (1,000 mi) long and 800 km (500 mi) wide, with a roughly rectangular shape.[60] Turkey's area, inclusive of lakes, occupies 779,452 square kilometres (300,948  sq mi), of which 755,688 square kilometres (291,773 sq mi) are in Southwest Asia and 23,764 square kilometres (9,174 sq mi) in Europe,[60] thus making Turkey a transcontinental country. Turkey's size makes it the world's 37th-largest country (after Mozambique). It is somewhat bigger than Chile or the U.S. state of Texas. Turkey is encircled by seas on three sides: the Aegean Sea to the west, the Black Sea to the north and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Turkey also contains the Sea of Marmara in the northwest.[63] Turkey is situated in Anatolia and Southeastern Europe (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe, and Anatolia is part of Southwestern Asia), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria. ... The main Environmental issues in Turkey water pollution from the dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; and the potential for spills from the 5,000 oil- and gas-carrying ships that ass through the Bosporus annually. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Hillside_2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Hillside_2. ... Fethiye is a district of MuÄŸla Province of Turkey. ... Shows the Location of MuÄŸla province MuÄŸla province is in southwestern Turkey, along the Aegean Sea. ... km redirects here. ... A mile is a unit of length, usually used to measure distance, in a number of different systems, including Imperial units, United States customary units and Norwegian/Swedish mil. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... A transcontinental country is a country belonging to more than one continent. ... Countries by area This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by total area. ... Official language(s) No Official Language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Map of the Sea of Marmara Satellite view of the Sea of Marmara The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara Denizi, Modern Greek: Θάλασσα του Μαρμαρά or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating the...


The European section of Turkey, in the northwest, is Eastern Thrace, and forms the borders of Turkey with Greece and Bulgaria. The Asian part of the country, Anatolia (also called Asia Minor), consists of a high central plateau with narrow coastal plains, in between the Köroğlu and East-Black Sea mountain range to the north and the Taurus Mountains to the south. Eastern Turkey has a more mountainous landscape, and is home to the sources of rivers such as the Euphrates, Tigris and Aras, and contains Lake Van and Mount Ararat, Turkey's highest point at 5,165 metres (16,946 ft).[63][64] Prominent issues in Greek foreign policy include a dispute over the name of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, the enduring Cyprus problem, Greek-Turkish differences over the Aegean, and relations with the USA. The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Greek refusal to recognize the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... Demirkazık Summit [IN CHINA] The Taurus Mountains (Turkish: Toros DaÄŸları, also known as Ala-Dagh or Bulghar-Dagh) are a mountain range in the southeastern Anatolian plateau, from which the Euphrates (Turkish: Fırat) descends into Syria. ... Surfer Rosa The Euphrates (IPA: /juːˈfreɪtiːz/; Greek: EuphrátÄ“s; Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu; Hebrew: פְּרָת PÄ•rāth; Syriac: Prâth; Arabic: الفرات Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Kurdish: فرهات, Firhat, Ferhat, Azeri: FÉ™rat) is the western of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... The Aras (also known as Araks, Arax, Araxi, Araxes, Araz, or Yeraskh;Armenian: Ô±Ö€Õ¡Ö„Õ½, Azerbaijani: Araz, Persian: ارس, Kurdish: Aras or Araz) is a river located in and along the countries of Turkey, Iran, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. ... Lake Van from space, September 1996 Lake Van Landsat photo Lake Van (Turkish: Van Gölü, in Armenian: ÕŽÕ¡Õ¶Õ¡ Õ¬Õ«Õ³) is the largest lake in Turkey, located in the far east of the country. ... Mount Ararat (Turkish: , Armenian: , Kurdish: , Greek: , Persian: , Russian: , Hebrew: , Tiberian Hebrew: ) is the tallest peak in Turkey. ... The or meter (see spelling differences) is a measure of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


Turkey is geographically divided into seven regions: Marmara, Aegean, Black Sea, Central Anatolia, Eastern Anatolia, Southeastern Anatolia and the Mediterranean. The uneven north Anatolian terrain running along the Black Sea resembles a long, narrow belt. This region comprises approximately one-sixth of Turkey's total land area. As a general trend, the inland Anatolian plateau becomes increasingly rugged as it progresses eastward.[63] Marmara Region Marmara Region, Turkey|Marmara Region (Marmara Bölgesi) // Marmara Region Balikesir Province Bilecik Province Bursa Province Çanakkale Province Edirne Province İstanbul Province Kirklareli Province Kocaeli Province Sakarya Province Tekirdağ Province Yalova Province Provinces of Turkey Category: ... Aegean Region Aegean Region (Ege Bölgesi), is one of the 7 census-defined regions of Turkey. ... Black Sea Region // Black Sea Region Amasya Province Artvin Province Bartın Province Bayburt Province Bolu Province Çorum Province Düzce Province Giresun Province Gümüşhane Province Karabük Province Kastamonu Province Ordu Province Rize Province Samsun Province Sinop Province Tokat Province Trabzon Province Zonguldak Province Provinces of Turkey... Central Anatolia Region Central Anatolia Region (İç Anadolu Bölgesi) // Central Anatolia Region Aksaray Province Ankara Province Çankiri Province Eskişehir Province Karaman Province Kayseri Province Kirikkale Province Kırşehir Province Konya Province Nevşehir Province Niğde Province Sivas Province Yozgat Province Provinces of Turkey Category: ... East Anatolia Region East Anatolia Region (Turkish: Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi) encompasses the eastern provinces of Turkey, and it is one of the 7 non-administrative sub-division used for census purposes. ... Southeastern Anatolia Region Southeastern Anatolia Region (Turkish: Güneydoğu Anadolu Bölgesi) // Southeastern Anatolia Region Adiyaman Province Batman Province Diyarbakir Province Gaziantep Province Kilis Province Mardin Province Şanlıurfa Province Siirt Province Şırnak Province Provinces of Turkey Category: ... Mediterranean Sea Region Mediterranean Region (Akdeniz Bölgesi), // Mediterranean Region Adana Province Antalya Province Burdur Province Hatay Province Isparta Province Kahramanmaraş Province Mersin province Osmaniye Province Provinces of Turkey Category: ...

Mount Ağrı is the highest peak in Turkey at 5,165 m (16,946 ft) and is located in the Iğdır Province in the Eastern Anatolia region.
Mount Ağrı is the highest peak in Turkey at 5,165 m (16,946 ft) and is located in the Iğdır Province in the Eastern Anatolia region.

Turkey's varied landscapes are the product of complex earth movements that have shaped the region over thousands of years and still manifest themselves in fairly frequent earthquakes and occasional volcanic eruptions. The Bosporus and the Dardanelles owe their existence to the fault lines running through Turkey that led to the creation of the Black Sea. There is an earthquake fault line across the north of the country from west to east, which caused a major earthquake in 1999.[65] Credit(s): Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center. ... Credit(s): Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... shows the Location of the Province Iğdır Igdir is a province in eastern Turkey, located along the border with Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran. ... An earthquake is the result from the sudden release of stored energy in the Earths crust that creates seismic waves. ... For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... Bosporus - photo taken from International Space Station. ... Map of the Dardanelles The Dardanelles (Turkish: Çanakkale Boğazı, Greek: Δαρδανέλλια, Dardanellia), formerly known as the Hellespont (Greek: Eλλήσποντος, Hellespontos), is a narrow strait in northwestern Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara. ... Geologic faults, fault lines or simply faults are planar rock fractures, which show evidence of relative movement. ... The 1999 İzmit earthquake was a 7. ...


The climate is a Mediterranean temperate climate, with hot, dry summers and mild, wet and cold winters, though conditions can be much harsher in the more arid interior. Mountains close to the coast prevent Mediterranean influences from extending inland, giving the interior of Turkey a continental climate with distinct seasons. The central Anatolian Plateau is much more subject to extremes than coastal areas. Winters on the plateau are especially severe. Temperatures of −30 °C to −40 °C (−22 °F to -40 °F) can occur in the mountainous areas in the east, and snow may lie on the ground 120 days of the year. In the west, winter temperatures average below 1 °C (34 °F). Summers are hot and dry, with temperatures generally above 30 °C (86 °F) in the day. Annual precipitation averages about 400 millimetres (15 in), with actual amounts determined by elevation. The driest regions are the Konya plain and the Malatya plain, where annual rainfall frequently is less than 300 millimetres (12 in). May is generally the wettest month, whereas July and August are the most dry.[66] In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


Economy

Levent financial district as seen from the Sporcular Park, Istanbul

For most of its republican history, Turkey has adhered to a quasi-statist approach, with strict government controls over private sector participation, foreign trade, and foreign direct investment. However, during the 1980s, Turkey began a series of reforms, initiated by Prime Minister Turgut Özal and designed to shift the economy from a statist, insulated system to a more private-sector, market-based model.[25] The reforms spurred rapid growth, but this growth was punctuated by sharp recessions and financial crises in 1994, 1999 (following the earthquake of that year),[67] and 2001,[68] resulting in an average of 4% GDP growth per annum between 1981 and 2003.[69] Lack of additional reforms, combined with large and growing public sector deficits and widespread corruption, resulted in high inflation, a weak banking sector and increased macroeconomic volatility.[70] Turkeys economy is an industry and traditional economy where agriculture sector that in 2005 still accounted for 30% of employment. ... At the time of the collapse of the Ottoman Empire (see Economy of the Ottoman Empire) during World War I, the Turkish economy was underdeveloped: agriculture depended on outmoded techniques and poor-quality livestock, and the few factories producing basic products such as sugar and flour were under foreign control. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Levent District Levent is the central business district of Istanbul, located on the European side. ... Statism (or Etatism) is a very loose and often derogatory term that is used to describe: Specific instances of state intervention in personal, social or economic matters. ... Foreign direct investment (FDI) is defined as a long-term investment by a foreign direct investor in an enterprise resident in an economy other than that in which the foreign direct investor is based. ... Turgut Özal was a Turkish political leader, Prime minister and 8th president of Turkey. ... A market economy (also called free market economy or a free enterprise economy) is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods and services takes place through the mechanism of free markets guided by a free price system. ... A recession is traditionally defined in macroeconomics as a decline in a countrys real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for two or more successive quarters of a year (equivalently, two consecutive quarters of negative real economic growth). ... < [[[[math>Insert formula here</math>The public sector is that part of economic and administrative life that deals with the delivery of goods and services by and for the [[government </math></math></math></math> Direct administration funded through taxation; the delivering organisation generally has no specific requirement to meet commercial... A budget deficit occurs when an entity (often a government) spends more money than it takes in. ... // Bayındırbank A.Åž. Albaraka Turk Arap Türk Bankası A.Åž. BankEuropa Bankası A.Åž. Kuveyt Türk Bankası A.Åž. Citibank A.Åž. Deutsche Bank A.Åž. Fortis Bank A.Åž. HSBC Bank A.Åž. ABN AMRO Bank N.V. Banca di Roma S.P.A. Bank Mellat Habib Bank Limited J P Morgan Chase... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Since the economic crisis of 2001 and the reforms initiated by the finance minister of the time, Kemal Derviş, inflation has fallen to single-digit numbers, investor confidence and foreign investment have soared, and unemployment has fallen. Turkey has gradually opened up its markets through economic reforms by reducing government controls on foreign trade and investment and the privatisation of publicly-owned industries, and the liberalisation of many sectors to private and foreign participation has continued amid political debate.[71] Kemal DerviÅŸ is a Turkish economist and politician. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The GDP growth rate for 2005 was 7.4%,[72] thus making Turkey one of the fastest growing economies in the world. Turkey's GDP ranks 17th in the world, and Turkey is a member of G20 which brings together the 20 largest economies of the globe. Turkey's economy is no longer dominated by traditional agricultural activities in the rural areas, but more so by a highly dynamic industrial complex in the major cities, mostly concentrated in the western provinces of the country, along with a developed services sector. The agricultural sector accounts for 11.9% of GDP, whereas industrial and service sectors make up 23.7% and 64.5%, respectively.[61] The tourism sector has experienced rapid growth in the last twenty years, and constitutes an important part of the economy. In 2005, there were 24,124,501 visitors to the country, who contributed 18.2 billion USD to Turkey's revenues.[73] Other key sectors of the Turkish economy are construction, automotive industry, electronics and textiles. The G-20 (Group of 20) is a group consisting of 19 of the worlds largest economies, together with the European Union. ... — Other Turkish Topics Culture - Education Geography - History - Politics Turkey Portal Tourism in Turkey is focused largely on a variety of archaeological and historical sites, and on seaside resorts along its Aegean and Mediterranean coasts. ...

The currency of Turkey is the New Turkish Lira (Yeni Türk Lirası - YTL)

In recent years, the chronically high inflation has been brought under control and this has led to the launch of a new currency to cement the acquis of the economic reforms and erase the vestiges of an unstable economy. On January 1, 2005, the Turkish Lira was replaced by the New Turkish Lira by dropping off six zeroes (1 YTL= 1,000,000 TL).[74] As a result of continuing economic reforms, the inflation has dropped to 8.2% in 2005, and the unemployment rate to 10.3%.[75] With a per capita GDP (Nominal) of 5,062 USD, Turkey ranked 64th in the world in 2005. In 2004, it was estimated that 46.2% of total disposable income was received by the top 20% income earners, whilst the lowest 20% received 6%.[76] Image File history File links TurkishYTL.JPG http://www. ... Image File history File links TurkishYTL.JPG http://www. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Turkish lira was the currency of Turkey until 2005. ... TRY banknotes and coins The Turkish new lira is the current currency of Turkey and of the de facto state Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. ... A regions gross domestic product, or GDP, is one of several measures of the size of its economy. ... Map of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita. ...


Turkey's main trading partners are the European Union (59% of exports and 52% of imports as of 2005),[77] the United States, Russia and Japan. Turkey has taken advantage of a customs union with the European Union, signed in 1995, to increase its industrial production destined for exports, while at the same time benefiting from EU-origin foreign investment into the country.[78] In 2005, exports amounted to 73.5 billion USD while the imports stood at 116.8 billion USD, with increases of 16.3% and 19.7% compared to 2004, respectively.[77] For 2006, the exports amounted to 85.8 billion USD, representing an increase of 16,8% over 2005.[79] On 31 December 1995 the customs union between Turkey and the European Union came into effect. ...


After years of low levels of foreign direct investment (FDI), Turkey succeeded in attracting 8.5 billion USD in FDI in 2005 and is expected to attract a higher figure in 2006.[80] A series of large privatizations, the stability fostered by the start of Turkey's EU accession negotiations, strong and stable growth, and structural changes in the banking, retail, and telecommunications sectors have all contributed to a rise in foreign investment.[71] Foreign direct investment (FDI) is defined as a long-term investment by a foreign direct investor in an enterprise resident in an economy other than that in which the foreign direct investor is based. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ...


Demographics

İstiklal Avenue and the tram line running between Taksim and Tünel

As of 2005, the population of Turkey stood at 72.6 million with a growth rate of 1.5% per annum.[75][61] The Turkish population is relatively young, with 25.5% falling within the 0–15 age bracket.[81] According to statistics released by the government in 2005, life expectancy stands at 68.9 years for men and 73.8 years for women, for an overall average of 71.3 years for the populace as a whole.[82] As of 2005, the population of Turkey stood at 72. ... Languages Turkish Religions Muslim or nominally Muslim, predominantly Sunni Islam, followed by Alevis. ... Turkey is a country shaped and defined by immigration. ... Interior of the Selimiye Mosque, Edirne Nominally, 99. ... // Since the establishment of the republic in 1923, there has been a strong tradition of secularism in Turkey. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 474 KB)Street railway, Istanbul Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 474 KB)Street railway, Istanbul Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Ä°stiklal Avenue Ä°stiklal Avenue (Ä°stiklal Caddesi in Turkish), is one of the most famous avenues in Istanbul, Turkey, approximately visited by 3 million people in one day over the course of weekends. ... Cumhuriyet Aniti located in the middle of Taksim Square Taksim Square (Turkish: Taksim Meydanı) situated in the European part of Istanbul, Turkey, is a major shopping, tourist and leisure district famed for its restaurants, shops and hotels. ... Istanbuls Tünel from 1875 was the first underground railway in continental Europe The Tünel is a short subway line in Istanbul, Turkey. ... World map of human life expectancy, 2005 Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average length of survival of a living thing. ...


Education is compulsory and free from ages 6 to 15. The literacy rate is 95.3% for men and 79.6% for women, for an overall average of 87.4%.[83] This low figure is mainly due to prevailing feudal attitudes against women in the Arab- and Kurdish-inhabited southeastern provinces of the country.[84] World literacy rates by country The traditional definition of literacy is considered to be the ability to read and write, or the ability to use language to read, write, listen, and speak. ...


Article 66 of the Turkish Constitution defines a "Turk" as anyone that is "bound to the Turkish state through the bond of citizenship"; therefore, the legal use of the term "Turkish" as a citizen of Turkey is different from the ethnic definition. However, the majority of the Turkish population are of Turkish ethnicity. Other major ethnic groups include the Kurds, Circassians, Roma, Arabs and the three officially-recognized minorities (per the treaty of Lausanne) of Greeks, Armenians and Jews. The largest non-Turkic ethnicity is the Kurds, a distinct ethnic group traditionally concentrated in the southeast of the country. Minorities other than the three official ones do not have any special group privileges, and while the term "minority" itself remains a sensitive issue in Turkey, it is to be noted that the degree of assimilation within various ethnic groups outside the recognized minorities is high, with the following generations adding to the melting pot of the Turkish main body. Within that main body, certain distinctions based on diverse Turkic origins could be made as well. Reliable data on the exact ethnic repartition of the population is not available, as the Turkish census figures do not include ethnic or racial figures.[85] Wikisource has original text related to this article: Constitution of the Republic of Turkey The current Constitution of Turkey, ratified in 1982, establishes the organization of the government of the Republic of Turkey and sets out the principles and rules of the states conduct along with its responsibilities towards... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... Languages Turkish Religions Muslim or nominally Muslim, predominantly Sunni Islam, followed by Alevis. ... The Kurds in Turkey (Kurdish: Kurdên li Tirkiye, Turkish: Türkiyedeki Kürtler) who are an Indo-European people and their name first mentioned around 3000 BC by Sumerians [6] are remnants of ancient Iranians who resided in Anatolia before the expansion of the Median Empire, 600 BC... Circassians is a term derived from the Turkic Cherkess (Çerkes), and is not the self-designation of any people. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... In 1995 Turkeys ethnic Arab population was estimated at 800,000 to 1 million, according to the US Library of Congress Country Study. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... A minority or subordinate group is a sociological group that does not constitute a politically dominant plurality of the total population of a given society. ... Look up assimilation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Alternate meaning: crucible (science) The melting pot is a metaphor for the way in which heterogenous societies develop, in which the ingredients in the pot (iron, tin; people of different backgrounds and religions, etc. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ...

Çiçek Pasajı (Flower Passage - also known by its French name Cité de Péra) is one of the many historic buildings that adorn Istiklal Avenue
Çiçek Pasajı (Flower Passage - also known by its French name Cité de Péra) is one of the many historic buildings that adorn Istiklal Avenue

Due to a demand for an increased labour force in post-World War II Europe, many Turkish citizens emigrated to Western Europe (particularly West Germany), contributing to the creation of a significant diaspora. Recently, Turkey has also become a destination for numerous immigrants, especially since the fall of the Berlin Wall and the consequent increase of freedom of movement in the region. These immigrants generally migrate from the former Soviet Bloc countries, as well as neighbouring Muslim states, either to settle and work in Turkey or to continue their journey towards the European Union.[86] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (3072 × 2048 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (3072 × 2048 pixel, file size: 2. ... Çiçek Pasajı on İstiklal Avenue Çiçek Pasajı (literally Flower Passage), originally called the Cité de Péra, is a famous historic passage (galleria or arcade) on İstiklal Avenue in the Beyoğlu (Pera) district of Istanbul. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Whirling Dervishes perform at the Mevlevi Museum in Konya, Central Anatolia region.
Whirling Dervishes perform at the Mevlevi Museum in Konya, Central Anatolia region.

Turkish is the sole official language throughout Turkey. Reliable figures for the linguistic repartition of the populace are not available for reasons similar to those cited above.[85] Nevertheless, the public broadcaster TRT broadcasts programmes in local languages and dialects of Arabic, Bosnian, Circassian and Kurdish a few hours a week.[87] Image File history File links Whirlingdervishes. ... Image File history File links Whirlingdervishes. ... Whirling Dervishes perform near the Mevlevi Museum in Konya, Turkey. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... TRT Headquarters in Ankara TRT, the Turkish Radio and Television Corporation (Türkiye Radyo ve Televizyon Kurumu), was founded in 1964, it is the national public broadcaster of Turkey. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... The Kabardian language is a Russia, Jordan and Turkey. ... The Kurdish language is a language spoken in the region called Kurdistan, including Kurdish populations in parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. ...


Nominally, 99.0% of the Turkish population is Muslim, of whom over 75% belong to the Sunni branch of Islam. A sizeable minority, about 20% of the population, is affiliated with the Shi'a Alevi sect.[88] The mainstream Hanafite school of Sunni Islam is largely organised by the state, through the Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı (Religious Affairs Directorate), which controls all mosques and Muslim clerics. The remainder of the population belongs to other beliefs, particularly Christian denominations (Greek Orthodox, Armenian Apostolic, Syriac Orthodox), Judaism, Yezidism and Atheism.[89] Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic &#1588;&#1610;&#1593;&#1609; follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Alevis (Turkish: Aleviler or Alevilik) are adherents of a religious community in Eastern Turkey and Kurdistan, it also has communities in the Balkans due to the presence of the Ottomans. ... // The Hanafi (Arabic حنفي) school is the oldest of the four schools of thought (Madhhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... The Diyanet Ä°ÅŸleri Bakanlığı (en: Presidency of Religious Affairs) is the highest, islamic, religious authority in Turkey. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as: the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles, having maintained unbroken the link between its clergy and the Apostles by means of Apostolic Succession. ... Official standard of Karekin II Catholicos of Armenia The Armenian Apostolic Church (Armenian: Õ€Õ¡Õµ Ô±Õ¼Õ¡Ö„Õ¥Õ¬Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Եկեղեցի), sometimes called the Armenian Orthodox Church or the Gregorian Church, is the worlds oldest national church and one of the most ancient Christian communities. ... The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Yezidi or Yazidi (Kurdish; Êzidî) are adherents of a small Middle Eastern religion with ancient origins. ... “Atheist” redirects here. ...


There is a strong tradition of secularism in Turkey. Even though the state has no official religion nor promotes any, it actively monitors the area between the religions. The constitution recognises freedom of religion for individuals, whereas religious communities are placed under the protection of the state; but the constitution explicitly states that they cannot become involved in the political process (by forming a religious party, for instance) or establish faith-based schools. No party can claim that it represents a form of religious belief; nevertheless, religious sensibilities are generally represented through conservative parties.[26] Turkey prohibits by law the wearing of religious headcover and theo-political symbolic garments for both genders in government buildings, schools, and universities;[90] the law was upheld by the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights as "legitimate" in Leyla Şahin v. Turkey on November 10, 2005.[91] // Since the establishment of the republic in 1923, there has been a strong tradition of secularism in Turkey. ... The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guarantees freedom of religion, as long as religious activities do not infringe on public order in ways detrimental to society. ... Illustration of an Islamic headscarf “Higab” redirects here. ... European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints against States Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Culture

Orhan Pamuk, winner of the 2006 Nobel Prize for Literature
Orhan Pamuk, winner of the 2006 Nobel Prize for Literature
A painting by Nazmi Ziya Guran (1881–1937)
A painting by Nazmi Ziya Guran (1881–1937)

Turkey has a very diverse culture that is a blend of various elements of the Oğuz Turkic and Anatolian, Ottoman (which was itself a continuation of both Greco-Roman and Islamic cultures), and Western culture and traditions which started with the Westernization of the Ottoman Empire and continues today. This mix is a result of the encounter of Turks and their culture with those of the peoples who were in their path during their migration from Central Asia to the West.[92][93] As Turkey successfully transformed from the religion-based former Ottoman Empire into a modern nation-state with a very strong separation of state and religion, an increase in the methods of artistic expression followed. During the first years of the republic, the government invested a large amount of resources into the fine arts, such as museums, theatres, and architecture. Because of different historical factors playing an important role in defining the modern Turkish identity, Turkish culture is a product of efforts to be "modern" and Western, combined with the necessity felt to maintain traditional religious and historical values.[92] Traditional Turkish coffee The culture of Turkey is a diverse one, derived from various elements of the Ottoman Empire, European, and the Islamic traditions. ... Turkish art refers to all works of art originating from the geographical area of what is present day Turkey. ... Turkish national team during the 2002 World Cup Turkey has risen to prominence in a number of sporting areas in recent decades. ... A page from the Dîvân-ı Fuzûlî, the collected poems of the 16th-century Ottoman poet Fuzûlî Turkish literature (Turkish: Türk edebiyatı or Türk yazını) is the collection of written and oral texts composed in the Turkish language, either in its Ottoman form or... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Orhan_Pamuk3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Orhan_Pamuk3. ... Ferit Orhan Pamuk (born on June 7, 1952 in Istanbul) is a Nobel Prize-winning Turkish novelist. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Nazmi Ziya Güran (1881 – 1937) was a Turkish impressionist painter. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... Early on as the Ottoman Turks drove out the Byzantines from Anatolia and later pursued them into Europe, the pursuit was a part of the Jihad (or Holy War) against Christianity, and the first Ottoman rulers called themselves Gazi, or Holy Warriors. ... In modern Olympic and amateur wrestling, Greco-Roman wrestling is a particular style and variation. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Western World. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The present distribution of Turkic languages bears witness to the Early Medieval westward expansion of Turkic tribes. ...


Turkish music and literature form great examples of such a mix of cultural influences. Many schools of music are popular throughout Turkey, from "arabesque" to hip-hop genres, as a result of the interaction between the Ottoman Empire and the Islamic world along with Europe, and thus contributing to a blend of Central Asian Turkic, Islamic and European traditions in modern-day Turkish music.[94] Turkish literature was heavily influenced by Arabic and, especially, Persian literature during most of the Ottoman era, though towards the end of the Ottoman Empire the effect of both Turkish folk and Western literary traditions became increasingly felt. The mix of cultural influences is dramatized, for example, in the form of the "new symbols [of] the clash and interlacing of cultures" enacted in the work of Orhan Pamuk, winner of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Literature.[95] History (Timeline and Samples) Genres: Alternative - Classical - Dance - Folk - Hip hop - Jazz - Military - Ottoman - Opera - Pop - Religious - Rock Music awards Kral Music & Video Awards - MÜ-YAP Industry Awards - MGD Celebrity Awards Charts MTV Türkiye - Billboard Charts Annual festivals Istanbul International Music Festival - Istanbul International Jazz Festival - Izmir European Jazz... A page from the Dîvân-ı Fuzûlî, the collected poems of the 16th-century Ottoman poet Fuzûlî Turkish literature (Turkish: Türk edebiyatı or Türk yazını) is the collection of written and oral texts composed in the Turkish language, either in its Ottoman form or... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Arabesk. ... Turkish hip hop started in Germany with groups such as Islamic Force and Cartel. ... Arabic literature (Arabic ,الأدب العربي ) Al-Adab Al-Arabi, is the writing produced, both prose and poetry, by speakers of the Arabic language. ... Persian literature (in Persian: ‎ ) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. ... Ferit Orhan Pamuk (born on June 7, 1952 in Istanbul) is a Nobel Prize-winning Turkish novelist. ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ...

Waterfront houses in Arnavutköy, Istanbul

Architectural elements found in Turkey are also testaments to the unique mix of traditions that have influenced the region over the centuries. In addition to the traditional Byzantine elements present in numerous parts of Turkey, many artifacts of the later Ottoman architecture, with its exquisite blend of local and Islamic traditions, are to be found throughout the country, as well as in many former territories of the Ottoman Empire. Since the 18th century, Turkish architecture has been increasingly influenced by Western styles, and this can be particularly seen in Istanbul where buildings like the Blue Mosque and the Dolmabahçe Palace are juxtaposed next to numerous modern skyscrapers, all of them representing different traditions.[96] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (800x640, 110 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (800x640, 110 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... A Yalı is a waterfront summer mansion and residence, which were established in timber construction method particularly on the bank of the Bosphorus in Istanbul. ... Arnavutköy (meaning Albanian village in Turkish) is a historic neighborhood in Istanbul, famous for its wooden Ottoman mansions and fish restaurants as well as the prestigious Robert College campus with its centennial buildings. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Sultan Ahmed Mosque (Turkish: Sultanahmet Camii) is a mosque in Istanbul, the largest city in Turkey and the capital of the Ottoman Empire (from 1453 to 1923). ... A view of the Dolmabahçe from the Bosphorus with modern Istanbul in the background The famous Crystal Staircase The main hall The Dolmabahçe Palace (Turkish: ) is a palace in Istanbul, located at the western, European, side of the Bosphorus. ...


The most popular sport in Turkey by far is football, with certain professional and national matches drawing tens of millions of viewers on television.[97] Nevertheless, other sports such as basketball and motor sports (following the inclusion of İstanbul Park on the Formula 1 racing calendar) have also become popular recently. The traditional Turkish national sport has been the Yağlı güreş (Oiled Wrestling) since Ottoman times.[98] Football (soccer) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Sara Giauro shoots a three-point shot, FIBA Europe Cup for Women Finals 2005. ... Racing cars redirects here. ... Istanbul Park (Turkish: Ä°stanbul Park) , also known as the Istanbul Racing Circuit or initially Istanbul Otodrom is a motor sports race track in Ä°stanbul, Turkey that was inaugurated on 21 August 2005. ... Formula One, abbreviated to F1 and also known as Grand Prix racing, is the highest class of single-seat open-wheel auto racing. ... YaÄŸlı GüreÅŸ (IPA:) is the Turkish national sport. ...


See also

Turkey Portal



Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ...

This is a list of Turkey-related articles. ... This is a list of notable Turkish people, both historic and contemporary, either by occupation or achievement. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... Languages Turkish Religions Muslim or nominally Muslim, predominantly Sunni Islam, followed by Alevis. ... The People of Turkey covers the changes to Turkish people during the 20th century. ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881–November 10, 1938), Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and anti-imperialist statesman, was the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey. ... Mustafa İsmet İnönü (September 24, 1884–December 25, 1973) was a Turkish soldier, statesman and the second President of Turkey. ... Mustafa Bülent Ecevit (May 28, 1925–November 5, 2006; pronounced ), was a Turkish politician, poet, writer and journalist. ... Turkey is a successor state of the Ottoman Empire, a multi-ethnic empire consolidated by gradual conquest during medieval and early modern times (1300-1700). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Anatolian beyliks (also Turkmen beyliks, Tevâif-i mülûk (in Ottoman Turkish) were small Turkish emirates or muslim principalities (beylik) governed by tribal beys, which were founded in several locations of Anatolia as of the end of the 13th century. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (İstanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish (official); spoken languages include Abkhazian, Adyghe, Albanian, Arabic, Aramaic, Armenian, Azerbaijani... In the late 13th century the Seljuq empire had collapsed and Anatolia was divided into many small states. ... This article is in need of attention. ... The Battle of Vienna of 1683 was the real point at which the Empire began its decline. ... Graphical timeline Decline of the Ottoman Empire covers the military and political events between 1828 to 1908. ... This article describes the process of dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, in particular its final years in the early part of the 20th century. ... History of Turkey redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Atatürk, modern Turkeys founder and first President The history of modern Turkey begins with the foundation of the republic on October 29, 1923 (the Republic was declared on January 20, 1921), with Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) as its first president. ... This page summarizes the history after the Multi-party period. ... The Military history of Turkey is a listing of ancient or previous history of military actions or information. ... // Over the centuries, Turkey has had many constitutions and can be caracterized by the steady establishment of a nation-state, democratization and internationalisation. ... At the time of the collapse of the Ottoman Empire (see Economy of the Ottoman Empire) during World War I, the Turkish economy was underdeveloped: agriculture depended on outmoded techniques and poor-quality livestock, and the few factories producing basic products such as sugar and flour were under foreign control. ... A graphical timeline is available here: History of the Republic of Turkey // The wearing of the turban and the fez, a traditional Ottoman hat, is outlawed. ... Turkey is a secular, republican parliamentary democracy. ... Presidential flag of Turkey. ... This is a chronological list of every government formed by the Prime Ministers of the Republic of Turkey. ... The Grand National Assembly (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi in Turkish) is the unicameral parliament of Turkey which carries out legislative functions. ... Political parties in Turkey lists political parties in Turkey. ... Elections in Turkey gives information on election and election results in Turkey. ... Because of geopolitical reasons, foreign relations of the Republic of Turkey are primarily with the Western world and its neighboring countries. ... // Since the establishment of the republic in 1923, there has been a strong tradition of secularism in Turkey. ... // Overview Part Four, Section Two of the Turkish Constitution has established the Constitutional Court of Turkey that statutes on the conformity of laws and decrees to the Constitution, and it can be seized by the President of the Republic, the government, the members of Parliament or any judge before whom... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... — Other Turkish Topics Culture - Education Geography - History - Politics Turkey Portal Tourism in Turkey is focused largely on a variety of archaeological and historical sites, and on seaside resorts along its Aegean and Mediterranean coasts. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... Below each region you will find associated Cities with the region. ... Provinces of Turkey are called iller in Turkish (singular is il, see Turkish alphabet for capitalization of i). ... The provinces of Turkey are divided into 923 districts (ilçeler; sing. ... This is a list of cities in Turkey by population (according to the 2000 census). ... Combination of nature and history in Kekova bay near Antalya View of Kuşadası from bird island. ... Other Turkish Topics Culture - Education Geography - History - Politics Turkey Portal This is a list of companies from Turkey. ... // Bayındırbank A.Ş. Albaraka Turk Arap Türk Bankası A.Ş. BankEuropa Bankası A.Ş. Kuveyt Türk Bankası A.Ş. Citibank A.Ş. Deutsche Bank A.Ş. Fortis Bank A.Ş. HSBC Bank A.Ş. ABN AMRO Bank N.V. Banca di Roma S.P.A. Bank Mellat Habib Bank Limited J P Morgan Chase... On 31 December 1995 the customs union between Turkey and the European Union came into effect. ... Other Turkish Topics Culture - Education Geography - History - Politics Turkey Portal The Southeastern Anatolia Project (Turkish: Güneydoğu Anadolu Projesi, GAP) is a multi-sector integrated regional development project based on the concept of sustainable development for the 9 million people [1] living in a region. ... TRY banknotes and coins The Turkish new lira is the current currency of Turkey and of the de facto state Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. ... As of 2005, the population of Turkey stood at 72. ... Turkish (, ) is a Turkic language, and thus a member of the proposed Altaic language family. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Human rights of Kurdish people in Turkey be merged into this article or section. ... Traditional Turkish coffee The culture of Turkey is a diverse one, derived from various elements of the Ottoman Empire, European, and the Islamic traditions. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Turkish art is a term referring to the visual arts and plastic arts (often including architecture, woodwork, textiles and ceramics) originating from the geographical area of what is present day Turkey. ... Turkish cuisine inherited its Ottoman heritage which could be described as a fusion and refinement of Turkic, Arabic, Greek and Persian cuisines. ... Turkish dances include Halay, Zeybek, Horon, and Karsilama. ... More than 100 festivals are held in Turkey every year. ... Ahi Evren Ahriyan Al Basti Alaturbi Ancomah Bardi Cazi Germakoçi Karakoncolos Karakura Kolot Tavara // Breaking vine In Trabzon region folklore (Çarşıbaşi town) For testing whether the new bride is propitious, when she comes to the house, she is asked to break a vine from three points and... The official holidays in Turkey are established by the Act 2429 of March 19, 1981 that replaced the Act 2739 of May 27, 1935. ... A page from the Dîvân-ı Fuzûlî, the collected poems of the 16th-century Ottoman poet Fuzûlî Turkish literature (Turkish: Türk edebiyatı or Türk yazını) is the collection of written and oral texts composed in the Turkish language, either in its Ottoman form or... History (Timeline and Samples) Genres: Alternative - Classical - Dance - Folk - Hip hop - Jazz - Military - Ottoman - Opera - Pop - Religious - Rock Music awards Kral Music & Video Awards - MÜ-YAP Industry Awards - MGD Celebrity Awards Charts MTV Türkiye - Billboard Charts Annual festivals Istanbul International Music Festival - Istanbul International Jazz Festival - Izmir European Jazz... Turkish theatre can be observed under two main titles: Traditional Turkish theatre and Westernized Turkish theatre. ... This is a list of radio stations in Turkey. ... The Republic of Turkey is one of the states that do not have an official coat of arms. ... The flag of Turkey consists of a white crescent moon and a star on a red background. ... The İstiklâl Marşı (i. ...

Notes

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Sabancı University is a private research institution located in Istanbul, Turkey. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... The flag of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) is an inter-governmental organization with a Permanent Delegation to the United Nations. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 6 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General  Terry Davis  -  Commissioner for Human Rights   Establishment  -  Treaty of London May... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 62 days remaining. ... The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is a dictionary of American English published by Boston publisher Houghton-Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... Metropolitan Museum of Art New York Elevation The Metropolitan Museum of Art, often referred to simply as The Met, is one of the worlds largest and most important art museums. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Metropolitan Museum of Art New York Elevation The Metropolitan Museum of Art, often referred to simply as The Met, is one of the worlds largest and most important art museums. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 361st in leap years. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 6 days remaining in the year. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 16 is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 14 is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 14 is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 14 is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 14 is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 14 is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 14 is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 14 is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 14 is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mark Mardell has been Europe Editor for BBC News since May 2005. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 16 is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Commission seat in Brussels The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive body of the European Union. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mark Mardell has been Europe Editor for BBC News since May 2005. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 30 is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 1 day remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 29 is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 2 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 24 is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Turkish Armed Forces (TAF) (Turkish: Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri (TSK)) consists of the Army, the Navy (includes Naval Air and Naval Infantry) and the Air Force. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 8 is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... The United States Department of Defense, abbreviated DoD or DOD and sometimes called the Defense Department, is a civilian Cabinet organization of the United States government. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Turkish Armed Forces (TAF) (Turkish: Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri (TSK)) consists of the Army, the Navy (includes Naval Air and Naval Infantry) and the Air Force. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 16 is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 14 is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Great Hall interior. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Logo of the World Bank The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD, in Romance languages: BIRD), better known as the World Bank, is an international organization whose original mission was to finance the reconstruction of nations devastated by WWII. Now, its mission has expanded to fight poverty by means... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ... Turkish Statistical Institute (Turkish: Devlet Istatistik Enstitusu) is the Turkish government bureau commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Turkey, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an agency of the United States federal government, responsible for the nations public space program. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 361st in leap years. ... Turkish State Meteorological Service (Turkish: Devlet Meteoroloji Ä°ÅŸleri Genel Müdürlüğü) is the Turkish government bureau commissioned with producing the meteorological and climactic data pertaining to Turkey. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 12 is the 346th day (347th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 19 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 12 is the 346th day (347th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 19 days remaining. ... Logo of the World Bank The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD, in Romance languages: BIRD), better known as the World Bank, is an international organization whose original mission was to finance the reconstruction of nations devastated by WWII. Now, its mission has expanded to fight poverty by means... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 12 is the 346th day (347th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 19 days remaining. ... Turkish Statistical Institute (Turkish: Devlet Istatistik Enstitusu) is the Turkish government bureau commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Turkey, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Anadolu Agency (AA) (Turkish: Anadolu Ajansı) is the Turkish state news agency commissioned with producing news releases pertaining to the country. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Logo of the World Bank The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD, in Romance languages: BIRD), better known as the World Bank, is an international organization whose original mission was to finance the reconstruction of nations devastated by WWII. Now, its mission has expanded to fight poverty by means... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ... Turkish Statistical Institute (Turkish: Devlet Istatistik Enstitusu) is the Turkish government bureau commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Turkey, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Turkish Statistical Institute (Turkish: Devlet Istatistik Enstitusu) is the Turkish government bureau commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Turkey, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... It has been suggested that Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Merkez Bankası be merged into this article or section. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 12 is the 346th day (347th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 19 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ... Anadolu Agency (AA) (Turkish: Anadolu Ajansı) is the Turkish state news agency commissioned with producing news releases pertaining to the country. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 9 is the 343rd day (344th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Turkish Statistical Institute (Turkish: Devlet Istatistik Enstitusu) is the Turkish government bureau commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Turkey, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 361st in leap years. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... August 10 is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United Nations Fund for Population Activities was started in 1969 and renamed the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) in 1987. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints against States Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... November 30 is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article refers to an art institution in London. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 12 is the 346th day (347th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 19 days remaining. ... Çinuçen Tanrıkorur (1938-2000) was an oud master and composer of Turkish classical music. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 12 is the 346th day (347th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 19 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 12 is the 346th day (347th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 19 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

History
  • Wink, Andre (1990). Al Hind: The Making of the Indo Islamic World, Vol. 1, Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam, 7th-11th Centuries. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 90-04-09249-8. 
  • Mango, Cyril (2002). The Oxford History of Byzantium. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 0-1981-4098-3. 
  • Kinross, Patrick (1977). The Ottoman Centuries: The Rise and Fall of the Turkish Empire. Morrow. ISBN 0-6880-3093-9. 
  • Jay Shaw, Stanford; Kural Shaw, Ezel (1977). History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-5212-9163-1. 
  • Finly, Carter Vaughn (2004). The Turks in World History. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 0-1951-7726-6. 
  • Mango, Andrew (2000). Ataturk: The Biography of the Founder of Modern Turkey. Overlook. ISBN 1-5856-7011-1. 
Politics
  • Hale, William Mathew (1994). Turkish Politics and the Military. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-4150-2455-2. 
  • Rubin, Barry M.; Heper, Metin (2002). Political Parties in Turkey. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-7146-5274-1. 
Foreign relations and military
  • Huston, James A. (1988). Outposts and Allies: U.S. Army Logistics in the Cold War, 1945–1953. Susquehanna University Press. ISBN 0-9416-6484-8. 
  • Bal, Idris (2004). Turkish Foreign Policy In Post Cold War Era. Universal Publishers. ISBN 1-5811-2423-6. 
  • Rubin, Barry; Çarkoǧlu, Ali (2003). Turkey and the European Union: Domestic Politics, Economic Integration, and International Dynamics. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-7146-5402-7. 
  • Steven A. Cook; Elizabeth Sherwood-Randall (2006-06-15). Generating Momentum for a New Era in U.S.-Turkey Relations (PDF). Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved on 2006-12-17.
  • United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Directorate for Movements of Persons, Migration and Consular Affairs - Asylum and Migration Division (July 2001). "Turkey/Military service" (PDF). UNHCR.
Geography and climate
Economy
  • Nas, Tevfik F. (1992). Economics and Politics of Turkish Liberalization. Lehigh University Press. ISBN 0-9342-2319-X. 
  • (2002) OECD Reviews of Regulatory Refom - Turkey: crucial support for economic recovery : 2002. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. ISBN 92-64-19808-3. 
  • Bartolomiej Kaminski; Francis Ng (2006-05-01). Turkey's evolving trade integration into Pan-European markets (PDF). World Bank. Retrieved on 2006-12-27.
  • World Bank (2005). Turkey Labor Market Study (PDF). World Bank. Retrieved on 2006-12-27.
Demographics
  • Çarkoǧlu, Ali (2004). Religion and Politics in Turkey. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-4153-4831-5. 
  • Extra, Guus; Gorter, Durk (2001). The other languages of Europe: Demographic, Sociolinguistic and Educational Perspectives. Multilingual Matters. ISBN 1-8535-9509-8. 
  • Shankland, David (2003). The Alevis in Turkey: The Emergence of a Secular Islamic Tradition. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-7007-1606-8. 
  • Turkish Statistical Institute (2000). 2000 Census, population by provinces and districts (XLS). Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved on 2006-12-11.
Culture
  • Kaya, Ibrahim (2003). Social Theory and Later Modernities: The Turkish Experience. Liverpool University Press. ISBN 0-8532-3898-7. 
  • Goodwin, Godfrey (2003). A History of Ottoman Architecture. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-5002-7429-0. 

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Turkish State Meteorological Service (Turkish: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü) is the Turkish government bureau commissioned with producing the meteorological and climactic data pertaining to Turkey. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Logo of the World Bank The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD, in Romance languages: BIRD), better known as the World Bank, is an international organization whose original mission was to finance the reconstruction of nations devastated by WWII. Now, its mission has expanded to fight poverty by means... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Turkish Statistical Institute (Turkish: Devlet Istatistik Enstitusu) is the Turkish government bureau commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Turkey, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Mango, Andrew (2004). The Turks Today. Overlook. ISBN 1-5856-7615-2. 
  • Pope, Hugh; Pope, Nicole (2004). Turkey Unveiled. Overlook. ISBN 1-5856-7581-4. 

External links

Find more information on Turkey by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Quotations from Wikiquote
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Learning resources from Wikiversity

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ...

Government

  • Presidency of the Republic
  • The Grand National Assembly
  • The Prime Minister's Office
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  • Ministry of Interior Affairs
  • Turkish Armed Forces
  • Ministry of Defense
  • Ministry of Culture and Tourism

Public institutions

  • Directorate General of Press and Information
  • Turkish Statistical Institute
  • Central Bank
  • Treasury
  • Competition Authority
  • Undersecretariat of Customs
  • National Intelligence Organisation
  • State Planning Organisation
  • Turkish Standards Institution
  • The Scientific and Technological Research Council

Additional profiles

  • by the BBC News
  • by the CIA Factbook
  • by the Economist
  • by the US Department of State

Other

Geographic locale
International organizations

Map of Azerbaijan, showing Naxç&#305;van to the bottom-left Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic (or Naxç&#305;van Muxtar Respublikas&#305;) is an exclave of Azerbaijan. ... The Cyprus dispute is the conflict between Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots and also Republic of Cyprus and Turkey over Cyprus, an island nation in the eastern Mediterranean Sea. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Turkey School at Bon Appétit Cooking Class at Epicurious.com (2008 words)
A frozen turkey should be kept frozen until you are ready to defrost it, then submerged in a pail, pot, or sink full of cold water.
If the turkey is unstuffed, you can give it a flavor boost by seasoning the cavity with salt and pepper, and adding two peeled and quartered onions, two carrots, and two celery stalks, as well as a couple of bay leaves and sprigs of parsley and thyme.
When the turkey has been moved to its resting place, put the roasting pan over two burners of the stove, turn the heat to medium, and use a heatproof flat whisk or slotted angled spatula to loosen whatever yummy bits are in the pan.
Crockpot Turkey Recipes (1210 words)
Turkey with gravy in the crockpot is a recipe with turkey tenderloins, or use sliced turkey breast.
Turkey and potatoes and carrots cooked in French onion soup in crockpot or slow cooker.
Turkey breast is slow cooked with a marinade of lemon juice, rosemary, oregano, mustard, wine, and garlic.
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