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Encyclopedia > Turkestan

Turkestan (Persian: ترکستان; also spelled Turkistan or Türkistan in Turkish, which literally means "Land of the Turks" in Persian) is a region in Central Asia, which today is largely inhabited by Turkic peoples. It has been referenced in many Turkic and Persian sagas and is an integral part of Turan (though Turan dwarfs Turkestan in area). Oghuz Turks (also known as Turkmens), Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Khazars, Kyrgyz and Uygurs are some of the Turkic inhabitants of the region who, as history progressed, have spread further into Eurasia forming such Turkic nations as Turkey, Azerbaijan and Russian Tatarstan. Tajiks and Russians form sizable non-Turkic minorities. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... The Mazar of Shaikh Ahmad Yasavi in the town of Turkestan. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... This article is about the various peoples speaking one of the Turkic languages. ... For other uses, see Turan (disambiguation). ... A Seljuk Prince. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Language(s) Kazakh, Russian (and/or languages in country of residence) Religion(s) Sunni Islam The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар IPA: ; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Kyrgyz language. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Uyghur language. ... Republic of Tatarstan (Russian: ; Tatar Cyrillic: Татарстан Республикасы, Latin: Tatarstan Respublikası) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Language(s) Persian (varieties of Dari and Tajiki) Religion(s) Islam (predominantly Sunni, with sizable Ithna Ashari and Ismaili minorities) TājÄ«k (Persian: ; UniPers: Tâjik; Tajik: ) is a term generally applied to Persian-speaking peoples of Iranian origin living east of Iran. ... Russians (Русские - Russkie) are an ethnic group of East Slavic people, which live primarily in Russia and neighboring countries. ...


It is subdivided into Afghan Turkestan, Russian Turkestan and Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (also known as Chinese Turkestan, East Turkestan or Uyghuristan) in PR China. The Tian Shan and Pamir ranges form a rough division between the latter two. Afghan Turkestan is the northern part of Afghanistan, on the border with the former Soviet republics of Turkmenistan and Tajikistan. ... Russian Turkestan (Russian: Ру́сский Туркеста́н), also known as Turkestansky Krai (Туркеста́нский край), was a subdivision (Krai or Governor-Generalship) of Imperial Russia, comprising the oasis region to the South of the Kazakh steppes, but not the Protectorates of Bukhara and Khiva. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... East Turkestan (also transliterated: East Turkistan; Uyghur: Sherqiy Türkistan), also known as Uyghurstan, is the part of greater Turkistan in Xinjiang, China and far eastern Central Asia. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... The Tian Shan (Chinese: 天山; Pinyin: Tiān Shān; celestial mountains) mountain range is located in Central Asia, in the border region of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of western China. ... A photograph of Ismail Samani Peak (then known as Peak Communism) taken in 1989. ...

Contents

History

Further information: History of Central Asia

Turkestan has a rich history, dating back to the third millennium BC. Many artifacts were produced in that period, and much trade was conducted. The region was a focal point for cultural diffusion, as the Silk Road traversed it. Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region The history of Central Asia is defined primarily by the areas climate and geography. ... The 3rd millennium BC spans the Early to Middle Bronze Age. ... In archaeology, an artifact or artefact is any object made or modified by a human culture, and often one later recovered by some archaeological endeavor. ... This article is about economic exchange. ... In anthropology, cultural diffusion refers to the spread of ideas, inventions, or patterns of behavior to different societies (Wintrop 1991:82) Since cultures have never been completely isolated from each other, diffusion has happened throughout history, and continues on today. ... For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ...


Turkestan covers the area of Central Asia that corresponded to eastern Scythia, Transoxania and Greater Khorasan in Antiquity, and acquired its "Turkic" character from the 4th to 6th centuries AD with the incipient Turkic expansion. Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ... Transoxiana (sometimes also spelled Transoxania) is the now-largely obsolete name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan and southwest Kazakhstan. ... Friday Mosque in Herat, Afghanistan, a city which was known in the past as the Pearl of Khorasan. ... The present distribution of Turkic languages bears witness to the Early Medieval westward expansion of Turkic tribes. ...


Turkic Sagas, such as the Ergenekon, and written sources such as the Orkhon Inscriptions state that Turkic peoples originated in the nearby Altay Mountains, and, through nomadic settlement, started their long journey westwards. Orhon (or Orkhon) inscriptions are the oldest known Turkic writings, which were erected near the Orhon River between 732 and 735 in honour of two Kokturk princes named Kul and Bilge. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


Successive external powers have held the region. Greeks, under Alexander the Great, held the area from 327 BC to 150 BC. For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC - 320s BC - 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 332 BC 331 BC 330 BC 329 BC 328 BC - 327 BC - 326 BC 325 BC 324... Alexander Balas becomes ruler of the Seleucid Empire. ...


Huns conquered the area after they conquered Kashgaria in the early 2nd century BC. With the dissolution of the Huns' empire, Chinese rulers took over Eastern Turkestan[1]. For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... Kashgar is an oasis city located west of the Taklamakan desert, at the feet of the Tian Shan mountain range in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China (39°24’26” N. lat. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 2nd century BC started on January 1, 200 BC and ended on December 31, 101 BC. // Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ...


Arab forces captured it in the 8th century. The Persian Samanid dynasty subsequently conquered it and the area experienced economic success[1]. For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... Persia redirects here. ... The Samanids (875-999) (in Persian: Samanian) were a Persian dynasty in Central Asia and eastern Iran, named after its founder Saman Khoda. ...


The entire territory was held at various times by Turkic forces, such as the Göktürks until the conquest by Genghis Khan and the Mongols in 1220. Khan gave the territory to his son, Chagatai and the area became the Chagatai Khanate[1]. The Göktürks or Kök-Türks were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia and China. ... This article is about the person. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... // The world in 1220 Middle Ages in Europe Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Events Mongols first invade Abbasid caliphate - Bukhara and Samarkand taken End of the Kara-Khitan Khanate, destroyed by Genghis Khans Mongolian cavalry Dominican Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope... Chagatai can refer to different things: Chagatai Khanate Chagatai Khan Chagatai language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The four successor Khanates of the Mongol Empire: Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde, Il-Khanate and Chagatai Khanate Chagatai Khan (alternative spellings Chagata, Chugta, Chagta, Djagatai, Jagatai), a son of Genghis Khan (1206–1227), controlled the part of the Mongol Empire which extended from the Ili...


Tamerlane took over the area in 1369 and the area became the Timurid Empire[1]. For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ... Flag of the Timurid Empire according to the Catalan Atlas c. ...


Overview

Known as Turan to Iranians, western Turkestan has also been known historically as Sogdiana, Ma wara'u'n-nahr (by its Arab conquerors), and Transoxiana by Western travellers. The latter two names refer to its position beyond the River Oxus when approached from the south, emphasizing Turkestan's long-standing relationship with Iran, the Persian Empires and the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates. For other uses, see Turan (disambiguation). ... Sogdiana, ca. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Map showing modern Transoxiana. ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ... Persia redirects here. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ...


Russian and Chinese influence

The region became part of the Russian Empire in the 1860s, and is thus sometimes called Russian Turkestan or the Туркестанский Край (Turkestanskii Krai). After the Russian Revolution, a Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of the Soviet Union was created, which was eventually split into the Kazakh SSR (Kazakhstan), Kyrgyz SSR (Kyrgyzstan), Tajik SSR (Tajikistan), Turkmen SSR (Turkmenistan) and Uzbek SSR (Uzbekistan). After the collapse of the Soviet Union, these republics gained their independence. The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... // The First Transcontinental Railroad in the USA was built in the six year period between 1863 and 1869. ... Russian Turkestan (Russian: Ру́сский Туркеста́н), also known as Turkestansky Krai (Туркеста́нский край), was a subdivision (Krai or Governor-Generalship) of Imperial Russia, comprising the oasis region to the South of the Kazakh steppes, but not the Protectorates of Bukhara and Khiva. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Map of Soviet Central Asia in 1922 with the Turkestan ASSR and the Kyrgyz ASSR (present-day Kazakhstan). ... State motto: Барлық елдердің пролетарлары, бірігіңдер! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ... State motto: Бардык өлкөлордүн пролетарлары, бириккиле! Official language None. ... State motto: Пролетарҳои ҳамаи мамлакатҳо, як шавед! Official language None. ... State motto: Turkmen: Әхли юртларың пролетарлары, бирлешиң! Ökhli yurtlaryn proletalary, birlishin Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Ashgabat Official language Turkmen and Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until August 7, 1921 May 30, 1925 October 27, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 4th in the USSR 488,100 km² 4. ... State motto: Uzbek: Бутун дунё пролетарлари, бирлашингиз! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Tashkent Official language None. ... This is a history of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. ...


Eastern Turkestan, also known as Chinese Turkestan, was called the Western Regions in Chinese historic records. Turkestan experienced Chinese influence long before Russian influence. The first Chinese military campaigns in Turkestan dates to the Battle of Loulan in the 2nd century BC. From then on, Turkestan was alternately controlled by the Chinese and/or other nomads like the Tujue. The Protectorate of the Western Regions and the Anxi Protectorate were areas of Chinese rule. Turkic peoples, such as Uyghurs started to settle in Turkestan from the 8th century on. It was conquered by the Qing Dynasty in the mid-18th century and was named 新疆, Xinjiang (Postal spelling: Sinkiang), meaning new frontier. It was taken over by the Republic of China and then the People's Republic of China by which it is now administered as the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (Chinese: 新疆维吾尔自治区; pinyin: Xīnjiāng Wéiwú'ěr Zìzhìqū). The Western Regions (西域) is a historical region of Central Asia which corresponds roughly with the modern Chinese province of Xinjiang. ... Combatants Loulan Han Dynasty Commanders Unknown Zhao Ponu Strength Unknown 700 light cavalry The Battle of Loulan in the 108 BC, marks the earliest Chinese military exploration into Central Asia, after a conflicting of Loulan and Jushi with the Han Dynasty and a switch to the Xiongnu. ... The Göktürks or Kök-Türks, known in medieval Chinese sources as Tujue (突厥 tú jué), under the leadership of Bumin/Tuman Khan/Khaghan (d. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Protectorate General to Pacify the West or Grand Protectorate General to Pacify the West (安西大都护府) (640-790) was a military government established by Tang Dynasty China in 640 to manage regions of Tian Shan and Pamir Mountains. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Uyghur language. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Chinese Postal Map Romanization (Traditional Chinese: 郵政式拼音; Pinyin: Yóuzhèngshì PÄ«nyÄ«n) refers to the system of romanization for Chinese place names which came into use in the late Qing dynasty and was officially sanctioned by the Imperial Postal Joint-Session Conference (帝國郵電聯席會議), which was held in Shanghai in the... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Xinjiang (Chinese: 新疆; pinyin: Xīnjiāng; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang; literal meaning: New Frontier; Uyghur: شينجاڭ) Uyghurs Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), sometimes known as Chinese Turkestan, Eastern Turkestan (Turkestan also spelt Turkistan) or Uyghuristan. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ...


A summary of Classical sources on the Seres (Greek and Roman name of China) (essentially Pliny and Ptolemy) gives the following account: Seres (Σηρες) was the ancient Greek and Roman name for the northwestern part of China and its inhabitants. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ...

The region of the Seres is a vast and populous country, touching on the east the Ocean and the limits of the habitable world, and extending west nearly to Imaus and the confines of Bactria. The people are civilised men, of mild, just, and frugal temper, eschewing collisions with their neighbours, and even shy of close intercourse, but not averse to dispose of their own products, of which raw silk is the staple, but which include also silk stuffs, furs, and iron of remarkable quality. (Henry Yule, "Cathey and the way thither")

A photograph of Ismail Samani Peak (then known as Peak Communism) taken in 1989. ... Bactria, about 320 BC Bactria (Bactriana, Bākhtar in Persian, also Bhalika in Arabic and Indian languages, and Ta-Hia in Chinese) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush and the Amu Darya (Oxus); its capital, Bactra or Balhika or Bokhdi (now... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fur (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Sir Henry Yule (May 1, 1820 - December 30, 1880), was a British Orientalist. ...

Things Turkestan has given its name to

The Turkestan Shrike, a bird, is named after this region. Binomial name Lanius isabellinus Hemprich & Ehrenberg, 1833 The Isabelline Shrike (Lanius isabellinus) is a member of the shrike family (Laniidae). ...


References

  1. ^ a b c d "Turkistan", Encyclopædia Britannica 2007 Ultimate Reference Suite.

The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ...

Further reading

  • V.V. Barthold "Turkestan Down to the Mongol Invasion" (London) 1968 (3rd Edition)
  • René Grousset "L'empire des steppes" (Paris) 1965
  • David Christian "A History Of Russia, Central Asia and Mongolia" (Oxford) 1998 Vol.I
  • Svat Soucek "A History of Inner Asia" (Cambridge) 2000
  • Vasily Bartold "Работы по Исторической Географии" (Moscow) 2002
    • English translation: V.V. Barthold "Work on Historical Geography" (Moscow) 2002
  • Baymirza Hayit. “Sowjetrußische Orientpolitik am Beispiel Turkestan.“ Köln-Berlin: Kiepenhauer & Witsch, 1956
  • Baymirza Hayit. “Documents: Soviet Russia's Anti-Islam-Policy in Turkestan.“ Düsseldorf: Gerhard von Mende, 2 vols, 1958.
  • Baymirza Hayit. “Turkestan im XX Jahrhundert.“ Darmstadt: Leske, 1956
  • Baymirza Hayit. “Turkestan Zwischen Russland Und China.“ Amsterdam: Philo Press, 1971
  • Baymirza Hayit. “Some thoughts on the problem of Turkestan” Institute of Turkestan Research, 1984
  • Baymirza Hayit. “Islam and Turkestan Under Russian Rule.” Istanbul:Can Matbaa, 1987.
  • Baymirza Hayit. “Basmatschi: Nationaler Kampf Turkestans in den Jahren 1917 bis 1934. Köln: Dreisam-Verlag, 1993.

Vasily Vladimirovich Bartold, also known as Wilhelm Barthold (1869-1930) was a Russian anthropologist who succeeded Wilhelm Radloff as the greatest authority in the field of Turcology. ... René Grousset (1885-1952) was a French historian specializing in Asiatic and Oriental history. ... Dr. Svat Soucek is a compiler and author of works in relation to Central Asia, and Central Asian studies and works in the oriental division of the New York Public Library. ... Vasily Vladimirovich Bartold (Russian: , also known as Wilhelm Barthold; 15 November [O.S. 3 November] 1869 in Saint Petersburg — 19 August 1930 in Leningrad) was a Russian and Soviet historian who succeeded Wilhelm Radloff as the greatest authority in the field of Turcology. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Baymirza Hayit (December 17, 1917 – October 31, 2006), also spelled Boymirza Hayit, was a historian and orientalist who specialized in the history of Turkestan and Central Asia. ... Düsseldorf (IPA: ) is the capital city of the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and one of the economic and cultural centres of Germany and western Europe. ... For other uses, see Darmstadt (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Köln may refer to: Cologne (German: Köln), the fourth largest city in Germany and largest city of the North Rhine-Westphalia state German Cruiser Köln that served from 1930-1945 mostly for the Kriegsmarine German Frigate Köln (1961-1982), a F120 Köln class frigate of...

See also

This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Hasan Bulent Paksoy is a historian who earned his doctoral degree at Oxford University in England. ... Baymirza Hayit (December 17, 1917 – October 31, 2006), also spelled Boymirza Hayit, was a historian and orientalist who specialized in the history of Turkestan and Central Asia. ... The Basmachi Revolt, or Basmachestvo as it is called in the Russian language, was an uprising against Soviet rule in Central Asia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the lead section of this article may need to be expanded. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Turkestan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (373 words)
It is subdivided into West Turkestan and East Turkestan (Xinjiang Turkestan), with the Tian Shan and Pamir ranges forming a rough division between the two.
After the Russian Revolution, a Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of the Soviet Union was created, which was eventually split into the Kazakh SSR (Kazakhstan), Kirghiz SSR (Kyrgyzstan), Tajik SSR (Tajikistan), Turkmen SSR (Turkmenistan) and Uzbek SSR (Uzbekistan).
Eastern Turkestan, often called Chinese Turkestan, is home to the oldest settled Turkic people in the region, the Uyghurs.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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