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Encyclopedia > Turing test

The Turing test is a proposal for a test of a machine's capability to demonstrate intelligence. Described by Alan Turing in the 1950 paper "Computing machinery and intelligence," it proceeds as follows: a human judge engages in a natural language conversation with one human and one machine, each of which try to appear human; if the judge cannot reliably tell which is which, then the machine is said to pass the test. In order to keep the test setting simple and universal (to explicitly test the linguistic capability of the machine instead of its ability to render words into audio), the conversation is usually limited to a text-only channel such as a teletype machine as Turing suggested or, more recently, IRC or instant messaging. This article is about the Doctor Who novel. ... Julian Wagstaff Julian Wagstaff (born 1970 in Edinburgh) is a Scottish composer of classical music and musical theatre. ... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... Alan Mathison Turing, OBE, FRS (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician, logician, and cryptographer. ... Computing machinery and intelligence, written by Alan Turing and published in 1950, is a seminal paper on the topic of artificial intelligence in which the concept of what is now known as the Turing test was introduced. ... Teletype machines in World War II A teleprinter (teletypewriter, teletype or TTY for TeleTYpe/TeleTYpewriter) is a now largely obsolete electro-mechanical typewriter which can be used to communicate typed messages from point to point through a simple electrical communications channel, often just a pair of wires. ... IRC redirects here. ... // Instant messaging (IM) is a form of real-time communication between two or more people based on typed text. ...

Contents

History

The test was inspired by a party game known as the "Imitation Game", in which a man and a woman go into separate rooms, and guests try to tell them apart by writing a series of questions and reading the typewritten answers sent back. In this game, both the man and the woman aim to convince the guests that they are the other. Turing proposed a test employing the imitation game as follows: "We now ask the question, 'What will happen when a machine takes the part of A in this game?' Will the interrogator decide wrongly as often when the game is played like this as he does when the game is played between a man and a woman? These questions replace our original, 'Can machines think?'"[1] Later in the paper he suggested an "equivalent" alternative formulation involving a judge conversing only with a computer and a man. For the 1970s Canadian TV game show, see Party Game (game show). ...


Turing originally proposed the test in order to replace the emotionally charged and (for him) meaningless question "Can machines think?" with a more well-defined one. The advantage of the new question, he said, was that it "drew a fairly sharp line between the physical and intellectual capacities of a man."[2]


Turing's paper considered nine common objections, which include all the major arguments against artificial intelligence that have been raised in the years since his paper was first published. (See Computing Machinery and Intelligence.)[3] Computing machinery and intelligence, written by Alan Turing and published in 1950, is a seminal paper on the topic of artificial intelligence in which the concept of what is now known as the Turing test was introduced. ...


Strengths of the test

The power of the Turing test derives from the fact that it is possible to talk about anything. Turing wrote "the question and answer method seems to be suitable for introducing almost any one of the fields of human endeavor that we wish to include."[4] John Haugeland adds that "understanding the words is not enough; you have to understand the topic as well."[5] John Haugeland (born in 1945), is a philosopher and Professor of Philosophy at the University of Chicago. ...


In order to pass a well designed Turing test, the machine would have to use natural language, to reason, to have knowledge and to learn. The test can be extended to include video input, as well as a "hatch" through which objects can be passed, and this would force the machine to demonstrate the skill of vision and robotics as well. Together these represent almost all the major problems of artificial intelligence.[6] Natural language processing (NLP) is a subfield of artificial intelligence and linguistics. ... Commonsense reasoning is the branch of Artificial intelligence concerned with replicating human thinking. ... Knowledge representation is an issue that arises in both cognitive science and artificial intelligence. ... As a broad subfield of artificial intelligence, machine learning is concerned with the design and development of algorithms and techniques that allow computers to learn. At a general level, there are two types of learning: inductive, and deductive. ... Computer vision is the science and technology of machines that see. ... Robotics is the science and technology of robots, their design, manufacture, and application. ... AI redirects here. ...


Weaknesses of the test

The test has been criticized on several grounds.


Human intelligence vs. intelligence in general

The test is explicitly anthropomorphic. It only tests if the subject resembles a human being. It will fail to test for intelligence under two circumstances: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Anthropomorphism, also referred to as personification or prosopopeia, is the attribution of human characteristics to inanimate objects, animals, forces of nature, and others. ...

  • It tests for many behaviors that we may not consider intelligent, such as the susceptibility to insults or the temptation to lie. A machine may very well be intelligent without being able to chat exactly like a human.
  • It fails to capture the general properties of intelligence, such as the ability to solve difficult problems or come up with original insights. If a machine can solve a difficult problem that no person could solve, it would, in principle, fail the test.

Russell and Norvig write that "aeronautical engineering texts do not define the goal of their field as 'making machines that fly so exactly like pigeons that they can fool other pigeons.'"[7] Stuart Russell is a computer scientist known for his contributions to artificial intelligence. ... Peter Norvig is currently the Director of Research (formerly Director of Search Quality) at Google Inc. ...


Real intelligence vs. simulated intelligence

The test is also explicitly behaviorist or functionalist: it only tests how the subject acts. Behaviorism (or behaviourism) is an approach to psychology based on the proposition that behavior is interesting and worthy of scientific research. ... The article is about functionalism in sociology; for other uses, see functionalism. ...


A machine passing the Turing test may be able to simulate human conversational behaviour but the machine might just follow some cleverly devised rules. Two famous examples of this line of argument against the Turing test are John Searle's Chinese room argument and Ned Block's Blockhead argument. John Rogers Searle (born July 31, 1932 in Denver, Colorado) is the Slusser Professor of Philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley, and is noted for contributions to the philosophy of language, philosophy of mind and consciousness, on the characteristics of socially constructed versus physical realities, and on practical reason. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ned Block (born 1942) is a philosopher of mind who has made important contributions to matters of consciousness and cognitive science. ... Blockhead is the name of a theoretical computer system invented as part of a thought experiment by philosopher Ned Block, which appeared in a paper entitled Psychologism and Behaviourism. ...


Even if the Turing test is a good operational definition of intelligence, it may not indicate that the machine has consciousness, or that it has intentionality. Perhaps intelligence and consciousness, for example, are such that neither one necessarily implies the other. In that case, the Turing test might fail to capture one of the key differences between intelligent machines and intelligent people. Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... Intentionality, originally a concept from scholastic philosophy, was reintroduced in contemporary philosophy by the philosopher and psychologist Franz Brentano in his work Psychologie vom Empirischen Standpunkte. ...


In the words of science popularizer Larry Gonick, "I personally disagree with this criterion, on the grounds that a simulation is not the real thing."[citation needed] Larry Gonick is a cartoonist best known for The Cartoon History of the Universe, a history of the world in comic book form, which he has been publishing in installments since 1977. ...


Imitation game vs. standard Turing test

There has been some controversy over which of the alternate formulations of the test Turing intended. (Moor, 2003) Sterret argues that two distinct tests can be extracted from Turing's 1950 paper, and that, pace Turing's remark, they are not equivalent. The test that employs the party game and compares frequencies of success in the game is referred to as the "Original Imitation Game Test" whereas the test consisting of a human judge conversing with a human and a machine is referred to as the "Standard Turing Test". Sterrett agrees that the Standard Turing Test (STT) has the problems its critics cite, but argues that, in contrast, the Original Imitation Game Test (OIG Test) so defined is immune to many of them, due to a crucial difference: the OIG Test, unlike the STT, does not make similarity to a human performance the criterion of the test, even though it employs a human performance in setting a criterion for machine intelligence. A man can fail the OIG Test, but it is argued that this is a virtue of a test of intelligence if failure indicates a lack of resourcefulness. It is argued that the OIG Test requires the resourcefulness associated with intelligence and not merely "simulation of human conversational behaviour". The general structure of the OIG Test could even be used with nonverbal versions of imitation games (Sterrett 2000).


Still other writers (Genova (1994), Hayes and Ford (1995), Heil (1998), Dreyfus (1979)) have interpreted Turing to be proposing that the imitation game itself is the test, without specifying how to take into account Turing's statement that the test he proposed using the party version of the imitation game is based upon a criterion of comparative frequency of success in that imitation game, rather than a capacity to succeed at one round of the game.


Predictions and tests

Turing predicted that machines would eventually be able to pass the test. In fact, he estimated that by the year 2000, machines with 109 bits (about 119.2 MiB) of memory would be able to fool 30% of human judges during a 5-minute test. He also predicted that people would then no longer consider the phrase "thinking machine" contradictory. He further predicted that machine learning would be an important part of building powerful machines, a claim which is considered to be plausible by contemporary researchers in Artificial intelligence. BIT is an acronym for: Bannari amman Institute of Technology Bangalore Institute of Technology Beijing Institute of Technology Benzisothiazolinone Bilateral Investment Treaty Bhilai Institute of Technology - Durg Birla Institute of Technology - Mesra Battles in Time (Doctor Who magazine) BIT International College, formerly the Bohol Institute of Technology in Bohol, Philippines... MiB redirects here. ... As a broad subfield of artificial intelligence, machine learning is concerned with the design and development of algorithms and techniques that allow computers to learn. At a general level, there are two types of learning: inductive, and deductive. ... AI redirects here. ...


By extrapolating an exponential growth of technology over several decades, futurist Ray Kurzweil predicted that Turing-test-capable computers would be manufactured around the year 2020, roughly speaking. See the Moore's Law article and the references therein for discussions of the plausibility of this argument. When plotted on a logarithmic graph, 15 separate lists of paradigm shifts for key events in human history show an exponential trend. ... Futures studies researches the medium-term to long-term future of societies and of the physical world, mechanisms of change, and the driving forces of change. ... Dr. Raymond Kurzweil (born February 12, 1948) is a pioneer in the fields of optical character recognition (OCR), text-to-speech synthesis, speech recognition technology, and electronic musical keyboards. ... Gordon Moores original graph from 1965 Growth of transistor counts for Intel processors (dots) and Moores Law (upper line=18 months; lower line=24 months) For the observation regarding information retrieval, see Mooers Law. ...


As of 2007, no computer has passed the Turing test as such. Simple conversational programs such as ELIZA have fooled people into believing they are talking to another human being, such as in an informal experiment termed AOLiza. However, such "successes" are not the same as a Turing Test. Most obviously, the human party in the conversation has no reason to suspect they are talking to anything other than a human, whereas in a real Turing test the questioner is actively trying to determine the nature of the entity they are chatting with. Documented cases are usually in environments such as Internet Relay Chat where conversation is sometimes stilted and meaningless, and in which no understanding of a conversation is necessary. Additionally, many internet relay chat participants use English as a second or third language, thus making it even more likely that they would assume that an unintelligent comment by the conversational program is simply something they have misunderstood, and don't recognize the very non-human errors they make. See ELIZA effect. 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Example of ELIZA in Emacs. ... ELIZA is a famous 1966 computer program by Joseph Weizenbaum, which parodied a Rogerian therapist, largely by rephrasing many of the patients statements as questions and posing them to the patient. ... IRC redirects here. ... The ELIZA effect, in computer science, is the tendency to unconsciously assume computer behaviors are analogous to human behaviors, despite conscious knowledge to the contrary. ...


The Loebner prize is an annual competition to determine the best Turing test competitors. Although they award an annual prize for the computer system that, in the judges' opinions, demonstrates the "most human" conversational behaviour (with learning AI Jabberwacky winning in 2005 and 2006, and A.L.I.C.E. before that), they have an additional prize for a system that in their opinion passes a Turing test. This second prize has not yet been awarded. The creators of Jabberwacky have proposed a personal Turing Test: the ability to pass the imitation test while attempting to specifically imitate the human player, with whom the AI will have conversed at length before the test. [1]. The Loebner Prize is an annual competition that awards prizes to the Chatterbot considered by the judges to be the most humanlike of those entered. ... Jabberwacky is a chatterbot created by British programmer Rollo Carpenter. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A.L.I.C.E. (Artificial Linguistic Internet Computer Entity) is an award-winning natural language processing chatterbot — a program that engages in a conversation with a human by applying some heuristical pattern matching rules to the humans input. ...


Trying to pass the Turing test in its full generality is not, as of 2005, an active focus of much mainstream academic or commercial effort. Current research in AI-related fields is aimed at more modest and specific goals.


There is an ongoing $10,000 bet at the Long Bet Project between Mitch Kapor and Ray Kurzweil about the question whether a computer will pass a Turing Test by the year 2029. The bet specifies the Turing Test in some detail. The Long Bet Project was created by the Long Now Foundation to propose and keep track of bets on long-term events. ... Mitch Kapor Mitch Kapor (center) with Bill Gates and Fred Gibbons, during their time working on developing applications for the Apple Macintosh, 1984 Mitchell David Kapor (born 1950) is the founder of Lotus Development Corporation and the designer of Lotus 1-2-3, the killer application often credited with making... Dr. Raymond Kurzweil (born February 12, 1948) is a pioneer in the fields of optical character recognition (OCR), text-to-speech synthesis, speech recognition technology, and electronic musical keyboards. ... 2029 (MMXXIX) will be a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Variations of the Turing test

A modification of the Turing test, where the objective or one or more of the roles have been reversed between computers and humans, is termed a reverse Turing test. The term reverse Turing test has no single clear definition, but has been used to describe various situations based on the Turing test in which the objective and/or one or more of the roles have been reversed between computers and humans. ...


Another variation of the Turing test is described as the Subject matter expert Turing test where a computer's response cannot be distinguished from an expert in a given field. A subject matter expert Turing test (also SME Turing test) is a variation of the Turing test where a computer system attempts to replicate an expert in a given field such as chemistry or marketing. ...


As brain and body scanning techniques improve it may also be possible to replicate the essential data elements of a person to a computer system.[citation needed] The Immortality test variation of the Turing test would determine if a person's essential character is reproduced with enough fidelity to make it impossible to distinguish a reproduction of a person from the original person. In metadata, the term data element is an atomic unit of data that has: An identification such as a data element name A clear data element definition One or more representation terms Optional enumerated values Code (metadata) A list of synonyms to data elements in other metadata registries Synonym ring... The Immortality test is a variation of the Turing test. ...


The Minimum Intelligent Signal Test proposed by Chris McKinstry, is another variation of Turing's test, but where only binary responses are permitted. It is typically used to gather statistical data against which the performance of artificial intelligence programs may be measured. The Minimum Intelligent Signal Test, or MIST, is a variation of the Turing test proposed by Chris McKinstry in which only binary (yes/no or true/false) answers may be given to questions. ... Kenneth Christopher McKinstry (February 12, 1967 – January 23, 2006) was a researcher in artificial intelligence. ... AI redirects here. ...


Another variation of the reverse Turing test is implied in the work of psychoanalyst Wilfred Bion (1979), who was particularly fascinated by the "storm" that resulted from the encounter of one mind by another. Carrying this idea forward, R. D. Hinshelwood (2001) described the mind as a "mind recognizing apparatus," noting that this might be some sort of "supplement" to the Turing test. To make this more explicit, the challenge would be for the computer to be able to determine if it were interacting with a human or another computer. This is an extension of the original question Turing was attempting to answer, but would, perhaps, be a high enough standard to define a machine that could "think" in a way we typically define as characteristically human.


Another variation is the Meta Turing test, in which the subject being tested (for example a computer) is classified as intelligent if it itself has created something that the subject itself wants to test for intelligence


Practical Applications

Russell and Norvig note that "AI researchers have devoted little attention to passing the Turing Test",[8] since there are easier ways to test their programs: by giving them a task directly, rather than through the roundabout method of first posing a question in a chat room populated with machines and people. Turing never intended his test to be used as a real, day-to-day measure of the intelligence of AI programs. He wanted to provide a clear and understandable example to help us discuss the philosophy of artificial intelligence.[9] Peter Russell (born May 7, 1946) is a British author of books on consciousness, spiritual awakening and their role in the future development of humanity. ... Peter Norvig is currently the Director of Research (formerly Director of Search Quality) at Google Inc. ... Alan Mathison Turing, OBE, FRS (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician, logician, and cryptographer. ... The philosophy of artificial intelligence concerns questions of artificial intelligence (AI) such as: What is intelligence? How can one recognize its presence and applications? Is it possible for machines to exhibit intelligence? Does the presence of human-like intelligence imply consciousness and emotions? Is creating human-like artificial intelligence moral...


Real Turing tests, such as the Loebner prize, don't usually force programs to demonstrate the full range of intelligence and are reserved for testing chatterbot programs. But it is still very hard. The Loebner Prize is an annual competition that awards prizes to the Chatterbot considered by the judges to be the most humanlike of those entered. ... A chatterbot is a computer program designed to simulate an intelligent conversation with one or more human users via auditory or textual methods. ...


CAPTCHA is a form of Reverse Turing test. When, for example, logging on to a website, the user is presented with a word or number in a distorted graphic image and asked to enter it. If the value entered does not match what is expected, then the user is rejected. This is intended to prevent automated systems from using the site. The assumption is that software sufficiently sophisticated to read the distorted image accurately either does not exist or is not available to the average user, so any system that is able to do so must be a human being. Early CAPTCHAs such as these, generated by the EZ-Gimpy program, were used on Yahoo. ... The term reverse Turing test has no single clear definition, but has been used to describe various situations based on the Turing test in which the objective and/or one or more of the roles have been reversed between computers and humans. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML...


References in Popular Fiction

Arthur C. Clarke used the term Turing test in the science-fiction novel 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968), where it is applied to the computer HAL 9000. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... This is a sub-article of Artificial intelligence (AI), describing the different futuristic portrayals of fictional artificial intelligence. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Arthur C. Clarke Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE (born 16 December 1917) is a British science-fiction author and inventor, most famous for his novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, and for collaborating with director Stanley Kubrick on the film of the same... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... This article is about the literary concept. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... HAL 9000 (Heuristically programmed ALgorithmic computer) is a fictional character in Arthur C. Clarkes Space Odyssey saga. ...


Merlin's Ghostwheel project in Roger Zelazny's Amber is mentioned to be capable of passing the Turing Test. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Roger Joseph Zelazny (May 13, 1937 – June 14, 1995) was an American writer of fantasy and science fiction short stories and novels. ... The Chronicles of Amber is a popular fantasy series by Roger Zelazny. ...


In episode 2x13 of the Sci-Fi Channel series EUReKA the computer at Global Dynamics uses Fargo's voice to fool Taggart, only to be found out when Taggart asks about the looks of Deputy Lupo's new relationship. There are two television channels named Sci-Fi: a British satellite television channel; see Sci Fi channel (United Kingdom) a United States television channel; see Sci Fi channel (United States) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... // Eureka (or Heureka; Greek ) is a famous exclamation attributed to Archimedes, see: Eureka (word). ...


The Turing Test is referenced in XKCD #329.


In the Philip K. Dick novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? and in the Ridley Scott movie Blade Runner, replicants are subject to a Voight-Kampf test, intended to discover whether a person is a real human or a robot. Philip Kindred Dick (December 16, 1928 – March 2, 1982) was an American writer, mostly known for his works of science fiction. ... Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? is a 1968 science fiction novel by Philip K. Dick. ... Sir Ridley Scott (born November 30, 1937 in South Shields, South Tyneside) is a British film director and producer. ... This article is about the 1982 film. ...


In Lyda Morehouse's Novels Archangel Protocol, Fallen Host, Messiah Node and Apocalypse Array, the Turing test is used to determine if the AIs Page and Dragon of the East have sentience enough to be granted human rights. Lyda Morehouse is a science fiction and fantasy author. ... Look up Page in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Page may mean: In graphic design, typography, or printing: Page header, typography Page footer, typography Page (paper), a leaf or one side of a leaf, as of a book An apprentice, assistant or errand boy: Page (servant), a servant or knights...


Notes

  1. ^ Turing, p. 1
  2. ^ Turing 1950, p. 2
  3. ^ Turing 1950 and see Russell & Norvig 2003, p. 948 where comment "Turing examined a wide variety of possible objections to the possibility of intelligent machines, including virtually all of those that have been raised in the half century since his paper appeared."
  4. ^ Turing 1950 under "Critique of the New Problem"
  5. ^ Haugeland 1985, p. 8
  6. ^ Russell and Norvig write "These six disciplines represent most of AI". Russell & Norvig 2003, p. 3
  7. ^ Russell & Norvig 2003, p. 3
  8. ^ Russell & Norvig 2003, p. 3
  9. ^ Turing 1950 under The Imitation Game, where he writes "Instead of attempting such a definition I shall replace the question by another, which is closely related to it and is expressed in relatively unambiguous words."

Stuart Russell (born 1962) is a computer scientist known for his contributions to artificial intelligence. ... Peter Norvig is currently the Director of Research (formerly Director of Search Quality) at Google Inc. ...

References

  • Turing, Alan (October 1950), "Computing machinery and intelligence", Mind LIX (236): 433-460, ISSN 0026-4423, DOI:10.1093/mind/LIX.236.433, <http://loebner.net/Prizef/TuringArticle.html>
  • A.P. Saygin, I. Cicekli, and V Akman (2000), 'Turing Test: 50 Years Later', Minds and Machines 10(4): 463-518. (reprinted in The Turing Test: The Elusive Standard of Artificial Intelligence edited by James H. Moor, Kluwer Academic 2003) ISBN 1-4020-1205-5. (Thorough review. Online version at [2] )
  • B. Jack Copeland, ed., The Essential Turing: The ideas that gave birth to the computer age (2004). ISBN 0-19-825080-0
  • Dreyfus, Hubert (1979), What Computers Still Can't Do, New York: MIT Press, ISBN ISBN 0-06-090613-8
  • J. Genova. "Turing's Sexual Guessing Game", Social Epistemology, 8(4): 313-326. (1994) ISSN 0269-1728
  • Larry Gonick, The Cartoon Guide to the Computer (1983, originally The Cartoon Guide to Computer Science). ISBN 0-06-273097-5.
  • Stevan Harnad (2004) The Annotation Game: On Turing (1950) on Computing, Machinery, and Intelligence, in Epstein, Robert and Peters, Grace, Eds. The Turing Test Sourcebook: Philosophical and Methodological Issues in the Quest for the Thinking Computer. Kluwer.
  • Patrick Hayes and Kenneth Ford. 'Turing Test Considered Harmful', Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI95-1), Montreal, Quebec, Canada. pp. 972- 997. (1995)
  • John Heil. Philosophy of Mind: A Contemporary Introduction, London and New York: Routledge. (1998) ISBN 0-415-13060-3
  • Ray Kurzweil, The Age of Intelligent Machines (1990). ISBN 0-262-61079-5.
  • James Moor, ed., "The Turing Test: The Elusive Standard of Artificial Intelligence" (2003). ISBN 1-4020-1205-5
  • Roger Penrose, The Emperor's New Mind (1990). ISBN 0-14-014534-6.
  • S. G. Sterrett, "Turing's Two Test of Intelligence" Minds and Machines v.10 n.4 (2000) ISSN 0924-6495 (reprinted in The Turing Test: The Elusive Standard of Artificial Intelligence edited by James H. Moor, Kluwer Academic 2003) ISBN 1-4020-1205-5
  • S. G. Sterrett "Nested Algorithms and the 'Original Imitation Game Test'," Minds and Machines (2002). ISSN 0924-6495
  • W.S. Bion, (1979) "Making the best of a bad job." In W. R. Bion (1987) Clinical Seminars and Four Papers. Abingdon: Fleetwood Press.
  • R.D. Hinshelwood (2001) "Group Mentality and Having a Mind: Reflections on Bion's work on groups and on psychosis." In PsycheMatters at www.psychematters.com/papers/hinshelwood2.htm
  • Saygin, A.P. & Cicekli I (2002) Pragmatics in human-computer conversations, Journal of Pragmatics, Volume 34, Issue 3, March 2002, Pages 227-258. Abstract and links to pdf (if permitted: [3]
  • Haugeland, John (1985), Artificial Intelligence: The Very Idea, MIT Press.
  • Russell, Stuart J. & Norvig, Peter (2003), Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach (2nd ed.), Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-13-790395-2, <http://aima.cs.berkeley.edu/>

Alan Mathison Turing, OBE, FRS (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician, logician, and cryptographer. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Hubert Dreyfus (born 1929) is a professor of philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley. ... Larry Gonick is a cartoonist best known for The Cartoon History of the Universe, a history of the world in comic book form, which he has been publishing in installments since 1977. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... Professor Stevan Harnad Professor Stevan Harnad (Hernád István, Hesslein István) - born in Budapest - is a Hungarian-born cognitive scientist. ... Dr. Raymond Kurzweil (born February 12, 1948) is a pioneer in the fields of optical character recognition (OCR), text-to-speech synthesis, speech recognition technology, and electronic musical keyboards. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Sir Roger Penrose, OM, FRS (born 8 August 1931) is an English mathematical physicist and Emeritus Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics at the Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford and Emeritus Fellow of Wadham College. ... The Emperors New Mind: Concerning Computers, Minds and The Laws of Physics is a 1989 book by mathematical physicist Roger Penrose. ... John Haugeland (born in 1945), is a philosopher and Professor of Philosophy at the University of Chicago. ... Stuart Russell is a computer scientist known for his contributions to artificial intelligence. ... Peter Norvig is currently the Director of Research (formerly Director of Search Quality) at Google Inc. ...

See also

AI redirects here. ... The AI effect is a term for the tendency for individuals to discount advances in artificial intelligence after the fact. ... Early CAPTCHAs such as these, generated by the EZ-Gimpy program, were used on Yahoo. ... A chatterbot is a computer program designed to simulate an intelligent conversation with one or more human users via auditory or textual methods. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Blockhead is the name of a theoretical computer system invented as part of a thought experiment by philosopher Ned Block, which appeared in a paper entitled Psychologism and Behaviourism. ... The Loebner Prize is an annual competition that awards prizes to the Chatterbot considered by the judges to be the most humanlike of those entered. ... Mark V Shaney is a fake Usenet user whose postings were generated by using Markov chain techniques. ... The philosophy of artificial intelligence concerns questions of artificial intelligence (AI) such as: What is intelligence? How can one recognize its presence and applications? Is it possible for machines to exhibit intelligence? Does the presence of human-like intelligence imply consciousness and emotions? Is creating human-like artificial intelligence moral... The term reverse Turing test has no single clear definition, but has been used to describe various situations based on the Turing test in which the objective and/or one or more of the roles have been reversed between computers and humans. ... Simulated reality is the idea that reality could be simulated — often computer-simulated — to a degree indistinguishable from true reality. ... When plotted on a logarithmic graph, 15 separate lists of paradigm shifts for key events in human history show an exponential trend. ... Repliee Q2 The Uncanny Valley is a hypothesis about robotics concerning the emotional response of humans to robots and other non-human entities. ... Voight-Kampff Originating as a fictional tool in Philip K Dicks novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?, the Voight-Kampff machine or device (spelled Voigt-Kampff in the book) also appeared in the books screen adaptation, the 1982 science fiction film Blade Runner. ... HAL 9000 (Heuristically programmed ALgorithmic computer) is a fictional character in Arthur C. Clarkes Space Odyssey saga. ... // This disambiguation page covers alternative uses of the terms Ai, AI, and A.I. Ai (as a word, proper noun and set of initials) can refer to many things. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Turing test - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2248 words)
Turing contradicts this by arguing that Lady Lovelace's assumption was affected by the context from which she wrote, and if exposed to more contemporary scientific knowledge, it would become evident that the brain's storage is quite similar to that of a computer.
Turing replies by stating that this is confusing laws of behaviour with general rules of conduct, and that if on a broad enough scale (such as is evident in man) machine behaviour would become increasingly difficult to predict.
A modification of the Turing test, where the objective or one or more of the roles have been reversed between computers and humans, is termed a reverse Turing test.
Alan Turing (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) (9730 words)
Turing's motivations were scientific rather than industrial or commercial, and he soon returned to the theoretical limitations of computation, this time focussing on the comparison of the power of computation and the power of the human brain.
Turing's underlying argument was that the human brain must somehow be organised for intelligence, and that the organisation of the brain must be realisable as a finite discrete-state machine.
Turing was in fact sensitive to the difficulty of separating &lsquo;intelligence&rsquo; from other aspects of human senses and actions; he described ideas for robots with sensory attachments and raised questions as to whether they might enjoy strawberries and cream or feel racial kinship.
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