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Encyclopedia > Turing Award

The A.M. Turing Award is given annually by the Association for Computing Machinery to a person selected for contributions of a technical nature made to the computing community. The contributions should be of lasting and major technical importance to the computer field. Most of the recipients have been computer scientists. The Association for Computing Machinery, or ACM, was founded in 1947 as the worlds first scientific and educational computing society. ... Memory (Random Access Memory) Look up computing in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Computer science (informally: CS or compsci) is, in its most general sense, the study of computation and information processing, both in hardware and in software. ...


The award is named after Alan Mathison Turing, a British mathematician considered to be one of the fathers of modern computer science. Alan Turing, on the steps of the bus, with members of the Walton Athletic Club, 1946. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ...


The Turing Award is often recognized as the "Nobel Prize of computing"[1]. It is sponsored by Intel Corporation and currently is accompanied by a prize of $100,000. The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: ) are awards in physics, chemistry, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ...


The award recipients and the fields in which they earned the recognition are listed below. Refer to the individual recipients for more detailed information on their achievements.


Turing Award recipients

Year Recipients Citation
1966 Alan J. Perlis For his influence in the area of advanced programming techniques and compiler construction
1967 Maurice V. Wilkes Professor Wilkes is best known as the builder and designer of the EDSAC, the first computer with an internally stored program. Built in 1949, the EDSAC used a mercury delay line memory. He is also known as the author, with Wheeler and Gill, of a volume on "Preparation of Programs for Electronic Digital Computers" in 1951, in which program libraries were effectively introduced
1968 Richard Hamming For his work on numerical methods, automatic coding systems, and error-detecting and error-correcting codes
1969 Marvin Minsky artificial intelligence
1970 James H. Wilkinson For his research in numerical analysis to facilitate the use of the high-speed digital computer, having received special recognition for his work in computations in linear algebra and "backward" error analysis
1971 John McCarthy Dr. McCarthy's lecture "The Present State of Research on Artificial Intelligence" is a topic that covers the area in which he has achieved considerable recognition for his work
1972 Edsger Dijkstra Edsger Dijkstra was a principal contributor in the late 1950's to the development of the ALGOL, a high level programming language which has become a model of clarity and mathematical rigor. He is one of the principal exponents of the science and art of programming languages in general, and has greatly contributed to our understanding of their structure, representation, and implementation. His fifteen years of publications extend from theoretical articles on graph theory to basic manuals, expository texts, and philosophical contemplations in the field of programming languages
1973 Charles W. Bachman For his outstanding contributions to database technology
1974 Donald E. Knuth For his major contributions to the analysis of algorithms and the design of programming languages, and in particular for his contributions to "The Art of Computer Programming" through his well-known books in a continuous series by this title
1975 Allen Newell and Herbert A. Simon In joint scientific efforts extending over twenty years, initially in collaboration with J. C. Shaw at the RAND Corporation, and subsequentially with numerous faculty and student colleagues at Carnegie Mellon University, they have made basic contributions to artificial intelligence, the psychology of human cognition, and list processing
1976 Michael O. Rabin and Dana S. Scott For their joint paper "Finite Automata and Their Decision Problem," which introduced the idea of nondeterministic machines, which has proved to be an enormously valuable concept. Their (Scott & Rabin) classic paper has been a continuous source of inspiration for subsequent work in this field
1977 John Backus For profound, influential, and lasting contributions to the design of practical high-level programming systems, notably through his work on FORTRAN, and for seminal publication of formal procedures for the specification of programming languages
1978 Robert W. Floyd For having a clear influence on methodologies for the creation of efficient and reliable software, and for helping to found the following important subfields of computer science: the theory of parsing, the semantics of programming languages, automatic program verification, automatic program synthesis, and analysis of algorithms
1979 Kenneth E. Iverson For his pioneering effort in programming languages and mathematical notation resulting in what the computing field now knows as APL, for his contributions to the implementation of interactive systems, to educational uses of APL, and to programming language theory and practice
1980 C. Antony R. Hoare For his fundamental contributions to the definition and design of programming languages
1981 Edgar F. Codd For his fundamental and continuing contributions to the theory and practice of database management systems, esp. relational databases
1982 Stephen A. Cook For his advancement of our understanding of the complexity of computation in a significant and profound way
1983 Ken Thompson and Dennis M. Ritchie For their development of generic operating systems theory and specifically for the implementation of the UNIX operating system
1984 Niklaus Wirth For developing a sequence of innovative computer languages, EULER, ALGOL-W, MODULA and PASCAL
1985 Richard M. Karp For his continuing contributions to the theory of algorithms including the development of efficient algorithms for network flow and other combinatorial optimization problems, the identification of polynomial-time computability with the intuitive notion of algorithmic efficiency, and, most notably, contributions to the theory of NP-completeness
1986 John Hopcroft and Robert Tarjan For fundamental achievements in the design and analysis of algorithms and data structures
1987 John Cocke For significant contributions in the design and theory of compilers, the architecture of large systems and the development of reduced instruction set computers (RISC)
1988 Ivan Sutherland For his pioneering and visionary contributions to computer graphics, starting with Sketchpad, and continuing after
1989 William (Velvel) Kahan For his fundamental contributions to numerical analysis. One of the foremost experts on floating-point computations. Kahan has dedicated himself to "making the world safe for numerical computations."
1990 Fernando J. Corbató For his pioneering work organizing the concepts and leading the development of the general-purpose, large-scale, time-sharing and resource-sharing computer systems, CTSS and Multics.
1991 Robin Milner For three distinct and complete achievements: 1) LCF, the mechanization of Scott's Logic of Computable Functions, probably the first theoretically based yet practical tool for machine assisted proof construction; 2) ML, the first language to include polymorphic type inference together with a type-safe exception-handling mechanism; 3) CCS, a general theory of concurrency. In addition, he formulated and strongly advanced full abstraction, the study of the relationship between operational and denotational semantics.
1992 Butler W. Lampson For contributions to the development of distributed, personal computing environments and the technology for their implementation: workstations, networks, operating systems, programming systems, displays, security and document publishing.
1993 Juris Hartmanis and Richard E. Stearns In recognition of their seminal paper which established the foundations for the field of computational complexity theory.
1994 Edward Feigenbaum and Raj Reddy For pioneering the design and construction of large scale artificial intelligence systems, demonstrating the practical importance and potential commercial impact of artificial intelligence technology.
1995 Manuel Blum In recognition of his contributions to the foundations of computational complexity theory and its application to cryptography and program checking.
1996 Amir Pnueli For seminal work introducing temporal logic into computing science and for outstanding contributions to program and systems verification.
1997 Douglas Engelbart For an inspiring vision of the future of interactive computing and the invention of key technologies to help realize this vision.
1998 James Gray For seminal contributions to database and transaction processing research and technical leadership in system implementation.
1999 Frederick P. Brooks, Jr. For landmark contributions to computer architecture, operating systems, and software engineering.
2000 Andrew Chi-Chih Yao In recognition of his fundamental contributions to the theory of computation, including the complexity-based theory of pseudorandom number generation, cryptography, and communication complexity.
2001 Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard For ideas fundamental to the emergence of object-oriented programming, through their design of the programming languages Simula I and Simula 67.
2002 Ronald L. Rivest, Adi Shamir and Leonard M. Adleman For their ingenious contribution for making public-key cryptography useful in practice.
2003 Alan Kay For pioneering many of the ideas at the root of contemporary object-oriented programming languages, leading the team that developed Smalltalk, and for fundamental contributions to personal computing.
2004 Vinton G. Cerf and Robert E. Kahn For pioneering work on internetworking, including the design and implementation of the Internet's basic communications protocols, TCP/IP, and for inspired leadership in networking.
2005 Peter Naur For fundamental contributions to programming language design and the definition of Algol 60, to compiler design, and to the art and practice of computer programming.
2006 Frances E. Allen For contributions that fundamentally improved the performance of computer programs in solving problems, and accelerated the use of high performance computing.

1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... Alan Jay Perlis (April 1, 1922 - February 7, 1990) was a prominent U.S. computer scientist. ... Computer programming (often simply programming) is the craft of implementing one or more interrelated abstract algorithms using a particular programming language to produce a concrete computer program. ... This article is about the computing term. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... Maurice V. Wilkes Maurice Vincent Wilkes (born June 26, 1913 in Dudley, Staffordshire, England) is a British computer scientist, credited with several important developments in computing. ... EDSAC EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator) was an early British computer (one of the first computers to be created). ... A computer program is a collection of instructions that describe a task, or set of tasks, to be carried out by a computer. ... Mercury memory of UNIVAC I (1951) Delay line memory was a form of computer memory used on some of the earliest digital computers, such as the EDSAC and UNIVAC I. The basic concept of the delay line originated with World War II radar research, specifically to reduce clutter from reflections... In computer science, a library is a collection of subprograms used to develop software. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... Richard Wesley Hamming (February 11, 1915 – January 7, 1998) was a mathematician whose work had many implications for computer science and telecommunications. ... Numerical analysis is the study of algorithms for the problems of continuous mathematics (as distinguished from discrete mathematics). ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... Marvin Lee Minsky (born August 9, 1927), sometimes affectionately known as Old Man Minsky, is an American cognitive scientist in the field of artificial intelligence (AI), co-founder of MITs AI laboratory, and author of several texts on AI and philosophy. ... Hondas humanoid robot AI redirects here. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... James Hardy Wilkinson (27 September 1919–5 October 1986) was a prominent figure in the field of numerical analysis, a field at the boundary of applied mathematics and computer science particularly useful to physics and engineering. ... Numerical analysis is the study of approximate methods for the problems of continuous mathematics (as distinguished from discrete mathematics). ... Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerned with the study of vectors, vector spaces (also called linear spaces), linear maps (also called linear transformations), and systems of linear equations. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday. ... John McCarthy (born September 4, 1927, in Boston, Massachusetts, sometimes known affectionately as Uncle John McCarthy), is a prominent computer scientist who received the Turing Award in 1971 for his major contributions to the field of Artificial Intelligence. ... Hondas humanoid robot AI redirects here. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Edsger Dijkstra Edsger Wybe Dijkstra (Rotterdam, May 11, 1930 – Nuenen, August 6, 2002; IPA: ) was a Dutch computer scientist. ... Algol (β Per / Beta Persei) is a bright star in the constellation Perseus. ... A programming language is an artificial language that can be used to control the behavior of a machine, particularly a computer. ... A programming language is an artificial language that can be used to control the behavior of a machine, particularly a computer. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... Charles W. Bachman is a prominent computer scientist, particularly in the area of databases. ... The term or expression database originated within the computer industry. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Donald Ervin Knuth ( or Ka-NOOTH[1], Chinese: [2]) (b. ... Cover of books The Art of Computer Programming[1] is a comprehensive monograph written by Donald Knuth which covers many kinds of programming algorithms and their analysis. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Allen Newell (March 19, 1927 - July 19, 1992) was a researcher in computer science and cognitive psychology at the RAND corporation and at Carnegie-Mellon’s School of Computer Science. ... Herbert Alexander Simon (June 15, 1916 – February 9, 2001) was an American political scientist whose research ranged across the fields of cognitive psychology, computer science, public administration, economics, management, and philosophy of science and a professor, most notably, at Carnegie Mellon University. ... The RAND Corporation is a nonprofit global policy think tank first formed to offer research and analysis to the United States armed forces. ... Carnegie Mellon University is a private research university located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. ... Hondas humanoid robot AI redirects here. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Michael Oser Rabin (born 1931 in Breslau, Germany, today in Poland) is a noted computer scientist and a recipient of the Turing Award, the most prestigious award in the field. ... Dana Stewart Scott (born 1932) is the emeritus Hillman University Professor of Computer Science, Philosophy, and Mathematical Logic at Carnegie Mellon University; he is now retired and lives in Berkeley, California. ... In the theory of computation, a nondeterministic finite state machine or nondeterministic finite automaton (NFA) is a finite state machine where for each pair of state and input symbol there may be several possible next states. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... John Backus (born December 3, 1924) is an American computer scientist, notable as the inventor of the first high-level programming language (FORTRAN), the Backus-Naur form (BNF, the almost universally used notation to define formal language syntax), and the concept of Function-level programming. ... Fortran (previously FORTRAN[1]) is a general-purpose[2], procedural,[3] imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing. ... A programming language is an artificial language that can be used to control the behavior of a machine, particularly a computer. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Robert W Floyd (June 8, 1936 - September 25, 2001) was an eminent computer scientist. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... It has been suggested that Syntax analysis be merged into this article or section. ... Semantics (Greek semantikos, giving signs, significant, symptomatic, from sema, sign) refers to the aspects of meaning that are expressed in a language, code, or other form of representation. ... Program verification is the process of formally proving that a computer program does exactly what is stated in the program specification it was written to realize. ... In computer science, the automatic programming is a kind of computer programming in some automatic way rather than programmers write code manually. ... To analyze an algorithm is to determine the amount of resources (such as time and storage) necessary to execute it. ... For the song by The Smashing Pumpkins, see 1979 (song). ... Kenneth Eugene Iverson (17 December 1920, Camrose, Alberta, Canada – 19 October 2004, Toronto, Ontario, Canada) was a computer scientist most notable for developing the APL programming language in 1957. ... APL (for A Programming Language) is an array programming language based on a notation invented in 1957 by Kenneth E. Iverson while at Harvard University. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... Sir Charles Antony Richard Hoare (Tony Hoare or C.A.R. Hoare, born January 11, 1934) is a British computer scientist, probably best known for the development of Quicksort, the worlds most widely used sorting algorithm, in 1960. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Edgar Ted Codd Edgar Frank Codd (August 23, 1923 – April 18, 2003) was a British computer scientist who made seminal contributions to the theory of relational databases. ... A relational database is a database that conforms to the relational model, and refers to a databases data and schema (the databases structure of how that data is arranged). ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Stephen A. Cook is a noted computer scientist. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ken Thompson Kenneth Thompson (born February 4, 1943) is a pioneer of computer science notable for his contributions to the development of the C programming language and the UNIX operating system. ... Ken Thompson (left) with Dennis Ritchie (right) Dennis MacAlistair Ritchie (September 9, 1941- ) is a computer scientist notable for his influence on ALTRAN, B, BCPL, C, Multics, and UNIX. Born in Bronxville, New York, Ritchie graduated from Harvard with degrees in physics and applied mathematics. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®) is a computer operating system originally developed in the 1960s and 1970s by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Niklaus Wirth giving a lecture Niklaus E. Wirth (born February 15, 1934) is a Swiss computer scientist. ... Euler is a programming language created by Niklaus Wirth and Helmut Weber, conceived as an extension and generalization of ALGOL 60. ... Algol-W is a programming language. ... In the mid-1970s, after designing the Pascal programming language, Niklaus Wirth began experimenting with program concurrency and modularization, which led to the design of the Modula programming language. ... The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI unit of pressure. ... 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Richard M. Karp (born 1935) is a computer scientist, notable for research in the theory of algorithms, for which he received a Turing Award in 1985. ... In complexity theory, the NP-complete problems are the most difficult problems in NP, in the sense that they are the ones most likely not to be in P. The reason is that if you could find a way to solve an NP-complete problem quickly, then you could use... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... John Hopcroft John E. Hopcroft (born October 7, 1939) is a renowned theoretical computer scientist and the grandson of Jacob Nist, founder of the Seattle Box Company. ... Robert Endre Tarjan (born April 30, 1948 in Pomona, California) is a renowned computer scientist. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... John Cocke (May 30, 1925 - July 16, 2002) was an American computer scientist recognised for his large contribution to computer architecture and optimizing compiler design. ... Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC), is a microprocessor CPU design philosophy that favors a smaller and simpler set of instructions that all take about the same amount of time to execute. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ivan Sutherland Ivan Sutherland, working at MIT (1963) Ivan Edward Sutherland (born 1938 in Hastings, Nebraska) is a computer programmer and Internet pioneer. ... Computer graphics is a sub-field of computer science and is concerned with digitally synthesizing and manipulating visual content. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... William Velvel Kahan (born June 5, 1933, in Toronto, Ontario, Canada) is an eminent mathematician and computer scientist. ... Numerical analysis is the study of approximate methods for the problems of continuous mathematics (as distinguished from discrete mathematics). ... A floating-point number is a digital representation for a number in a certain subset of the rational numbers, and is often used to approximate an arbitrary real number on a computer. ... MCMXC redirects here; for the Enigma album, see MCMXC a. ... Fernando José Corbató (born July 1, 1926) is a prominent computer scientist, notable as a pioneer in the development of time-sharing operating systems. ... Alternate uses: see Timesharing Time-sharing is an approach to interactive computing in which a single computer is used to provide apparently simultaneous interactive general-purpose computing to multiple users by sharing processor time. ... CTSS, which stood for the Compatible Time-Sharing System, was one of the first time-sharing operating systems; it was developed at MITs Computation Center. ... Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) was an extraordinarily influential early time-sharing operating system. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Robin Milner is a prominent British computer scientist. ... An interactive theorem prover developed at the universities of Edinburgh and Stanford by Robin Milner and others. ... Automated theorem proving (ATP), symbolic analysis, automated deduction, symbolic reasoning, or symbolic deduction, currently the most well-developed subfield of automated reasoning (AR), is the proving of mathematical theorems by a computer program. ... ML is a general-purpose functional programming language developed by Robin Milner and others in the late 1970s at the University of Edinburgh, whose syntax is inspired by ISWIM. Historically, ML stands for metalanguage as it was conceived to develop proof tactics in the LCF theorem prover (the language of... Type inference is a feature present in some strongly statically typed programming languages. ... In computer science, a programming language is type safe when the language does not permit the programmer to treat a value as a type to which it does not belong. ... Exception handling is a programming language construct or computer hardware mechanism designed to handle the occurrence of some condition that changes the normal flow of execution. ... The Calculus of Communicating Systems (or CCS) (one of the first process calculi) was developed by Robin Milner. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Edsger Dijkstra The Dining Philosophers, a classic problem involving concurrency and shared resources In computer science, concurrency is a property of systems which consist of computations that execute overlapped in time, and which may permit the sharing of common resources between those... In computer science, denotational semantics is an approach to formalizing the semantics of computer systems by constructing mathematical objects (called denotations or meanings) which express the semantics of these systems. ... In computer science, operational semantics is a way to give meaning to computer programs in a mathematically rigorous way (See formal semantics of programming languages). ... In computer science, denotational semantics is an approach to formalizing the semantics of computer systems by constructing mathematical objects (called denotations or meanings) which express the semantics of these systems. ... Semantics (Greek semantikos, giving signs, significant, symptomatic, from sema, sign) refers to the aspects of meaning that are expressed in a language, code, or other form of representation. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... Butler W. Lampson is a computer scientist, considered to be one of the most significant in the history of the field. ... Sun SPARCstation 1+, 25mhz RISC processor from early 1990s A workstation, such as a Unix workstation, RISC workstation or engineering workstation, is a high-end desktop or deskside microcomputer designed for technical applications. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... An operating system (OS) is a set of computer programs that manage the hardware and software resources of a computer. ... A computer display monitor, usually called simply a monitor when the meaning is clear from the context, is a piece of electrical equipment which displays viewable images generated by a computer without producing a permanent record. ... Computer security is the current computer science collaboration of the week! Please help improve it to featured article standard. ... A word processor (also more formally known as a document preparation system) is a computer application used for the production (including composition, editing, formatting, and possibly printing) of any sort of viewable or printed material. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... Juris Hartmanis (born July 7, 1928 in Riga, Latvia) is a prominent computer scientist who, with Richard E. Stearns, received the 1993 ACM Turing Award in recognition of their seminal paper which established the foundations for the field of computational complexity theory. Born in Latvia, he moved to Germany after... Richard Edwin Stearns is a prominent computer scientist who, with Juris Hartmanis, received the 1993 ACM Turing Award in recognition of their seminal paper which established the foundations for the field of computational complexity theory. Stearns is now Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Computer Science at the University at Albany, which... As a branch of the theory of computation in computer science, computational complexity theory describes the scalability of algorithms, and the inherent difficulty in providing scalable algorithms for specific computational problems. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... Edward Albert Feigenbaum (born January 20, 1936) is a computer scientist working in the field of artificial intelligence. ... Dabbala Rajagopal Raj Reddy (born June 13, 1937 in Katoor, India, near Chennai) is a world-renowned researcher in Artificial Intelligence, Robotics, and Human-Computer Interaction. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Manuel Blum (born 26 April 1938 in Caracas, Venezuela) is a computer scientist who received the Turing Award in 1995 In recognition of his contributions to the foundations of computational complexity theory and its application to cryptography and program checking. // Biography Blum attended MIT, where he received his bachelors... As a branch of the theory of computation in computer science, computational complexity theory describes the scalability of algorithms, and the inherent difficulty in providing scalable algorithms for specific computational problems. ... The German Lorenz cipher machine, used in World War II for encryption of very high-level general staff messages Cryptography (or cryptology; derived from Greek κρυπτός kryptós hidden, and the verb γράφω gráfo write) is the study of message secrecy. ... Program verification is the process of formally proving that a computer program does exactly what is stated in the program specification it was written to realize. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Amir Pnueli (born April 22, 1941) is an Israeli computer scientist who received the Turing Award in 1996 for seminal work introducing temporal logic into computing science and for outstanding contributions to program and systems verification. ... In logic, the term temporal logic is used to describe any system of rules and symbolism for representing, and reasoning about, propositions qualified in terms of time. ... In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr. Douglas C. Engelbart (born January 30, 1925 in Oregon) is an American inventor of German descent. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... Jim (James) N. Gray is a distinguished computer scientist who received the Turing Award in 1998 for seminal contributions to database and transaction processing research and technical leadership in system implementation. Gray studied at the University of California, Berkeley, receiving his Ph. ... The term or expression database originated within the computer industry. ... In computer science, transaction processing is information processing that is divided into individual, indivisible operations, called Each transaction must succeed or fail as a complete unit; it cannot remain in an intermediate state. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Frederick Phillips Brooks, Jr. ... A typical vision of a computer architecture as a series of abstraction layers: hardware, firmware, assembler, kernel, operating system and applications (see also Tanenbaum 79). ... In computing, an operating system (OS) is the system software responsible for the direct control and management of hardware and basic system operations. ... Software engineering is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Andrew Chi-Chih Yao (姚期智, pinyin: Yáo Qīzhì) (born December 24, 1946) is a prominent computer scientist. ... The theory of computation is the branch of computer science that deals with whether and how efficiently problems can be solved on a computer. ... A pseudorandom number generator (PRNG) is an algorithm that generates a sequence of numbers which are not truly random. ... The German Lorenz cipher machine, used in World War II for encryption of very high-level general staff messages Cryptography (or cryptology; derived from Greek κρυπτός kryptós hidden, and the verb γράφω gráfo write) is the study of message secrecy. ... The notion of communication complexity (CC) was introduced by Yao in 1979, who investigated the following problem involving two separated parties (Alice and Bob). ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Professor emeritus Ole-Johan Dahl (October 12, 1931 – June 29, 2002) was a Norwegian computer scientist and is considered to be one of the fathers of Simula and object-oriented programming along with Kristen Nygaard. ... Kristen Nygaard Kristen Nygaard (August 27, 1926 - August 10, 2002) was a Norwegian mathematician, computer programming language pioneer and politician. ... Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that uses objects to design applications and computer programs. ... Simula is a programming language developed in the 1960s at the Norwegian Computing Centre in Oslo, primarily by Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard. ... Simula is a programming language developed in the 1960s at the Norwegian Computing Centre in Oslo, primarily by Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Professor Ron Rivest Professor Ronald Linn Rivest (born 1947, Schenectady, New York) is a cryptographer, and is the Andrew and Erna Viterbi Professor of Computer Science at MITs Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. ... Adi Shamir at the CRYPTO 2003 conference. ... Leonard Adleman Leonard Adleman (born December 31, 1945) is a theoretical computer scientist and professor of computer science and molecular biology at the University of Southern California. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alan Kay during an interview. ... An object-oriented programming language (also called an OO language) is one that allows or encourages, to some degree, object-oriented programming techniques such as encapsulation, inheritance, interfaces, and polymorphism. ... For other uses, see Small Talk (disambiguation). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Vinton G. Cerf (born June 23, 1943) is commonly referred to as the father of the Internet. During his tenure from 1976 to 1982 with the United States Department of Defenses Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), Cerf played a key role leading the development of Internet and Internet-related... Robert E. Kahn, along with Vinton G. Cerf, invented the TCP/IP protocol, the technology used to transmit information on the modern Internet. ... Internetworking involves connecting two or more distinct computer networks together into an internetwork (often shortened to internet), using devices called routers to connect them together, to allow traffic to flow back and forth between them. ... The Internet protocol suite is the set of communications protocols that implement the protocol stack on which the Internet runs. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Portrait of Peter Naur taken 1968, courtesy of Robert M. McClure. ... A programming language is an artificial language that can be used to control the behavior of a machine, particularly a computer. ... ALGOL (short for ALGOrithmic Language) is a programming language originally developed in the mid 1950s which became the de facto standard way to report algorithms in print for almost the next 30 years. ... This article is about the computing term. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Frances Elizabeth Fran Allen (born 1932) is an American computer scientist and pioneer in the field of optimizing compilers. ... The field of high performance computing (HPC) comprises computing applications on (parallel) supercomputers and computer clusters. ...

External links

  • ACM List of Turing Laureates
  • Bibliography of Turing Award lectures (through 2000)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Turing Award - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1240 words)
The A.M. Turing Award is given annually by the Association for Computing Machinery to a person selected for contributions of a technical nature made to the computing community.
The award is named after Alan Mathison Turing (1912–1954), a British mathematician considered to be one of the fathers of modern computer science.
The Turing Award is often recognized as the "Nobel Prize of computing".
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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